Abstract

We report a novel and easy-to-implement hollow-core photonic crystal fiber cell fabrication technique based on helium diffusion through silica. The formed gas cells combine low optical insertion loss (1.8dB) and vacuum acetylene pressure (μbar regime). The estimates of the final gas pressure, using both Voigt interpolation and electromagnetically induced transparency, show a good match with the initial fitting pressure.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, Nature 434, 488 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. F. Benabid, P. S. Light, F. Couny, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Express 13, 5694 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. F. Couny, P. S. Light, F. Benabid, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Commun. 253, 28 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  4. P. S. Light, F. Couny, F. Benabid, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Express 13, 5694 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. F. Benabid, J. C. Knight, G. Antonopoulos, and P. St. J. Russell, Science 298, 399 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. F. Benabid, G. Bouwmans, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 123903 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. P. S. Light, F. Couny, F. Benabid, and P. St. J. Russell, 'Electromagnetically induced transparency and saturable absorption in all fibre based on acetylene-filled hollow-core PCF,' presented at the ECOC 2005 Post Deadline Proceedings (2005), paper Th 4.5.6.
  8. W. C. Swann and S. L. Gilbert, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1263 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  9. B. K. Dutta, D. Biswas, B. Ray, and P. N. Ghosh, Eur. Phys. J. D 13, 337 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. Dushman and J. M. Lafferty, Scientific Foundations of Vacuum Technique, 2nd ed. (Wiley, 1962).

2006 (1)

F. Couny, P. S. Light, F. Benabid, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Commun. 253, 28 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

2004 (1)

F. Benabid, G. Bouwmans, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 123903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

F. Benabid, J. C. Knight, G. Antonopoulos, and P. St. J. Russell, Science 298, 399 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

B. K. Dutta, D. Biswas, B. Ray, and P. N. Ghosh, Eur. Phys. J. D 13, 337 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. C. Swann and S. L. Gilbert, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1263 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Antonopoulos, G.

F. Benabid, J. C. Knight, G. Antonopoulos, and P. St. J. Russell, Science 298, 399 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benabid, F.

F. Couny, P. S. Light, F. Benabid, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Commun. 253, 28 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Benabid, P. S. Light, F. Couny, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Express 13, 5694 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. S. Light, F. Couny, F. Benabid, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Express 13, 5694 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, Nature 434, 488 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Benabid, G. Bouwmans, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 123903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Benabid, J. C. Knight, G. Antonopoulos, and P. St. J. Russell, Science 298, 399 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. S. Light, F. Couny, F. Benabid, and P. St. J. Russell, 'Electromagnetically induced transparency and saturable absorption in all fibre based on acetylene-filled hollow-core PCF,' presented at the ECOC 2005 Post Deadline Proceedings (2005), paper Th 4.5.6.

Biswas, D.

B. K. Dutta, D. Biswas, B. Ray, and P. N. Ghosh, Eur. Phys. J. D 13, 337 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bouwmans, G.

F. Benabid, G. Bouwmans, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 123903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Couny, F.

F. Couny, P. S. Light, F. Benabid, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Commun. 253, 28 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Benabid, P. S. Light, F. Couny, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Express 13, 5694 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. S. Light, F. Couny, F. Benabid, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Express 13, 5694 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, Nature 434, 488 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. S. Light, F. Couny, F. Benabid, and P. St. J. Russell, 'Electromagnetically induced transparency and saturable absorption in all fibre based on acetylene-filled hollow-core PCF,' presented at the ECOC 2005 Post Deadline Proceedings (2005), paper Th 4.5.6.

Dushman, S.

S. Dushman and J. M. Lafferty, Scientific Foundations of Vacuum Technique, 2nd ed. (Wiley, 1962).

Dutta, B. K.

B. K. Dutta, D. Biswas, B. Ray, and P. N. Ghosh, Eur. Phys. J. D 13, 337 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ghosh, P. N.

B. K. Dutta, D. Biswas, B. Ray, and P. N. Ghosh, Eur. Phys. J. D 13, 337 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gilbert, S. L.

Knight, J. C.

F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, Nature 434, 488 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Benabid, G. Bouwmans, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 123903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Benabid, J. C. Knight, G. Antonopoulos, and P. St. J. Russell, Science 298, 399 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lafferty, J. M.

S. Dushman and J. M. Lafferty, Scientific Foundations of Vacuum Technique, 2nd ed. (Wiley, 1962).

Light, P. S.

F. Couny, P. S. Light, F. Benabid, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Commun. 253, 28 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Benabid, P. S. Light, F. Couny, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Express 13, 5694 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. S. Light, F. Couny, F. Benabid, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Express 13, 5694 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. S. Light, F. Couny, F. Benabid, and P. St. J. Russell, 'Electromagnetically induced transparency and saturable absorption in all fibre based on acetylene-filled hollow-core PCF,' presented at the ECOC 2005 Post Deadline Proceedings (2005), paper Th 4.5.6.

Ray, B.

B. K. Dutta, D. Biswas, B. Ray, and P. N. Ghosh, Eur. Phys. J. D 13, 337 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P. St. J.

F. Couny, P. S. Light, F. Benabid, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Commun. 253, 28 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Benabid, P. S. Light, F. Couny, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Express 13, 5694 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. S. Light, F. Couny, F. Benabid, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Express 13, 5694 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, Nature 434, 488 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Benabid, G. Bouwmans, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 123903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Benabid, J. C. Knight, G. Antonopoulos, and P. St. J. Russell, Science 298, 399 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. S. Light, F. Couny, F. Benabid, and P. St. J. Russell, 'Electromagnetically induced transparency and saturable absorption in all fibre based on acetylene-filled hollow-core PCF,' presented at the ECOC 2005 Post Deadline Proceedings (2005), paper Th 4.5.6.

Swann, W. C.

Eur. Phys. J. D (1)

B. K. Dutta, D. Biswas, B. Ray, and P. N. Ghosh, Eur. Phys. J. D 13, 337 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nature (1)

F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, Nature 434, 488 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

F. Couny, P. S. Light, F. Benabid, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Commun. 253, 28 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

F. Benabid, G. Bouwmans, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 123903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

F. Benabid, J. C. Knight, G. Antonopoulos, and P. St. J. Russell, Science 298, 399 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

P. S. Light, F. Couny, F. Benabid, and P. St. J. Russell, 'Electromagnetically induced transparency and saturable absorption in all fibre based on acetylene-filled hollow-core PCF,' presented at the ECOC 2005 Post Deadline Proceedings (2005), paper Th 4.5.6.

S. Dushman and J. M. Lafferty, Scientific Foundations of Vacuum Technique, 2nd ed. (Wiley, 1962).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Gas cell assembly procedure. Clockwise: HCPCF, scanning electron micrograph of the HCPCF used here. STEP 1, the HCPCF with one end spliced to single-mode fiber is evacuated, baked, and loaded with acetylene at the desired filling pressure. STEP 2, the HCPCF is loaded with helium at a pressure exceeding 1 atm and its second end is spliced to the single-mode fiber at atmospheric pressure. STEP 3, the helium is then evacuated through permeation process either in an atmospheric or evacuated environment. The result is a gas cell containing only the initially loaded acetylene.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Evolution of the acetylene R15 absorption line shape during the gas cell fabrication. The transmitted signal through a 1 mbar commercial cell is given for reference (black dotted curve). The red solid curves are the recorded transmitted signal through 4 m HCPCF at the following sequences: (A) when one end of the fiber is still attached to a vacuum chamber, (B) during the helium permeation process under STP, (C) after 6 h when the permeation has taken place. The small oscillations are due to the etalon effect created between the two splices. (D) The points represent the temporal evolution of the measured linewidth (FWHM) of an absorption line from 12 mbar HCPCF-based gas cell (filled circles and left vertical axis). The origin of time is taken to that of the He loading in the HCPCF, and the FWHM of the first point is deduced from the measured pressure. The solid line is the theoretical curve [Eq. (1)].

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Acetylene R15 EIT trace for a coupling power of 100 mW . (A) before helium loading, (B) a day after fully splicing the HCPCF. (C) When the coupling power is increased to 500 mW . (D) Evolution of the transparency width as the coupling laser Rabi frequency increases.

Equations (2)

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P ( t ) = P He e K t π ( r out 2 r in 2 ) + P C 2 H 2 .
Γ EIT = γ lasers + γ col wall + μ pressure p + Ω C 2 γ * .

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