Abstract

We demonstrate orthogonal label switching by using a dark-return-to-zero (DRZ) payload and differential phase-shift keying (DPSK) label generated by a dispersion-flattened photonic-crystal fiber. The high extinction ratio of both the payload and label improves the receiver margin. The DRZ payload introduces little cross talk to the DPSK label due to the RZ-like output of the demodulated DPSK. Simulations are performed to study the eye-closure penalty of the payload and label at different DRZ pulse widths. We compare the DRZ/DPSK with the RZ and DPSK signals numerically at the same data rate and show that the DRZ/DPSK has a strong tolerance to the polarization-mode dispersion. The DRZ/DPSK has a more compact spectrum suitable for the strong filtering requirements in WDM systems.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. T. Koonen, G. Morthier, J. Jennen, H. de Waardt, and P. Demeester, in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC, 2001), Vol. 4, p. 608.
  2. N. Chi, L. Xu, J. Zhang, P. V. Holm-Nielsen, C. Peucheret, C. Mikkelsen, H. Ou, J. Seoane, and P. Jeppesen, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 95 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper FO6.
  3. C. W. Chow, C. S. Wong, and H. K. Tsang, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 363 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Ogusu, K. Ide, and S. Ohshima, IEICE Trans. Commun. E88-B, 195 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. W. Chow and A. D. Ellis, postdeadline paper CPDB6 presented at the Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO'06), Long Beach, California, May 21-25, 2006.
  6. T. Miyazaki and F. Kubota, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (Optical Society of America, 2005), Paper OThR7.
  7. M. Zitelli, Opt. Express 3, 1215 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S.-S. Pun, C.-K. Chan, and L.-K. Chen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2763 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  9. C. S. Wong and H. K. Tsang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 87 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  10. C. H. Kwok, S. H. Lee, K. K. Chow, C. Shu, and A. Bjarklev, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2655 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. W. Lou, J. K. Andersen, J. C. Stocker, M. N. Islam, and D. A. Nolan, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1602 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

2005 (4)

M. Ogusu, K. Ide, and S. Ohshima, IEICE Trans. Commun. E88-B, 195 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Zitelli, Opt. Express 3, 1215 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S.-S. Pun, C.-K. Chan, and L.-K. Chen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2763 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Kwok, S. H. Lee, K. K. Chow, C. Shu, and A. Bjarklev, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2655 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

C. W. Chow, C. S. Wong, and H. K. Tsang, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 363 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

C. S. Wong and H. K. Tsang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 87 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

J. W. Lou, J. K. Andersen, J. C. Stocker, M. N. Islam, and D. A. Nolan, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1602 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Andersen, J. K.

J. W. Lou, J. K. Andersen, J. C. Stocker, M. N. Islam, and D. A. Nolan, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1602 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bjarklev, A.

C. H. Kwok, S. H. Lee, K. K. Chow, C. Shu, and A. Bjarklev, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2655 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chan, C.-K.

S.-S. Pun, C.-K. Chan, and L.-K. Chen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2763 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L.-K.

S.-S. Pun, C.-K. Chan, and L.-K. Chen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2763 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chi, N.

N. Chi, L. Xu, J. Zhang, P. V. Holm-Nielsen, C. Peucheret, C. Mikkelsen, H. Ou, J. Seoane, and P. Jeppesen, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 95 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper FO6.

Chow, C. W.

C. W. Chow, C. S. Wong, and H. K. Tsang, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 363 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Chow and A. D. Ellis, postdeadline paper CPDB6 presented at the Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO'06), Long Beach, California, May 21-25, 2006.

Chow, K. K.

C. H. Kwok, S. H. Lee, K. K. Chow, C. Shu, and A. Bjarklev, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2655 (2005).
[CrossRef]

de Waardt, H.

T. Koonen, G. Morthier, J. Jennen, H. de Waardt, and P. Demeester, in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC, 2001), Vol. 4, p. 608.

Demeester, P.

T. Koonen, G. Morthier, J. Jennen, H. de Waardt, and P. Demeester, in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC, 2001), Vol. 4, p. 608.

Ellis, A. D.

C. W. Chow and A. D. Ellis, postdeadline paper CPDB6 presented at the Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO'06), Long Beach, California, May 21-25, 2006.

Holm-Nielsen, P. V.

N. Chi, L. Xu, J. Zhang, P. V. Holm-Nielsen, C. Peucheret, C. Mikkelsen, H. Ou, J. Seoane, and P. Jeppesen, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 95 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper FO6.

Ide, K.

M. Ogusu, K. Ide, and S. Ohshima, IEICE Trans. Commun. E88-B, 195 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Islam, M. N.

J. W. Lou, J. K. Andersen, J. C. Stocker, M. N. Islam, and D. A. Nolan, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1602 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jennen, J.

T. Koonen, G. Morthier, J. Jennen, H. de Waardt, and P. Demeester, in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC, 2001), Vol. 4, p. 608.

Jeppesen, P.

N. Chi, L. Xu, J. Zhang, P. V. Holm-Nielsen, C. Peucheret, C. Mikkelsen, H. Ou, J. Seoane, and P. Jeppesen, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 95 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper FO6.

Koonen, T.

T. Koonen, G. Morthier, J. Jennen, H. de Waardt, and P. Demeester, in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC, 2001), Vol. 4, p. 608.

Kubota, F.

T. Miyazaki and F. Kubota, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (Optical Society of America, 2005), Paper OThR7.

Kwok, C. H.

C. H. Kwok, S. H. Lee, K. K. Chow, C. Shu, and A. Bjarklev, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2655 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. H.

C. H. Kwok, S. H. Lee, K. K. Chow, C. Shu, and A. Bjarklev, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2655 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lou, J. W.

J. W. Lou, J. K. Andersen, J. C. Stocker, M. N. Islam, and D. A. Nolan, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1602 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mikkelsen, C.

N. Chi, L. Xu, J. Zhang, P. V. Holm-Nielsen, C. Peucheret, C. Mikkelsen, H. Ou, J. Seoane, and P. Jeppesen, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 95 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper FO6.

Miyazaki, T.

T. Miyazaki and F. Kubota, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (Optical Society of America, 2005), Paper OThR7.

Morthier, G.

T. Koonen, G. Morthier, J. Jennen, H. de Waardt, and P. Demeester, in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC, 2001), Vol. 4, p. 608.

Nolan, D. A.

J. W. Lou, J. K. Andersen, J. C. Stocker, M. N. Islam, and D. A. Nolan, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1602 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ogusu, M.

M. Ogusu, K. Ide, and S. Ohshima, IEICE Trans. Commun. E88-B, 195 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ohshima, S.

M. Ogusu, K. Ide, and S. Ohshima, IEICE Trans. Commun. E88-B, 195 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ou, H.

N. Chi, L. Xu, J. Zhang, P. V. Holm-Nielsen, C. Peucheret, C. Mikkelsen, H. Ou, J. Seoane, and P. Jeppesen, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 95 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper FO6.

Peucheret, C.

N. Chi, L. Xu, J. Zhang, P. V. Holm-Nielsen, C. Peucheret, C. Mikkelsen, H. Ou, J. Seoane, and P. Jeppesen, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 95 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper FO6.

Pun, S.-S.

S.-S. Pun, C.-K. Chan, and L.-K. Chen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2763 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Seoane, J.

N. Chi, L. Xu, J. Zhang, P. V. Holm-Nielsen, C. Peucheret, C. Mikkelsen, H. Ou, J. Seoane, and P. Jeppesen, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 95 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper FO6.

Shu, C.

C. H. Kwok, S. H. Lee, K. K. Chow, C. Shu, and A. Bjarklev, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2655 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Stocker, J. C.

J. W. Lou, J. K. Andersen, J. C. Stocker, M. N. Islam, and D. A. Nolan, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1602 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tsang, H. K.

C. W. Chow, C. S. Wong, and H. K. Tsang, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 363 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Wong and H. K. Tsang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 87 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wong, C. S.

C. W. Chow, C. S. Wong, and H. K. Tsang, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 363 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Wong and H. K. Tsang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 87 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Xu, L.

N. Chi, L. Xu, J. Zhang, P. V. Holm-Nielsen, C. Peucheret, C. Mikkelsen, H. Ou, J. Seoane, and P. Jeppesen, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 95 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper FO6.

Zhang, J.

N. Chi, L. Xu, J. Zhang, P. V. Holm-Nielsen, C. Peucheret, C. Mikkelsen, H. Ou, J. Seoane, and P. Jeppesen, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 95 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper FO6.

Zitelli, M.

M. Zitelli, Opt. Express 3, 1215 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

C. W. Chow, C. S. Wong, and H. K. Tsang, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 363 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (4)

S.-S. Pun, C.-K. Chan, and L.-K. Chen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2763 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Wong and H. K. Tsang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 87 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Kwok, S. H. Lee, K. K. Chow, C. Shu, and A. Bjarklev, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2655 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Lou, J. K. Andersen, J. C. Stocker, M. N. Islam, and D. A. Nolan, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1602 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEICE Trans. Commun. (1)

M. Ogusu, K. Ide, and S. Ohshima, IEICE Trans. Commun. E88-B, 195 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

M. Zitelli, Opt. Express 3, 1215 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

T. Koonen, G. Morthier, J. Jennen, H. de Waardt, and P. Demeester, in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC, 2001), Vol. 4, p. 608.

N. Chi, L. Xu, J. Zhang, P. V. Holm-Nielsen, C. Peucheret, C. Mikkelsen, H. Ou, J. Seoane, and P. Jeppesen, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 95 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper FO6.

C. W. Chow and A. D. Ellis, postdeadline paper CPDB6 presented at the Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO'06), Long Beach, California, May 21-25, 2006.

T. Miyazaki and F. Kubota, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (Optical Society of America, 2005), Paper OThR7.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup of the DRZ/DPSK orthogonal label switching. MOD, modulator; PC, polarization controller; FC, fiber coupler; PCF, photonic crystal fiber; VOD, variable optical delay; PM, phase modulator; SMF, single-mode fiber; DCF, dispersion-compensating fiber; SOA, semiconductor optical amplifier; MZI, Mach–Zehnder interferometer; LEU, label extraction unit; LRU, label removal unit; and LIU, label insertion unit. Insets: (a) microstructure of PCF, (b) nonlinear switching characteristic of the PCF–NOLM, (c) input RZ to the PCF–NOLM, (d) converted DRZ at the output of the PCF–NOLM, and (e) nonlinear switching characteristic of birefringence switching of SOA at different biases.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

BER measurements for the half-bit delayed DRZ payload and DPSK label at different nodes of the experiment. The BER of the non-return-to-zero label in conventional orthogonal labeling with extinction ratio of 2 dB is included. Source node (SN) and intermediate node (IN).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

ECP of DRZ payload and DPSK label at different DRZ pulse widths. The pulse width (t) is normalized to bit period (T). Insets: simulated eye diagrams of (a) DRZ and (b) DPSK when the FWHM of DRZ = 20 ps ; (c) DRZ and (d) DPSK when the FWHM of DRZ = 60 ps .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Residual chromatic dispersion induced ECP, (b) first-order PMD induced ECP in the worst case, and (c) optical spectra of the DRZ/DPSK, RZ, and DPSK signals.

Equations (2)

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P 0 = 1 2 P cw [ 1 cos ( 2 γ P S L ) ] ,
L = π 2 γ P S .

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