Abstract

Saturated absorption spectroscopy is performed on the acetylene ν1+ν3 band near 1532nm inside photonic bandgap fibers of small (10μm) and large (20μm) core diameters. The observed linewidths are narrower in the 20μm fiber and vary from 20 to 40MHz depending on pressure and power. Variations in the background light transmission, attributed by others to surface modes, are significantly reduced in the 20μm fiber. The optimum signal for use as a frequency reference in a 0.8m long, 20μm diameter fiber is found to occur at about 0.5torr for 30mW of pump power. The saturation power is found by modeling the propagation and attenuation of light inside the fiber.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2005

C. S. Edwards, H. S. Margolis, G. P. Barwood, S. N. Lea, P. Gill, and W. R. C. Rowley, Appl. Phys. B 80, 977 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Jiang, A. Onae, H. Matsumoto, and F. L. Hong, Opt. Express 13, 1958 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. S. J. Russell, Nature 434, 488 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ghosh, J. E. Sharping, D. G. Ouzounov, and A. L. Gaeta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 093902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Benabid, P. S. Light, F. Couny, and P. S. Russell, Opt. Express 13, 5694 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Henningsen, J. Hald, and J. C. Petersen, Opt. Express 13, 10475 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

J. A. West, C. M. Smith, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, Opt. Express 12, 1485 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Czajkowski, J. E. Bernard, A. A. Madej, and R. S. Windeler, Appl. Phys. B 79, 45 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Ritari, J. Tuominen, H. Ludvigsen, J. C. Petersen, T. Sørensen, T. P. Hansen, and H. R. Simonsen, Opt. Express 12, 4081 (2004).

F. Benabid, G. Bouwmans, J. C. Knight, P. S. J. Russell, and F. Couny, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 123903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

T. J. Quinn, Metrologia 40, 103 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000

1999

R. F. Cregari, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. S. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, Science 285, 1537 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997

A. Onae, K. Okumura, Y. Miki, T. Kurosawa, E. Sakuma, J. Yoda, and K. Nakagawa, Opt. Commun. 142, 41 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Allan, D. C.

J. A. West, C. M. Smith, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, Opt. Express 12, 1485 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Cregari, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. S. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, Science 285, 1537 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Barwood, G. P.

C. S. Edwards, H. S. Margolis, G. P. Barwood, S. N. Lea, P. Gill, and W. R. C. Rowley, Appl. Phys. B 80, 977 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Benabid, F.

F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. S. J. Russell, Nature 434, 488 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Benabid, P. S. Light, F. Couny, and P. S. Russell, Opt. Express 13, 5694 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Benabid, G. Bouwmans, J. C. Knight, P. S. J. Russell, and F. Couny, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 123903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. S. Light, F. Couny, F. Benabid, and P. S. J. Russell, in Proceeding of the 31st European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC 2005) (IEE, 2005), Vol. 6, p. 59.

Bernard, J. E.

A. Czajkowski, J. E. Bernard, A. A. Madej, and R. S. Windeler, Appl. Phys. B 79, 45 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Birks, T. A.

F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. S. J. Russell, Nature 434, 488 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Cregari, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. S. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, Science 285, 1537 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Borrelli, N. F.

Bouwmans, G.

F. Benabid, G. Bouwmans, J. C. Knight, P. S. J. Russell, and F. Couny, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 123903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Corwin, K. L.

M. Faheem, R. Thapa, and K. L. Corwin, presented at Conference on Lasers and Electro-optics (CLEO) 2005, Baltimore, Md., May 21-26, 2005.

Couny, F.

F. Benabid, P. S. Light, F. Couny, and P. S. Russell, Opt. Express 13, 5694 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. S. J. Russell, Nature 434, 488 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Benabid, G. Bouwmans, J. C. Knight, P. S. J. Russell, and F. Couny, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 123903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. S. Light, F. Couny, F. Benabid, and P. S. J. Russell, in Proceeding of the 31st European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC 2005) (IEE, 2005), Vol. 6, p. 59.

Cregari, R. F.

R. F. Cregari, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. S. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, Science 285, 1537 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Czajkowski, A.

A. Czajkowski, J. E. Bernard, A. A. Madej, and R. S. Windeler, Appl. Phys. B 79, 45 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Demtröder, W.

W. Demtröder, Laser Spectroscopy (Springer, 1996).

Edwards, C. S.

C. S. Edwards, H. S. Margolis, G. P. Barwood, S. N. Lea, P. Gill, and W. R. C. Rowley, Appl. Phys. B 80, 977 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Faheem, M.

M. Faheem, R. Thapa, and K. L. Corwin, presented at Conference on Lasers and Electro-optics (CLEO) 2005, Baltimore, Md., May 21-26, 2005.

Gaeta, A. L.

S. Ghosh, J. E. Sharping, D. G. Ouzounov, and A. L. Gaeta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 093902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ghosh, S.

S. Ghosh, J. E. Sharping, D. G. Ouzounov, and A. L. Gaeta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 093902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gilbert, S. L.

Gill, P.

C. S. Edwards, H. S. Margolis, G. P. Barwood, S. N. Lea, P. Gill, and W. R. C. Rowley, Appl. Phys. B 80, 977 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hald, J.

Hansen, T. P.

T. Ritari, J. Tuominen, H. Ludvigsen, J. C. Petersen, T. Sørensen, T. P. Hansen, and H. R. Simonsen, Opt. Express 12, 4081 (2004).

Henningsen, J.

Hong, F. L.

Jiang, J.

Knight, J. C.

F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. S. J. Russell, Nature 434, 488 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Benabid, G. Bouwmans, J. C. Knight, P. S. J. Russell, and F. Couny, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 123903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Cregari, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. S. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, Science 285, 1537 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Koch, K. W.

Kurosawa, T.

A. Onae, K. Okumura, Y. Miki, T. Kurosawa, E. Sakuma, J. Yoda, and K. Nakagawa, Opt. Commun. 142, 41 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lea, S. N.

C. S. Edwards, H. S. Margolis, G. P. Barwood, S. N. Lea, P. Gill, and W. R. C. Rowley, Appl. Phys. B 80, 977 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Light, P. S.

F. Benabid, P. S. Light, F. Couny, and P. S. Russell, Opt. Express 13, 5694 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. S. Light, F. Couny, F. Benabid, and P. S. J. Russell, in Proceeding of the 31st European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC 2005) (IEE, 2005), Vol. 6, p. 59.

Ludvigsen, H.

T. Ritari, J. Tuominen, H. Ludvigsen, J. C. Petersen, T. Sørensen, T. P. Hansen, and H. R. Simonsen, Opt. Express 12, 4081 (2004).

Madej, A. A.

A. Czajkowski, J. E. Bernard, A. A. Madej, and R. S. Windeler, Appl. Phys. B 79, 45 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mangan, B. J.

R. F. Cregari, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. S. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, Science 285, 1537 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Margolis, H. S.

C. S. Edwards, H. S. Margolis, G. P. Barwood, S. N. Lea, P. Gill, and W. R. C. Rowley, Appl. Phys. B 80, 977 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Matsumoto, H.

Miki, Y.

A. Onae, K. Okumura, Y. Miki, T. Kurosawa, E. Sakuma, J. Yoda, and K. Nakagawa, Opt. Commun. 142, 41 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nakagawa, K.

A. Onae, K. Okumura, Y. Miki, T. Kurosawa, E. Sakuma, J. Yoda, and K. Nakagawa, Opt. Commun. 142, 41 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Okumura, K.

A. Onae, K. Okumura, Y. Miki, T. Kurosawa, E. Sakuma, J. Yoda, and K. Nakagawa, Opt. Commun. 142, 41 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Onae, A.

J. Jiang, A. Onae, H. Matsumoto, and F. L. Hong, Opt. Express 13, 1958 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Onae, K. Okumura, Y. Miki, T. Kurosawa, E. Sakuma, J. Yoda, and K. Nakagawa, Opt. Commun. 142, 41 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ouzounov, D. G.

S. Ghosh, J. E. Sharping, D. G. Ouzounov, and A. L. Gaeta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 093902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Petersen, J. C.

J. Henningsen, J. Hald, and J. C. Petersen, Opt. Express 13, 10475 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Ritari, J. Tuominen, H. Ludvigsen, J. C. Petersen, T. Sørensen, T. P. Hansen, and H. R. Simonsen, Opt. Express 12, 4081 (2004).

Quinn, T. J.

T. J. Quinn, Metrologia 40, 103 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ritari, T.

T. Ritari, J. Tuominen, H. Ludvigsen, J. C. Petersen, T. Sørensen, T. P. Hansen, and H. R. Simonsen, Opt. Express 12, 4081 (2004).

Roberts, P. J.

R. F. Cregari, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. S. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, Science 285, 1537 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rowley, W. R. C.

C. S. Edwards, H. S. Margolis, G. P. Barwood, S. N. Lea, P. Gill, and W. R. C. Rowley, Appl. Phys. B 80, 977 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P. S.

F. Benabid, P. S. Light, F. Couny, and P. S. Russell, Opt. Express 13, 5694 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Cregari, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. S. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, Science 285, 1537 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P. S. J.

F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. S. J. Russell, Nature 434, 488 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Benabid, G. Bouwmans, J. C. Knight, P. S. J. Russell, and F. Couny, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 123903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. S. Light, F. Couny, F. Benabid, and P. S. J. Russell, in Proceeding of the 31st European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC 2005) (IEE, 2005), Vol. 6, p. 59.

Sakuma, E.

A. Onae, K. Okumura, Y. Miki, T. Kurosawa, E. Sakuma, J. Yoda, and K. Nakagawa, Opt. Commun. 142, 41 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sharping, J. E.

S. Ghosh, J. E. Sharping, D. G. Ouzounov, and A. L. Gaeta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 093902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simonsen, H. R.

T. Ritari, J. Tuominen, H. Ludvigsen, J. C. Petersen, T. Sørensen, T. P. Hansen, and H. R. Simonsen, Opt. Express 12, 4081 (2004).

Smith, C. M.

Sørensen, T.

T. Ritari, J. Tuominen, H. Ludvigsen, J. C. Petersen, T. Sørensen, T. P. Hansen, and H. R. Simonsen, Opt. Express 12, 4081 (2004).

Swarnn, W. C.

Thapa, R.

M. Faheem, R. Thapa, and K. L. Corwin, presented at Conference on Lasers and Electro-optics (CLEO) 2005, Baltimore, Md., May 21-26, 2005.

R. Thapa, 'Doppler-free spectroscopy of acetylene in near infrared spectral region inside photonic band gap fiber,' M.S. thesis (Department of Physics, Kansas State University, 2005), http://dspace.cns.ksu.edu:4001/dspace/handle/2097/133.

Tuominen, J.

T. Ritari, J. Tuominen, H. Ludvigsen, J. C. Petersen, T. Sørensen, T. P. Hansen, and H. R. Simonsen, Opt. Express 12, 4081 (2004).

West, J. A.

Windeler, R. S.

A. Czajkowski, J. E. Bernard, A. A. Madej, and R. S. Windeler, Appl. Phys. B 79, 45 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yoda, J.

A. Onae, K. Okumura, Y. Miki, T. Kurosawa, E. Sakuma, J. Yoda, and K. Nakagawa, Opt. Commun. 142, 41 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B

C. S. Edwards, H. S. Margolis, G. P. Barwood, S. N. Lea, P. Gill, and W. R. C. Rowley, Appl. Phys. B 80, 977 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Czajkowski, J. E. Bernard, A. A. Madej, and R. S. Windeler, Appl. Phys. B 79, 45 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Metrologia

T. J. Quinn, Metrologia 40, 103 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nature

F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. S. J. Russell, Nature 434, 488 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun.

A. Onae, K. Okumura, Y. Miki, T. Kurosawa, E. Sakuma, J. Yoda, and K. Nakagawa, Opt. Commun. 142, 41 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Phys. Rev. Lett.

S. Ghosh, J. E. Sharping, D. G. Ouzounov, and A. L. Gaeta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 093902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Benabid, G. Bouwmans, J. C. Knight, P. S. J. Russell, and F. Couny, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 123903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science

R. F. Cregari, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. S. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, Science 285, 1537 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other

P. S. Light, F. Couny, F. Benabid, and P. S. J. Russell, in Proceeding of the 31st European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC 2005) (IEE, 2005), Vol. 6, p. 59.

M. Faheem, R. Thapa, and K. L. Corwin, presented at Conference on Lasers and Electro-optics (CLEO) 2005, Baltimore, Md., May 21-26, 2005.

W. Demtröder, Laser Spectroscopy (Springer, 1996).

R. Thapa, 'Doppler-free spectroscopy of acetylene in near infrared spectral region inside photonic band gap fiber,' M.S. thesis (Department of Physics, Kansas State University, 2005), http://dspace.cns.ksu.edu:4001/dspace/handle/2097/133.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Fractional transmission versus Δ ν for the P ( 11 ) transition at 1531.6 nm with a pump power of 29 mW incident on the fiber and a counterpropagating probe power of 1 mW . The C 2 12 H 2 pressure, from top to bottom, was 0.15, 0.26, 0.53, 0.72, and 2.25 torr . Left inset, α e ( ν ) l versus Δ ν over the range of ± 750 MHz , calculated from the data taken at 0.53 torr (squares) and fitted with Eq. (2) (curve). Right inset, same as left inset, but with expanded axes.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of experimental setup. Solid lines indicate optical fiber, and dashed lines indicate free-space optical beams. Aspheric lenses are shown as shaded ovals; the vacuum chambers (VC), indicated schematically, have wedge windows. The PBG image, courtesy of Crystal Fibre A/S, depicts the 20 μ m fiber.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

FWHM w versus injected pump power for P ( 11 ) , P ( 13 ) , and P ( 16 ) transitions in the 10 and 20 μ m diameter PBG fibers. (b) Width versus pressure for the same transitions. (c) The frequency discrimation of signals whose widths are shown in (b).

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

α r ( ν , z ) = α D ( ν ) [ 1 S 0 ( z ) Γ s * ( z ) 2 γ 1 + S 0 ( z ) ( γ 2 ) 2 Δ ν 2 + ( Γ s * ( z ) 2 ) 2 ] ,
α e l = A g exp ( 2 Δ ν 2 σ 2 ) { 1 A l ( w 2 ) 2 [ Δ ν A 2 + ( w 2 ) 2 ] } ,

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