Abstract

We describe what is to our knowledge the first nondestructive measurement of the evolution of an optical continuum as a function of distance along a nonlinear waveguide. Spectral mapping is achieved on a subwavelength scale by utilizing near-field microscopy to probe the waveguide’s evanescent field. The measured continuum broadening along the waveguide agrees in general form with predictions of broadening from theoretical calculations, but differs in some important details. Subwavelength resolution measurements are made both along and across the waveguide to reveal spectral variations not seen before by other techniques.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. W. Hansch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. S. J. Russell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2264 (2000).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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  6. M. L. M. Balistreri, H. Gersen, J. P. Korterik, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, Science 294, 1080 (2001).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. Y. Linzon, I. Ilsar, D. Cheskis, R. Morandotti, J. S. Aitchison, and J. S. Bar-Ad, Phys. Rev. E 72, 066607 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  8. M. C. Netti, M. Zoorob, S. Roberts, M. D. B. Charlton, G. J. Parker, J. J. Baumberg, J. R. Lincoln, F. Tauser, A. Zach, G. J. Flinn, and F. Lison, 'Octave-wide continuum generation in high-index planar waveguide,' presented at Commercial and Biomedical Applications of Ultrafast Lasers V, San Jose, Calif., January 24-27, 2006.
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    [Crossref]
  10. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 3rd ed. (Academic, 2001).
  11. C. Y. Tai, J. S. Wilkinson, N. M. B. Perney, M. C. Netti, F. Cattaneo, C. E. Finlayson, and J. J. Baumberg, Opt. Express 12, 5110 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

Y. Linzon, I. Ilsar, D. Cheskis, R. Morandotti, J. S. Aitchison, and J. S. Bar-Ad, Phys. Rev. E 72, 066607 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (3)

2003 (1)

Q. Cao, X. Gu, E. Zeek, M. Kimmel, R. Trebino, J. Dudley, and R. S. Windeler, Appl. Phys. B 77, 239 (2003).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

M. L. M. Balistreri, H. Gersen, J. P. Korterik, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, Science 294, 1080 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. W. Hansch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. S. J. Russell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2264 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

K. Karrai and R. D. Grober, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1842 (1995).
[Crossref]

Agrawal, G. P.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 3rd ed. (Academic, 2001).

Aitchison, J. S.

Y. Linzon, I. Ilsar, D. Cheskis, R. Morandotti, J. S. Aitchison, and J. S. Bar-Ad, Phys. Rev. E 72, 066607 (2005).
[Crossref]

Balistreri, M. L. M.

M. L. M. Balistreri, H. Gersen, J. P. Korterik, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, Science 294, 1080 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bar-Ad, J. S.

Y. Linzon, I. Ilsar, D. Cheskis, R. Morandotti, J. S. Aitchison, and J. S. Bar-Ad, Phys. Rev. E 72, 066607 (2005).
[Crossref]

Baumberg, J. J.

C. Y. Tai, J. S. Wilkinson, N. M. B. Perney, M. C. Netti, F. Cattaneo, C. E. Finlayson, and J. J. Baumberg, Opt. Express 12, 5110 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. C. Netti, M. Zoorob, S. Roberts, M. D. B. Charlton, G. J. Parker, J. J. Baumberg, J. R. Lincoln, F. Tauser, A. Zach, G. J. Flinn, and F. Lison, 'Octave-wide continuum generation in high-index planar waveguide,' presented at Commercial and Biomedical Applications of Ultrafast Lasers V, San Jose, Calif., January 24-27, 2006.

M. C. Netti, M. Zoorob, S. Roberts, M. D. B. Charlton, G. J. Parker, J. J. Baumberg, J. R. Lincoln, M. Lederer, and D. Kopf, 'Low noise self-phase modulation continuum generation in high index tapered planar waveguide at 1040 nm for OCT applications,' presented at Coherence Domain Optical Methods and Optical Coherence Tomography in Biomedicine IX, San Jose, Calif., January 23-26, 2006.

Cao, Q.

Q. Cao, X. Gu, E. Zeek, M. Kimmel, R. Trebino, J. Dudley, and R. S. Windeler, Appl. Phys. B 77, 239 (2003).
[Crossref]

Cattaneo, F.

Charlton, M. D. B.

M. C. Netti, M. Zoorob, S. Roberts, M. D. B. Charlton, G. J. Parker, J. J. Baumberg, J. R. Lincoln, M. Lederer, and D. Kopf, 'Low noise self-phase modulation continuum generation in high index tapered planar waveguide at 1040 nm for OCT applications,' presented at Coherence Domain Optical Methods and Optical Coherence Tomography in Biomedicine IX, San Jose, Calif., January 23-26, 2006.

M. C. Netti, M. Zoorob, S. Roberts, M. D. B. Charlton, G. J. Parker, J. J. Baumberg, J. R. Lincoln, F. Tauser, A. Zach, G. J. Flinn, and F. Lison, 'Octave-wide continuum generation in high-index planar waveguide,' presented at Commercial and Biomedical Applications of Ultrafast Lasers V, San Jose, Calif., January 24-27, 2006.

Cheskis, D.

Y. Linzon, I. Ilsar, D. Cheskis, R. Morandotti, J. S. Aitchison, and J. S. Bar-Ad, Phys. Rev. E 72, 066607 (2005).
[Crossref]

Diddams, S. A.

Dudley, J.

Q. Cao, X. Gu, E. Zeek, M. Kimmel, R. Trebino, J. Dudley, and R. S. Windeler, Appl. Phys. B 77, 239 (2003).
[Crossref]

Finlayson, C. E.

Flinn, G. J.

M. C. Netti, M. Zoorob, S. Roberts, M. D. B. Charlton, G. J. Parker, J. J. Baumberg, J. R. Lincoln, F. Tauser, A. Zach, G. J. Flinn, and F. Lison, 'Octave-wide continuum generation in high-index planar waveguide,' presented at Commercial and Biomedical Applications of Ultrafast Lasers V, San Jose, Calif., January 24-27, 2006.

Gersen, H.

M. L. M. Balistreri, H. Gersen, J. P. Korterik, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, Science 294, 1080 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Goto, T.

Grober, R. D.

K. Karrai and R. D. Grober, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1842 (1995).
[Crossref]

Gu, X.

Q. Cao, X. Gu, E. Zeek, M. Kimmel, R. Trebino, J. Dudley, and R. S. Windeler, Appl. Phys. B 77, 239 (2003).
[Crossref]

Hansch, T. W.

R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. W. Hansch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. S. J. Russell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2264 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Holzwarth, R.

R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. W. Hansch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. S. J. Russell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2264 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hori, T.

Ilsar, I.

Y. Linzon, I. Ilsar, D. Cheskis, R. Morandotti, J. S. Aitchison, and J. S. Bar-Ad, Phys. Rev. E 72, 066607 (2005).
[Crossref]

Jorgensen, C. G.

Karrai, K.

K. Karrai and R. D. Grober, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1842 (1995).
[Crossref]

Kimmel, M.

Q. Cao, X. Gu, E. Zeek, M. Kimmel, R. Trebino, J. Dudley, and R. S. Windeler, Appl. Phys. B 77, 239 (2003).
[Crossref]

Knight, J. C.

R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. W. Hansch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. S. J. Russell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2264 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kopf, D.

M. C. Netti, M. Zoorob, S. Roberts, M. D. B. Charlton, G. J. Parker, J. J. Baumberg, J. R. Lincoln, M. Lederer, and D. Kopf, 'Low noise self-phase modulation continuum generation in high index tapered planar waveguide at 1040 nm for OCT applications,' presented at Coherence Domain Optical Methods and Optical Coherence Tomography in Biomedicine IX, San Jose, Calif., January 23-26, 2006.

Korterik, J. P.

M. L. M. Balistreri, H. Gersen, J. P. Korterik, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, Science 294, 1080 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kuipers, L.

M. L. M. Balistreri, H. Gersen, J. P. Korterik, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, Science 294, 1080 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lederer, M.

M. C. Netti, M. Zoorob, S. Roberts, M. D. B. Charlton, G. J. Parker, J. J. Baumberg, J. R. Lincoln, M. Lederer, and D. Kopf, 'Low noise self-phase modulation continuum generation in high index tapered planar waveguide at 1040 nm for OCT applications,' presented at Coherence Domain Optical Methods and Optical Coherence Tomography in Biomedicine IX, San Jose, Calif., January 23-26, 2006.

Lincoln, J. R.

M. C. Netti, M. Zoorob, S. Roberts, M. D. B. Charlton, G. J. Parker, J. J. Baumberg, J. R. Lincoln, M. Lederer, and D. Kopf, 'Low noise self-phase modulation continuum generation in high index tapered planar waveguide at 1040 nm for OCT applications,' presented at Coherence Domain Optical Methods and Optical Coherence Tomography in Biomedicine IX, San Jose, Calif., January 23-26, 2006.

M. C. Netti, M. Zoorob, S. Roberts, M. D. B. Charlton, G. J. Parker, J. J. Baumberg, J. R. Lincoln, F. Tauser, A. Zach, G. J. Flinn, and F. Lison, 'Octave-wide continuum generation in high-index planar waveguide,' presented at Commercial and Biomedical Applications of Ultrafast Lasers V, San Jose, Calif., January 24-27, 2006.

Linzon, Y.

Y. Linzon, I. Ilsar, D. Cheskis, R. Morandotti, J. S. Aitchison, and J. S. Bar-Ad, Phys. Rev. E 72, 066607 (2005).
[Crossref]

Lison, F.

M. C. Netti, M. Zoorob, S. Roberts, M. D. B. Charlton, G. J. Parker, J. J. Baumberg, J. R. Lincoln, F. Tauser, A. Zach, G. J. Flinn, and F. Lison, 'Octave-wide continuum generation in high-index planar waveguide,' presented at Commercial and Biomedical Applications of Ultrafast Lasers V, San Jose, Calif., January 24-27, 2006.

Morandotti, R.

Y. Linzon, I. Ilsar, D. Cheskis, R. Morandotti, J. S. Aitchison, and J. S. Bar-Ad, Phys. Rev. E 72, 066607 (2005).
[Crossref]

Netti, M. C.

C. Y. Tai, J. S. Wilkinson, N. M. B. Perney, M. C. Netti, F. Cattaneo, C. E. Finlayson, and J. J. Baumberg, Opt. Express 12, 5110 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. C. Netti, M. Zoorob, S. Roberts, M. D. B. Charlton, G. J. Parker, J. J. Baumberg, J. R. Lincoln, M. Lederer, and D. Kopf, 'Low noise self-phase modulation continuum generation in high index tapered planar waveguide at 1040 nm for OCT applications,' presented at Coherence Domain Optical Methods and Optical Coherence Tomography in Biomedicine IX, San Jose, Calif., January 23-26, 2006.

M. C. Netti, M. Zoorob, S. Roberts, M. D. B. Charlton, G. J. Parker, J. J. Baumberg, J. R. Lincoln, F. Tauser, A. Zach, G. J. Flinn, and F. Lison, 'Octave-wide continuum generation in high-index planar waveguide,' presented at Commercial and Biomedical Applications of Ultrafast Lasers V, San Jose, Calif., January 24-27, 2006.

Newbury, N. R.

Nicholson, J. W.

Nishizawa, N.

Parker, G. J.

M. C. Netti, M. Zoorob, S. Roberts, M. D. B. Charlton, G. J. Parker, J. J. Baumberg, J. R. Lincoln, F. Tauser, A. Zach, G. J. Flinn, and F. Lison, 'Octave-wide continuum generation in high-index planar waveguide,' presented at Commercial and Biomedical Applications of Ultrafast Lasers V, San Jose, Calif., January 24-27, 2006.

M. C. Netti, M. Zoorob, S. Roberts, M. D. B. Charlton, G. J. Parker, J. J. Baumberg, J. R. Lincoln, M. Lederer, and D. Kopf, 'Low noise self-phase modulation continuum generation in high index tapered planar waveguide at 1040 nm for OCT applications,' presented at Coherence Domain Optical Methods and Optical Coherence Tomography in Biomedicine IX, San Jose, Calif., January 23-26, 2006.

Perney, N. M. B.

Roberts, S.

M. C. Netti, M. Zoorob, S. Roberts, M. D. B. Charlton, G. J. Parker, J. J. Baumberg, J. R. Lincoln, M. Lederer, and D. Kopf, 'Low noise self-phase modulation continuum generation in high index tapered planar waveguide at 1040 nm for OCT applications,' presented at Coherence Domain Optical Methods and Optical Coherence Tomography in Biomedicine IX, San Jose, Calif., January 23-26, 2006.

M. C. Netti, M. Zoorob, S. Roberts, M. D. B. Charlton, G. J. Parker, J. J. Baumberg, J. R. Lincoln, F. Tauser, A. Zach, G. J. Flinn, and F. Lison, 'Octave-wide continuum generation in high-index planar waveguide,' presented at Commercial and Biomedical Applications of Ultrafast Lasers V, San Jose, Calif., January 24-27, 2006.

Russell, P. S. J.

R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. W. Hansch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. S. J. Russell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2264 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tai, C. Y.

Tauser, F.

M. C. Netti, M. Zoorob, S. Roberts, M. D. B. Charlton, G. J. Parker, J. J. Baumberg, J. R. Lincoln, F. Tauser, A. Zach, G. J. Flinn, and F. Lison, 'Octave-wide continuum generation in high-index planar waveguide,' presented at Commercial and Biomedical Applications of Ultrafast Lasers V, San Jose, Calif., January 24-27, 2006.

Trebino, R.

Q. Cao, X. Gu, E. Zeek, M. Kimmel, R. Trebino, J. Dudley, and R. S. Windeler, Appl. Phys. B 77, 239 (2003).
[Crossref]

Udem, T.

R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. W. Hansch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. S. J. Russell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2264 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

van Hulst, N. F.

M. L. M. Balistreri, H. Gersen, J. P. Korterik, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, Science 294, 1080 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wadsworth, W. J.

R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. W. Hansch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. S. J. Russell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2264 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Washburn, B. R.

Wilkinson, J. S.

Windeler, R. S.

Q. Cao, X. Gu, E. Zeek, M. Kimmel, R. Trebino, J. Dudley, and R. S. Windeler, Appl. Phys. B 77, 239 (2003).
[Crossref]

Yan, M. F.

Yoshida, M.

Zach, A.

M. C. Netti, M. Zoorob, S. Roberts, M. D. B. Charlton, G. J. Parker, J. J. Baumberg, J. R. Lincoln, F. Tauser, A. Zach, G. J. Flinn, and F. Lison, 'Octave-wide continuum generation in high-index planar waveguide,' presented at Commercial and Biomedical Applications of Ultrafast Lasers V, San Jose, Calif., January 24-27, 2006.

Zeek, E.

Q. Cao, X. Gu, E. Zeek, M. Kimmel, R. Trebino, J. Dudley, and R. S. Windeler, Appl. Phys. B 77, 239 (2003).
[Crossref]

Zoorob, M.

M. C. Netti, M. Zoorob, S. Roberts, M. D. B. Charlton, G. J. Parker, J. J. Baumberg, J. R. Lincoln, F. Tauser, A. Zach, G. J. Flinn, and F. Lison, 'Octave-wide continuum generation in high-index planar waveguide,' presented at Commercial and Biomedical Applications of Ultrafast Lasers V, San Jose, Calif., January 24-27, 2006.

M. C. Netti, M. Zoorob, S. Roberts, M. D. B. Charlton, G. J. Parker, J. J. Baumberg, J. R. Lincoln, M. Lederer, and D. Kopf, 'Low noise self-phase modulation continuum generation in high index tapered planar waveguide at 1040 nm for OCT applications,' presented at Coherence Domain Optical Methods and Optical Coherence Tomography in Biomedicine IX, San Jose, Calif., January 23-26, 2006.

Appl. Phys. B (1)

Q. Cao, X. Gu, E. Zeek, M. Kimmel, R. Trebino, J. Dudley, and R. S. Windeler, Appl. Phys. B 77, 239 (2003).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

K. Karrai and R. D. Grober, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1842 (1995).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. E (1)

Y. Linzon, I. Ilsar, D. Cheskis, R. Morandotti, J. S. Aitchison, and J. S. Bar-Ad, Phys. Rev. E 72, 066607 (2005).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. W. Hansch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. S. J. Russell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2264 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (1)

M. L. M. Balistreri, H. Gersen, J. P. Korterik, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, Science 294, 1080 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (3)

M. C. Netti, M. Zoorob, S. Roberts, M. D. B. Charlton, G. J. Parker, J. J. Baumberg, J. R. Lincoln, M. Lederer, and D. Kopf, 'Low noise self-phase modulation continuum generation in high index tapered planar waveguide at 1040 nm for OCT applications,' presented at Coherence Domain Optical Methods and Optical Coherence Tomography in Biomedicine IX, San Jose, Calif., January 23-26, 2006.

M. C. Netti, M. Zoorob, S. Roberts, M. D. B. Charlton, G. J. Parker, J. J. Baumberg, J. R. Lincoln, F. Tauser, A. Zach, G. J. Flinn, and F. Lison, 'Octave-wide continuum generation in high-index planar waveguide,' presented at Commercial and Biomedical Applications of Ultrafast Lasers V, San Jose, Calif., January 24-27, 2006.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 3rd ed. (Academic, 2001).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

NSOM evanescent field spectral measurements of the continuum evolution along a 6 mm Ta 2 O 5 waveguide for input pulse energies (a) 2.1 nJ and (b) 0.8 nJ . For reference, the incident laser spectrum is included in each case at 0 mm , while the waveguide output is given at 6.0 mm .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Comparison of the widths of the evolving spectra along the length of the waveguide with theory. Data shown in Fig. 1 are displayed again along with a further data set with intermediate pulse energy 1.4 nJ .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Example of how the continuum is observed to evolve on a much smaller length scale. Here, the spectrum is seen to broaden and narrow on a length scale of 400 nm , which is approximately the wavelength of the light in the guide.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Spectra sampled along a direction orthogonal to the propagating light. (a) NSOM-derived cross-sectional topography of the rib waveguide, (b) the corresponding spectra sampled at the various positions, and (c) the integrated cross-sectional mode profile.

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