Abstract

An in vivo photoacoustic imaging system was designed and implemented to image the entire small animal head. A special scanning gantry was designed to enable in vivo imaging in coronal cross sections with high contrast and good spatial resolution for the first time to our knowledge. By use of a 2.25MHz ultrasonic transducer with a 6mm diameter active element, an in-plane radial resolution of 312μm was achieved. Deeply seated arterial and venous vessels in the head measuring up to 1.7cm in diameter were simultaneously imaged in vivo with 804nm wavelength laser excitation of photoacoustic waves.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. L. Jacques and S. A. Prahl, 'Absorption spectra for biological tissues,' http://omlc.ogi.edu/.
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. American National Standards Institute, 'American national standard for the safe use of lasers,' ANSI Z136.1 (American National Standards Institute, 2000).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. J. F. Adam, H. Elleaume, G. L. Duc, S. Corde, A. M. Charvet, I. Troprès, J. F. L. Bas, and F. Estève, J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 23, 499 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

2004

2003

X. Wang, Y. Pang, G. Ku, X. Xie, G. Stoica, and L.-H. Wang, Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 803 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Wang and L.-H. Wang, Opt. Lett. 28, 1739 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Kruger, W. L. Kiser Jr., D. R. Reinecke, G. A. Kruger, and K. D. Miller, Mol. Imaging 2, 113 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Xu and L.-H. Wang, Phys. Rev. E 67, 056605 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Adam, H. Elleaume, G. L. Duc, S. Corde, A. M. Charvet, I. Troprès, J. F. L. Bas, and F. Estève, J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 23, 499 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

R. O. Esenaliev, A. A. Karabutov, and A. A. Oraevsky, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 981 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1995

L.-H. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Zheng, Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47, 131 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992

S. T. Flock, S. L. Jacques, B. C. Wilson, W. M. Star, and M. J. C. van Gemert, Lasers Surg. Med. 12, 510 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adam, J. F.

J. F. Adam, H. Elleaume, G. L. Duc, S. Corde, A. M. Charvet, I. Troprès, J. F. L. Bas, and F. Estève, J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 23, 499 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bas, J. F. L.

J. F. Adam, H. Elleaume, G. L. Duc, S. Corde, A. M. Charvet, I. Troprès, J. F. L. Bas, and F. Estève, J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 23, 499 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bornhop, D. J.

Charvet, A. M.

J. F. Adam, H. Elleaume, G. L. Duc, S. Corde, A. M. Charvet, I. Troprès, J. F. L. Bas, and F. Estève, J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 23, 499 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Corde, S.

J. F. Adam, H. Elleaume, G. L. Duc, S. Corde, A. M. Charvet, I. Troprès, J. F. L. Bas, and F. Estève, J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 23, 499 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duc, G. L.

J. F. Adam, H. Elleaume, G. L. Duc, S. Corde, A. M. Charvet, I. Troprès, J. F. L. Bas, and F. Estève, J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 23, 499 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elleaume, H.

J. F. Adam, H. Elleaume, G. L. Duc, S. Corde, A. M. Charvet, I. Troprès, J. F. L. Bas, and F. Estève, J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 23, 499 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Esenaliev, R. O.

R. O. Esenaliev, A. A. Karabutov, and A. A. Oraevsky, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 981 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Estève, F.

J. F. Adam, H. Elleaume, G. L. Duc, S. Corde, A. M. Charvet, I. Troprès, J. F. L. Bas, and F. Estève, J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 23, 499 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flock, S. T.

S. T. Flock, S. L. Jacques, B. C. Wilson, W. M. Star, and M. J. C. van Gemert, Lasers Surg. Med. 12, 510 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jacques, S. L.

L.-H. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Zheng, Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47, 131 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. T. Flock, S. L. Jacques, B. C. Wilson, W. M. Star, and M. J. C. van Gemert, Lasers Surg. Med. 12, 510 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Jacques and S. A. Prahl, 'Absorption spectra for biological tissues,' http://omlc.ogi.edu/.

Karabutov, A. A.

R. O. Esenaliev, A. A. Karabutov, and A. A. Oraevsky, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 981 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kiser, W. L.

R. A. Kruger, W. L. Kiser Jr., D. R. Reinecke, G. A. Kruger, and K. D. Miller, Mol. Imaging 2, 113 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kruger, G. A.

R. A. Kruger, W. L. Kiser Jr., D. R. Reinecke, G. A. Kruger, and K. D. Miller, Mol. Imaging 2, 113 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kruger, R. A.

R. A. Kruger, W. L. Kiser Jr., D. R. Reinecke, G. A. Kruger, and K. D. Miller, Mol. Imaging 2, 113 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ku, G.

G. Ku and L.-H. Wang, Opt. Lett. 30, 507 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Ku, X. Wang, G. Stoica, and L.-H. Wang, Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1329 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Wang, G. Ku, M. A. Wegiel, D. J. Bornhop, G. Stoica, and L.-H. Wang, Opt. Lett. 29, 730 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Wang, Y. Pang, G. Ku, X. Xie, G. Stoica, and L.-H. Wang, Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 803 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maslov, K.

Miller, K. D.

R. A. Kruger, W. L. Kiser Jr., D. R. Reinecke, G. A. Kruger, and K. D. Miller, Mol. Imaging 2, 113 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ntziachristos, V.

V. Ntziachristos, J. Ripoll, L.-H. Wang, and R. Weissleder, Nat. Biotechnol. 23, 313 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oraevsky, A. A.

R. O. Esenaliev, A. A. Karabutov, and A. A. Oraevsky, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 981 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pang, Y.

X. Wang, Y. Pang, G. Ku, X. Xie, G. Stoica, and L.-H. Wang, Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 803 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prahl, S. A.

S. L. Jacques and S. A. Prahl, 'Absorption spectra for biological tissues,' http://omlc.ogi.edu/.

Reinecke, D. R.

R. A. Kruger, W. L. Kiser Jr., D. R. Reinecke, G. A. Kruger, and K. D. Miller, Mol. Imaging 2, 113 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ripoll, J.

V. Ntziachristos, J. Ripoll, L.-H. Wang, and R. Weissleder, Nat. Biotechnol. 23, 313 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Star, W. M.

S. T. Flock, S. L. Jacques, B. C. Wilson, W. M. Star, and M. J. C. van Gemert, Lasers Surg. Med. 12, 510 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stoica, G.

K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L.-H. Wang, Opt. Lett. 30, 625 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Wang, G. Ku, M. A. Wegiel, D. J. Bornhop, G. Stoica, and L.-H. Wang, Opt. Lett. 29, 730 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Ku, X. Wang, G. Stoica, and L.-H. Wang, Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1329 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Wang, Y. Pang, G. Ku, X. Xie, G. Stoica, and L.-H. Wang, Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 803 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Troprès, I.

J. F. Adam, H. Elleaume, G. L. Duc, S. Corde, A. M. Charvet, I. Troprès, J. F. L. Bas, and F. Estève, J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 23, 499 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Gemert, M. J. C.

S. T. Flock, S. L. Jacques, B. C. Wilson, W. M. Star, and M. J. C. van Gemert, Lasers Surg. Med. 12, 510 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, L.-H.

K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L.-H. Wang, Opt. Lett. 30, 625 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Ntziachristos, J. Ripoll, L.-H. Wang, and R. Weissleder, Nat. Biotechnol. 23, 313 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Ku and L.-H. Wang, Opt. Lett. 30, 507 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Ku, X. Wang, G. Stoica, and L.-H. Wang, Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1329 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Wang, G. Ku, M. A. Wegiel, D. J. Bornhop, G. Stoica, and L.-H. Wang, Opt. Lett. 29, 730 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Wang, Y. Pang, G. Ku, X. Xie, G. Stoica, and L.-H. Wang, Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 803 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Wang and L.-H. Wang, Opt. Lett. 28, 1739 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Xu and L.-H. Wang, Phys. Rev. E 67, 056605 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L.-H. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Zheng, Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47, 131 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, X.

X. Wang, G. Ku, M. A. Wegiel, D. J. Bornhop, G. Stoica, and L.-H. Wang, Opt. Lett. 29, 730 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Ku, X. Wang, G. Stoica, and L.-H. Wang, Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1329 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Wang, Y. Pang, G. Ku, X. Xie, G. Stoica, and L.-H. Wang, Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 803 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Wang and L.-H. Wang, Opt. Lett. 28, 1739 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wegiel, M. A.

Weissleder, R.

V. Ntziachristos, J. Ripoll, L.-H. Wang, and R. Weissleder, Nat. Biotechnol. 23, 313 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilson, B. C.

S. T. Flock, S. L. Jacques, B. C. Wilson, W. M. Star, and M. J. C. van Gemert, Lasers Surg. Med. 12, 510 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xie, X.

X. Wang, Y. Pang, G. Ku, X. Xie, G. Stoica, and L.-H. Wang, Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 803 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, M.

M. Xu and L.-H. Wang, Phys. Rev. E 67, 056605 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, L.

L.-H. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Zheng, Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47, 131 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Comput. Methods Programs Biomed.

L.-H. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Zheng, Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47, 131 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

R. O. Esenaliev, A. A. Karabutov, and A. A. Oraevsky, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 981 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab.

J. F. Adam, H. Elleaume, G. L. Duc, S. Corde, A. M. Charvet, I. Troprès, J. F. L. Bas, and F. Estève, J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 23, 499 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lasers Surg. Med.

S. T. Flock, S. L. Jacques, B. C. Wilson, W. M. Star, and M. J. C. van Gemert, Lasers Surg. Med. 12, 510 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mol. Imaging

R. A. Kruger, W. L. Kiser Jr., D. R. Reinecke, G. A. Kruger, and K. D. Miller, Mol. Imaging 2, 113 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Biotechnol.

X. Wang, Y. Pang, G. Ku, X. Xie, G. Stoica, and L.-H. Wang, Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 803 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Ntziachristos, J. Ripoll, L.-H. Wang, and R. Weissleder, Nat. Biotechnol. 23, 313 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Med. Biol.

G. Ku, X. Wang, G. Stoica, and L.-H. Wang, Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1329 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. E

M. Xu and L.-H. Wang, Phys. Rev. E 67, 056605 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other

S. L. Jacques and S. A. Prahl, 'Absorption spectra for biological tissues,' http://omlc.ogi.edu/.

American National Standards Institute, 'American national standard for the safe use of lasers,' ANSI Z136.1 (American National Standards Institute, 2000).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the experimental setup of photoacoustic tomography for in vivo whole-head small animal imaging. Sa, sapphire.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(A) PAT image of nine carbon fibers and two hairs in gelatin. Objects are perpendicular to the imaging plane. (Note that fibers are not exactly perpendicular to the imaging plane, so distortion exists due to the slice thickness.) The grayscale bar indicates the magnitude of optical absorption. (B) Radial and tangential resolutions with standard errors. Dashed curve with circles, radial resolution; solid curve with squares, tangential resolution, showing the aperture effect of the transducer.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

In vivo three-dimensional whole-head photoacoustic tomography of a nude mouse in coronal views. Images were obtained from the anterior to the posterior parts of the brain with a depth separation of 1 mm between adjacent scans. Arrows indicate higher optical absorption in blood vessels. The photographs (G) and (H) of the cross sections were taken after PAT data acquisition for comparison with corresponding PAT images (B) and (E), respectively. 1, Anterior cerebral artery; 2, mandibular alveolar artery; 3, 4, arterial vessels; 5, posterior communication artery; 6, internal cerebral artery; 7, median fissure; 8, venous vessel; 9, facial vein; 10, facial artery; 11, sublingual artery; 12, jugular vein; 13, venous vessel.

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