Abstract

We present a novel algorithm for full-range imaging by suppression of the complex conjugate artifact in phase-shifting Fourier domain optical coherence tomography. This technique utilizes the projection of multiple phase-shifted interferograms onto an orthogonal basis set to reconstruct the complex interferogram. Full-range imaging with >30dB suppression of the symmetric artifact is demonstrated using a 3×3 fiber coupler swept source OCT system, providing a depth range of 6.6mm with 8dB roll-off in sensitivity at the depth boundaries relative to DC. Real-time display of full-range images of the anterior segment of the human eye acquired in vivo at a line rate of 6.67kHz are presented.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Wojtkowski, A. Kowalczyk, R. Leitgeb, and A. F. Fercher, Opt. Lett. 27, 1415 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  7. M. V. Sarunic, M. A. Choma, C. Yang, and J. A. Izatt, Opt. Express 13, 957 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. B. J. Vakoc, S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, Opt. Lett. 31, 362 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, K. Taira, J. G. Fujimoto, and K. Hsu, Opt. Express 13, 3513 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

2005 (4)

2004 (1)

2002 (1)

2000 (1)

1995 (1)

F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, Opt. Commun. 117, 43 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Belabas, N.

Bouma, B. E.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choma, M. A.

De Boer, J. F.

Dorrer, C.

Elzaiat, S. Y.

F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, Opt. Commun. 117, 43 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fercher, A. F.

Fercher, F.

F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, Opt. Commun. 117, 43 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, K. Taira, J. G. Fujimoto, and K. Hsu, Opt. Express 13, 3513 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gorczynska, W.

P. Targowski, W. Gorczynska, M. Szkulmowski, M. Wojtkowski, and A. Kowalczyk, Opt. Commun. 249, 357 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gotzinger, E.

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hitzenberger, C. K.

E. Gotzinger, M. Pircher, R. A. Leitgeb, and C. K. Hitzenberger, Opt. Express 13, 583 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, Opt. Commun. 117, 43 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, K.

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huber, R.

Izatt, J. A.

Joffre, M.

Kamp, G.

F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, Opt. Commun. 117, 43 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kowalczyk, A.

P. Targowski, W. Gorczynska, M. Szkulmowski, M. Wojtkowski, and A. Kowalczyk, Opt. Commun. 249, 357 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Wojtkowski, A. Kowalczyk, R. Leitgeb, and A. F. Fercher, Opt. Lett. 27, 1415 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Leitgeb, R.

Leitgeb, R. A.

Likforman, J. P.

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pircher, M.

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sarunic, M. V.

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Szkulmowski, M.

P. Targowski, W. Gorczynska, M. Szkulmowski, M. Wojtkowski, and A. Kowalczyk, Opt. Commun. 249, 357 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Taira, K.

Targowski, P.

P. Targowski, W. Gorczynska, M. Szkulmowski, M. Wojtkowski, and A. Kowalczyk, Opt. Commun. 249, 357 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tearney, G. J.

Vakoc, B. J.

Wojtkowski, M.

Yang, C.

Yun, S. H.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Quadrature projection processing steps. The phase-shifted interferograms shown in a are Fourier transformed, and each depth location can be represented in the complex plane, b. Phase subtraction aligns the first signal onto the positive real axis, and the shifted signals are forced to the angle of the induced phase shift, c. The projections of each vector onto the real and imaginary axis are summed, accounting for the sign of each component, d. The complex conjugate resolved signal is obtained by adding the symmetric real and antisymmetric imaginary components, e.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

SS OCT system using a 3 × 3 fused fiber coupler in a Michelson-type interferometer.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Complex conjugate resolved A-scans with a 50 dB attenuated sample reflector demonstrating a sensitivity of 103 dB with a roll-off of 8 dB at 3.3 mm and > 30 dB suppression of the complex conjugate artifact. The asterisk represents an aliased positive path length difference of 3.5 mm , which appears as a negative distance.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

In vivo full-depth images of the ocular anterior segment in a human volunteer. The image in a is corrupted by the complex conjugate artifact. Applying the quadrature projection algorithm uniquely resolves positive and negative distances as shown in b. Each image consists of 800 vertical lines with 1024 samples per line.

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