Abstract

We report an experimental comparison of three-photon-absorption resonances (N-resonances) for the D1 and D2 optical transitions of thermal Rb87 vapor. We find that the D2 N-resonance has better contrast, a broader linewidth, and a more symmetric line shape than the D1 N-resonance. Taken together, these factors imply superior performance for frequency standards operating on alkali D2 N-resonances, in contrast with coherent population trapping resonances, for which the D2 transition provides poorer frequency standard performance than the D1 transition.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. S. Zibrov, C. Y. Ye, Y. V. Rostovtsev, A. B. Matsko, and M. O. Scully, Phys. Rev. A 65, 043817 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. Zibrov, I. Novikova, D. F. Phillips, A. V. Taichenachev, V. I. Yudin, R. L. Walsworth, and A. S. Zibrov, Phys. Rev. A 72, 011801(R) (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  3. I. Novikova, D. F. Phillips, A. S. Zibrov, R. L. Walsworth, A. V. Taichenachev, and V. I. Yudin, Opt. Lett. 31, 622 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. Vanier, Appl. Phys. B 81, 421 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Knappe, P. D. D. Schwindt, V. Shah, L. Hollberg, J. Kitching, L. Liew, and J. Moreland, Opt. Express 13, 1249 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. P. D. D. Schwindt, S. Knappe, V. Shah, L. Hollberg, J. Kitching, L. Liew, and J. Moreland, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 6409 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. B. Matsko, D. Strekalov, and L. Maleki, Opt. Commun. 247, 141 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Merimaa, T. Lindwall, I. Tittonen, and E. Ikonen, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 273 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Stahler, R. Wynands, S. Knappe, J. Kitching, L. Hollberg, A. Taichenachev, and V. Yudin, Opt. Lett. 27, 1472 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. Lutwak, D. Emmons, T. English, W. Riley, A. Duwel, M. Varghese, D. K. Serkland, and G. M. Peake, in Proceedings of the 35th Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Systems and Applications Meeting (U.S. Naval Observatory, 2003), p. 467.
  11. A. V. Taichenachev, V. I. Yudin, R. Wynands, M. Stahler, J. Kitching, and L. Hollberg, Phys. Rev. A 67, 033810 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  12. D. F. Phillips, I. Novikova, C. Y.-T. Wang, M. Crescimanno, and R. L. Walsworth, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 305 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2005 (5)

J. Vanier, Appl. Phys. B 81, 421 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Knappe, P. D. D. Schwindt, V. Shah, L. Hollberg, J. Kitching, L. Liew, and J. Moreland, Opt. Express 13, 1249 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zibrov, I. Novikova, D. F. Phillips, A. V. Taichenachev, V. I. Yudin, R. L. Walsworth, and A. S. Zibrov, Phys. Rev. A 72, 011801(R) (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Matsko, D. Strekalov, and L. Maleki, Opt. Commun. 247, 141 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. F. Phillips, I. Novikova, C. Y.-T. Wang, M. Crescimanno, and R. L. Walsworth, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 305 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

P. D. D. Schwindt, S. Knappe, V. Shah, L. Hollberg, J. Kitching, L. Liew, and J. Moreland, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 6409 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

M. Merimaa, T. Lindwall, I. Tittonen, and E. Ikonen, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 273 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Taichenachev, V. I. Yudin, R. Wynands, M. Stahler, J. Kitching, and L. Hollberg, Phys. Rev. A 67, 033810 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

M. Stahler, R. Wynands, S. Knappe, J. Kitching, L. Hollberg, A. Taichenachev, and V. Yudin, Opt. Lett. 27, 1472 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Zibrov, C. Y. Ye, Y. V. Rostovtsev, A. B. Matsko, and M. O. Scully, Phys. Rev. A 65, 043817 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Crescimanno, M.

Duwel, A.

R. Lutwak, D. Emmons, T. English, W. Riley, A. Duwel, M. Varghese, D. K. Serkland, and G. M. Peake, in Proceedings of the 35th Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Systems and Applications Meeting (U.S. Naval Observatory, 2003), p. 467.

Emmons, D.

R. Lutwak, D. Emmons, T. English, W. Riley, A. Duwel, M. Varghese, D. K. Serkland, and G. M. Peake, in Proceedings of the 35th Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Systems and Applications Meeting (U.S. Naval Observatory, 2003), p. 467.

English, T.

R. Lutwak, D. Emmons, T. English, W. Riley, A. Duwel, M. Varghese, D. K. Serkland, and G. M. Peake, in Proceedings of the 35th Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Systems and Applications Meeting (U.S. Naval Observatory, 2003), p. 467.

Hollberg, L.

S. Knappe, P. D. D. Schwindt, V. Shah, L. Hollberg, J. Kitching, L. Liew, and J. Moreland, Opt. Express 13, 1249 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. D. D. Schwindt, S. Knappe, V. Shah, L. Hollberg, J. Kitching, L. Liew, and J. Moreland, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 6409 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Taichenachev, V. I. Yudin, R. Wynands, M. Stahler, J. Kitching, and L. Hollberg, Phys. Rev. A 67, 033810 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Stahler, R. Wynands, S. Knappe, J. Kitching, L. Hollberg, A. Taichenachev, and V. Yudin, Opt. Lett. 27, 1472 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ikonen, E.

Kitching, J.

S. Knappe, P. D. D. Schwindt, V. Shah, L. Hollberg, J. Kitching, L. Liew, and J. Moreland, Opt. Express 13, 1249 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. D. D. Schwindt, S. Knappe, V. Shah, L. Hollberg, J. Kitching, L. Liew, and J. Moreland, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 6409 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Taichenachev, V. I. Yudin, R. Wynands, M. Stahler, J. Kitching, and L. Hollberg, Phys. Rev. A 67, 033810 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Stahler, R. Wynands, S. Knappe, J. Kitching, L. Hollberg, A. Taichenachev, and V. Yudin, Opt. Lett. 27, 1472 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Knappe, S.

Liew, L.

S. Knappe, P. D. D. Schwindt, V. Shah, L. Hollberg, J. Kitching, L. Liew, and J. Moreland, Opt. Express 13, 1249 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. D. D. Schwindt, S. Knappe, V. Shah, L. Hollberg, J. Kitching, L. Liew, and J. Moreland, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 6409 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lindwall, T.

Lutwak, R.

R. Lutwak, D. Emmons, T. English, W. Riley, A. Duwel, M. Varghese, D. K. Serkland, and G. M. Peake, in Proceedings of the 35th Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Systems and Applications Meeting (U.S. Naval Observatory, 2003), p. 467.

Maleki, L.

A. B. Matsko, D. Strekalov, and L. Maleki, Opt. Commun. 247, 141 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Matsko, A. B.

A. B. Matsko, D. Strekalov, and L. Maleki, Opt. Commun. 247, 141 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Zibrov, C. Y. Ye, Y. V. Rostovtsev, A. B. Matsko, and M. O. Scully, Phys. Rev. A 65, 043817 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Merimaa, M.

Moreland, J.

S. Knappe, P. D. D. Schwindt, V. Shah, L. Hollberg, J. Kitching, L. Liew, and J. Moreland, Opt. Express 13, 1249 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. D. D. Schwindt, S. Knappe, V. Shah, L. Hollberg, J. Kitching, L. Liew, and J. Moreland, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 6409 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Novikova, I.

Peake, G. M.

R. Lutwak, D. Emmons, T. English, W. Riley, A. Duwel, M. Varghese, D. K. Serkland, and G. M. Peake, in Proceedings of the 35th Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Systems and Applications Meeting (U.S. Naval Observatory, 2003), p. 467.

Phillips, D. F.

Riley, W.

R. Lutwak, D. Emmons, T. English, W. Riley, A. Duwel, M. Varghese, D. K. Serkland, and G. M. Peake, in Proceedings of the 35th Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Systems and Applications Meeting (U.S. Naval Observatory, 2003), p. 467.

Rostovtsev, Y. V.

A. S. Zibrov, C. Y. Ye, Y. V. Rostovtsev, A. B. Matsko, and M. O. Scully, Phys. Rev. A 65, 043817 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schwindt, P. D. D.

S. Knappe, P. D. D. Schwindt, V. Shah, L. Hollberg, J. Kitching, L. Liew, and J. Moreland, Opt. Express 13, 1249 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. D. D. Schwindt, S. Knappe, V. Shah, L. Hollberg, J. Kitching, L. Liew, and J. Moreland, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 6409 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Scully, M. O.

A. S. Zibrov, C. Y. Ye, Y. V. Rostovtsev, A. B. Matsko, and M. O. Scully, Phys. Rev. A 65, 043817 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Serkland, D. K.

R. Lutwak, D. Emmons, T. English, W. Riley, A. Duwel, M. Varghese, D. K. Serkland, and G. M. Peake, in Proceedings of the 35th Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Systems and Applications Meeting (U.S. Naval Observatory, 2003), p. 467.

Shah, V.

S. Knappe, P. D. D. Schwindt, V. Shah, L. Hollberg, J. Kitching, L. Liew, and J. Moreland, Opt. Express 13, 1249 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. D. D. Schwindt, S. Knappe, V. Shah, L. Hollberg, J. Kitching, L. Liew, and J. Moreland, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 6409 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Stahler, M.

A. V. Taichenachev, V. I. Yudin, R. Wynands, M. Stahler, J. Kitching, and L. Hollberg, Phys. Rev. A 67, 033810 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Stahler, R. Wynands, S. Knappe, J. Kitching, L. Hollberg, A. Taichenachev, and V. Yudin, Opt. Lett. 27, 1472 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Strekalov, D.

A. B. Matsko, D. Strekalov, and L. Maleki, Opt. Commun. 247, 141 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Taichenachev, A.

Taichenachev, A. V.

I. Novikova, D. F. Phillips, A. S. Zibrov, R. L. Walsworth, A. V. Taichenachev, and V. I. Yudin, Opt. Lett. 31, 622 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zibrov, I. Novikova, D. F. Phillips, A. V. Taichenachev, V. I. Yudin, R. L. Walsworth, and A. S. Zibrov, Phys. Rev. A 72, 011801(R) (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Taichenachev, V. I. Yudin, R. Wynands, M. Stahler, J. Kitching, and L. Hollberg, Phys. Rev. A 67, 033810 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tittonen, I.

Vanier, J.

J. Vanier, Appl. Phys. B 81, 421 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Varghese, M.

R. Lutwak, D. Emmons, T. English, W. Riley, A. Duwel, M. Varghese, D. K. Serkland, and G. M. Peake, in Proceedings of the 35th Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Systems and Applications Meeting (U.S. Naval Observatory, 2003), p. 467.

Walsworth, R. L.

Wang, C. Y.-T.

Wynands, R.

A. V. Taichenachev, V. I. Yudin, R. Wynands, M. Stahler, J. Kitching, and L. Hollberg, Phys. Rev. A 67, 033810 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Stahler, R. Wynands, S. Knappe, J. Kitching, L. Hollberg, A. Taichenachev, and V. Yudin, Opt. Lett. 27, 1472 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ye, C. Y.

A. S. Zibrov, C. Y. Ye, Y. V. Rostovtsev, A. B. Matsko, and M. O. Scully, Phys. Rev. A 65, 043817 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yudin, V.

Yudin, V. I.

I. Novikova, D. F. Phillips, A. S. Zibrov, R. L. Walsworth, A. V. Taichenachev, and V. I. Yudin, Opt. Lett. 31, 622 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zibrov, I. Novikova, D. F. Phillips, A. V. Taichenachev, V. I. Yudin, R. L. Walsworth, and A. S. Zibrov, Phys. Rev. A 72, 011801(R) (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Taichenachev, V. I. Yudin, R. Wynands, M. Stahler, J. Kitching, and L. Hollberg, Phys. Rev. A 67, 033810 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zibrov, A. S.

I. Novikova, D. F. Phillips, A. S. Zibrov, R. L. Walsworth, A. V. Taichenachev, and V. I. Yudin, Opt. Lett. 31, 622 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zibrov, I. Novikova, D. F. Phillips, A. V. Taichenachev, V. I. Yudin, R. L. Walsworth, and A. S. Zibrov, Phys. Rev. A 72, 011801(R) (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Zibrov, C. Y. Ye, Y. V. Rostovtsev, A. B. Matsko, and M. O. Scully, Phys. Rev. A 65, 043817 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zibrov, S.

S. Zibrov, I. Novikova, D. F. Phillips, A. V. Taichenachev, V. I. Yudin, R. L. Walsworth, and A. S. Zibrov, Phys. Rev. A 72, 011801(R) (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

J. Vanier, Appl. Phys. B 81, 421 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

P. D. D. Schwindt, S. Knappe, V. Shah, L. Hollberg, J. Kitching, L. Liew, and J. Moreland, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 6409 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Opt. Commun. (1)

A. B. Matsko, D. Strekalov, and L. Maleki, Opt. Commun. 247, 141 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. A (3)

A. V. Taichenachev, V. I. Yudin, R. Wynands, M. Stahler, J. Kitching, and L. Hollberg, Phys. Rev. A 67, 033810 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Zibrov, C. Y. Ye, Y. V. Rostovtsev, A. B. Matsko, and M. O. Scully, Phys. Rev. A 65, 043817 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Zibrov, I. Novikova, D. F. Phillips, A. V. Taichenachev, V. I. Yudin, R. L. Walsworth, and A. S. Zibrov, Phys. Rev. A 72, 011801(R) (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

R. Lutwak, D. Emmons, T. English, W. Riley, A. Duwel, M. Varghese, D. K. Serkland, and G. M. Peake, in Proceedings of the 35th Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Systems and Applications Meeting (U.S. Naval Observatory, 2003), p. 467.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) N-resonance interaction scheme for the D 1 and D 2 transitions of Rb 87 . Ω P and Ω D are the probe and drive optical fields, respectively, that create and interrogate the N-resonance; ν 0 is the splitting of ground-state hyperfine levels F = 1 and F = 2 ; and Δ c is the one-photon detuning of the probe field from resonance between the F = 2 ground state and the excited state. (b) Schematic of the experimental setup. The optical fields Ω P and Ω D are derived from an external cavity diode laser, whose output is phase modulated by an electro-optic modulator (EOM) and circularly polarized by a quarter-wave plate ( λ 4 ) . The transmitted probe field is detected by a photodetector (PD).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Example Rb 87 N-resonances observed for the D 1 and D 2 optical transitions. The laser power is 260 μ W , corresponding to an intensity of 50 mW cm 2 . The probe transmission is normalized to unity away from two-photon resonance.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

N-resonance (a) contrast C, (b) linewidth Δ ν , and (c) quality factor q = C Δ ν , as a function of total input laser intensity, measured on the Rb 87 D 1 and D 2 transitions. The dashed curves are to guide the eye.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

N-resonance asymmetry, B A , as a function of laser intensity, determined from fits of a combination of symmetric and antisymmetric Lorentzian functions to measured N-resonance lineshapes; for D 1 and D 2 transitions. The dashed lines are to guide the eye.

Equations (1)

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T = T 0 ( A Δ ν 2 ) + B δ ( Δ ν 2 4 ) + δ 2 ,

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