Abstract

We propose an all-optical switch that utilizes the technique of storage and retrieval of light pulses. A single photon (probe pulse) switched by another (switching pulse) is feasible, and the on–off ratio can be as large as 10dB. We have experimentally demonstrated that the energy of the retrieved probe pulse is reduced to about 10% because of the presence of a switching pulse with an energy per unit area of one photon per λ2(2π). The achieved result does not depend on the coupling intensity, the atomic optical density, or the width and shape of the switching pulse.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. D. Lukin, Rev. Mod. Phys. 75, 457 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. E. Harris and Y. Yamamoto, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3611 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Yan, E. G. Rickey, and Y. Zhu, Phys. Rev. A 64, 041801(R) (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. A. Braje, V. Balic, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, Phys. Rev. A 68, 041801(R) (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Y. F. Chen, Z. H. Tsai, Y. C. Liu, and I. A. Yu, Opt. Lett. 30, 3207 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. A. M. C. Dawes, L. Illing, S. M. Clark, and D. J. Gauthier, Science 308, 672 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. D. Lukin and A. Imamoglu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 1419 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. M. Soljaeic, E. Lidorikis, J. D. Joannopoulos, and L. V. Hau, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 171101 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. Kang, G. Hernandez, J. Zhang, and Y. Zhu, Phys. Rev. A 73, 011802(R) (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Fleischhauer and M. D. Lukin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5094 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. C. Liu, Z. Dutton, C. H. Behroozi, and L. V. Hau, Nature 409, 490 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. D. F. Phillips, A. Fleischhauer, A. Mair, R. L. Walsworth, and M. D. Lukin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 783 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. T. Chanelière, D. N. Matsukevich, S. D. Jenkins, S.-Y. Lan, T. A. B. Kennedy, and A. Kuzmich, Nature 438, 833 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. M. D. Eisaman, A. André, F. Massou, M. Fleischhauer, A. S. Zibrov, and M. D. Lukin, Nature 438, 837 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. Y. F. Chen, C. Y. Wang, S. H. Wang, and I. A. Yu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 043603 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

H. Kang, G. Hernandez, J. Zhang, and Y. Zhu, Phys. Rev. A 73, 011802(R) (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. F. Chen, C. Y. Wang, S. H. Wang, and I. A. Yu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 043603 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

M. Soljaeic, E. Lidorikis, J. D. Joannopoulos, and L. V. Hau, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 171101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. F. Chen, Z. H. Tsai, Y. C. Liu, and I. A. Yu, Opt. Lett. 30, 3207 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. C. Dawes, L. Illing, S. M. Clark, and D. J. Gauthier, Science 308, 672 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Chanelière, D. N. Matsukevich, S. D. Jenkins, S.-Y. Lan, T. A. B. Kennedy, and A. Kuzmich, Nature 438, 833 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Eisaman, A. André, F. Massou, M. Fleischhauer, A. S. Zibrov, and M. D. Lukin, Nature 438, 837 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

D. A. Braje, V. Balic, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, Phys. Rev. A 68, 041801(R) (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Lukin, Rev. Mod. Phys. 75, 457 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001

M. Yan, E. G. Rickey, and Y. Zhu, Phys. Rev. A 64, 041801(R) (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. Liu, Z. Dutton, C. H. Behroozi, and L. V. Hau, Nature 409, 490 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. F. Phillips, A. Fleischhauer, A. Mair, R. L. Walsworth, and M. D. Lukin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 783 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

M. D. Lukin and A. Imamoglu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 1419 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Fleischhauer and M. D. Lukin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5094 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998

S. E. Harris and Y. Yamamoto, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3611 (1998).
[CrossRef]

André, A.

M. D. Eisaman, A. André, F. Massou, M. Fleischhauer, A. S. Zibrov, and M. D. Lukin, Nature 438, 837 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Balic, V.

D. A. Braje, V. Balic, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, Phys. Rev. A 68, 041801(R) (2003).
[CrossRef]

Behroozi, C. H.

C. Liu, Z. Dutton, C. H. Behroozi, and L. V. Hau, Nature 409, 490 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Braje, D. A.

D. A. Braje, V. Balic, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, Phys. Rev. A 68, 041801(R) (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chanelière, T.

T. Chanelière, D. N. Matsukevich, S. D. Jenkins, S.-Y. Lan, T. A. B. Kennedy, and A. Kuzmich, Nature 438, 833 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Y. F.

Y. F. Chen, C. Y. Wang, S. H. Wang, and I. A. Yu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 043603 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. F. Chen, Z. H. Tsai, Y. C. Liu, and I. A. Yu, Opt. Lett. 30, 3207 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clark, S. M.

A. M. C. Dawes, L. Illing, S. M. Clark, and D. J. Gauthier, Science 308, 672 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dawes, A. M. C.

A. M. C. Dawes, L. Illing, S. M. Clark, and D. J. Gauthier, Science 308, 672 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dutton, Z.

C. Liu, Z. Dutton, C. H. Behroozi, and L. V. Hau, Nature 409, 490 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eisaman, M. D.

M. D. Eisaman, A. André, F. Massou, M. Fleischhauer, A. S. Zibrov, and M. D. Lukin, Nature 438, 837 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fleischhauer, A.

D. F. Phillips, A. Fleischhauer, A. Mair, R. L. Walsworth, and M. D. Lukin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 783 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fleischhauer, M.

M. D. Eisaman, A. André, F. Massou, M. Fleischhauer, A. S. Zibrov, and M. D. Lukin, Nature 438, 837 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Fleischhauer and M. D. Lukin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5094 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gauthier, D. J.

A. M. C. Dawes, L. Illing, S. M. Clark, and D. J. Gauthier, Science 308, 672 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harris, S. E.

D. A. Braje, V. Balic, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, Phys. Rev. A 68, 041801(R) (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Harris and Y. Yamamoto, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3611 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hau, L. V.

M. Soljaeic, E. Lidorikis, J. D. Joannopoulos, and L. V. Hau, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 171101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Liu, Z. Dutton, C. H. Behroozi, and L. V. Hau, Nature 409, 490 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hernandez, G.

H. Kang, G. Hernandez, J. Zhang, and Y. Zhu, Phys. Rev. A 73, 011802(R) (2006).
[CrossRef]

Illing, L.

A. M. C. Dawes, L. Illing, S. M. Clark, and D. J. Gauthier, Science 308, 672 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Imamoglu, A.

M. D. Lukin and A. Imamoglu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 1419 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jenkins, S. D.

T. Chanelière, D. N. Matsukevich, S. D. Jenkins, S.-Y. Lan, T. A. B. Kennedy, and A. Kuzmich, Nature 438, 833 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

M. Soljaeic, E. Lidorikis, J. D. Joannopoulos, and L. V. Hau, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 171101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kang, H.

H. Kang, G. Hernandez, J. Zhang, and Y. Zhu, Phys. Rev. A 73, 011802(R) (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kennedy, T. A. B.

T. Chanelière, D. N. Matsukevich, S. D. Jenkins, S.-Y. Lan, T. A. B. Kennedy, and A. Kuzmich, Nature 438, 833 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuzmich, A.

T. Chanelière, D. N. Matsukevich, S. D. Jenkins, S.-Y. Lan, T. A. B. Kennedy, and A. Kuzmich, Nature 438, 833 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lan, S.-Y.

T. Chanelière, D. N. Matsukevich, S. D. Jenkins, S.-Y. Lan, T. A. B. Kennedy, and A. Kuzmich, Nature 438, 833 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lidorikis, E.

M. Soljaeic, E. Lidorikis, J. D. Joannopoulos, and L. V. Hau, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 171101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liu, C.

C. Liu, Z. Dutton, C. H. Behroozi, and L. V. Hau, Nature 409, 490 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, Y. C.

Lukin, M. D.

M. D. Eisaman, A. André, F. Massou, M. Fleischhauer, A. S. Zibrov, and M. D. Lukin, Nature 438, 837 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Lukin, Rev. Mod. Phys. 75, 457 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. F. Phillips, A. Fleischhauer, A. Mair, R. L. Walsworth, and M. D. Lukin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 783 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Lukin and A. Imamoglu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 1419 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Fleischhauer and M. D. Lukin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5094 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mair, A.

D. F. Phillips, A. Fleischhauer, A. Mair, R. L. Walsworth, and M. D. Lukin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 783 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Massou, F.

M. D. Eisaman, A. André, F. Massou, M. Fleischhauer, A. S. Zibrov, and M. D. Lukin, Nature 438, 837 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matsukevich, D. N.

T. Chanelière, D. N. Matsukevich, S. D. Jenkins, S.-Y. Lan, T. A. B. Kennedy, and A. Kuzmich, Nature 438, 833 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phillips, D. F.

D. F. Phillips, A. Fleischhauer, A. Mair, R. L. Walsworth, and M. D. Lukin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 783 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rickey, E. G.

M. Yan, E. G. Rickey, and Y. Zhu, Phys. Rev. A 64, 041801(R) (2001).
[CrossRef]

Soljaeic, M.

M. Soljaeic, E. Lidorikis, J. D. Joannopoulos, and L. V. Hau, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 171101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, Z. H.

Walsworth, R. L.

D. F. Phillips, A. Fleischhauer, A. Mair, R. L. Walsworth, and M. D. Lukin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 783 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, C. Y.

Y. F. Chen, C. Y. Wang, S. H. Wang, and I. A. Yu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 043603 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, S. H.

Y. F. Chen, C. Y. Wang, S. H. Wang, and I. A. Yu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 043603 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamamoto, Y.

S. E. Harris and Y. Yamamoto, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3611 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yan, M.

M. Yan, E. G. Rickey, and Y. Zhu, Phys. Rev. A 64, 041801(R) (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yin, G. Y.

D. A. Braje, V. Balic, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, Phys. Rev. A 68, 041801(R) (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yu, I. A.

Y. F. Chen, C. Y. Wang, S. H. Wang, and I. A. Yu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 043603 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. F. Chen, Z. H. Tsai, Y. C. Liu, and I. A. Yu, Opt. Lett. 30, 3207 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, J.

H. Kang, G. Hernandez, J. Zhang, and Y. Zhu, Phys. Rev. A 73, 011802(R) (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, Y.

H. Kang, G. Hernandez, J. Zhang, and Y. Zhu, Phys. Rev. A 73, 011802(R) (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Yan, E. G. Rickey, and Y. Zhu, Phys. Rev. A 64, 041801(R) (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zibrov, A. S.

M. D. Eisaman, A. André, F. Massou, M. Fleischhauer, A. S. Zibrov, and M. D. Lukin, Nature 438, 837 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

M. Soljaeic, E. Lidorikis, J. D. Joannopoulos, and L. V. Hau, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 171101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nature

T. Chanelière, D. N. Matsukevich, S. D. Jenkins, S.-Y. Lan, T. A. B. Kennedy, and A. Kuzmich, Nature 438, 833 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Eisaman, A. André, F. Massou, M. Fleischhauer, A. S. Zibrov, and M. D. Lukin, Nature 438, 837 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Liu, Z. Dutton, C. H. Behroozi, and L. V. Hau, Nature 409, 490 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. A

M. Yan, E. G. Rickey, and Y. Zhu, Phys. Rev. A 64, 041801(R) (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Braje, V. Balic, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, Phys. Rev. A 68, 041801(R) (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Kang, G. Hernandez, J. Zhang, and Y. Zhu, Phys. Rev. A 73, 011802(R) (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

M. Fleischhauer and M. D. Lukin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5094 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Lukin and A. Imamoglu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 1419 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. F. Chen, C. Y. Wang, S. H. Wang, and I. A. Yu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 043603 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. F. Phillips, A. Fleischhauer, A. Mair, R. L. Walsworth, and M. D. Lukin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 783 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. E. Harris and Y. Yamamoto, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3611 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Mod. Phys.

M. D. Lukin, Rev. Mod. Phys. 75, 457 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Science

A. M. C. Dawes, L. Illing, S. M. Clark, and D. J. Gauthier, Science 308, 672 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Relevant energy levels of Rb 87 atoms and laser excitations in the experiment. C, P, and S indicate the coupling, probe, and switching fields. (a) The coupling and probe fields form the Λ-type EIT configuration. (b)–(d) Excitations of the switching field during light storage.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Black solid curves, input and output probe pulses in the absence of the switching pulse; red [lower curves in the printed journal, overlapping the lower black curve in part (b)] solid curve, output probe pulse in the presence of the circularly polarized switching pulse. (a) Experimental data. Dashed curve, coupling field switched off momentarily. Dotted curve, switching pulse applied dur ing storage. (b) Theoretical predictions calculated at Ω ̂ c = 0.66 Γ , N A = 1.0 , and 2 η L Γ = 22 , all determined from the data in (a), where L is the optical path length of the atom cloud.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Probe retrieval efficiency (or reciprocal of the on–off ratio) versus number of switching photons per λ 2 ( 2 π ) . Solid circles, squares, and triangles, experimental data measured with the switching pulses of the circular, s, and p polarizations. Open circles and triangles, theoretical predictions for the circular- and p-polarization switching pulses. Dashed and solid curves, best fits of the theoretical predictions and the experimental data with the function y ( x ) = exp ( β x ) . β = 0.629 , 1.22, 1.26, 1.68, 2.24 from top to bottom.

Equations (5)

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exp [ Ω 2 τ ( 2 Γ ) ] ,
exp [ ( 3 2 ) a 2 ( Γ Γ ) ( N A ) ] ,
1 c t Ω ̂ p + x Ω ̂ p = i η j = 1 3 a p , j ρ 31 , j ,
t ρ 31 , j = i 2 a p , j Ω ̂ p 3 + i 2 a c , j Ω ̂ c ρ 21 , j Γ 2 ρ 31 , j ,
t ρ 21 , j = i 2 a c , j Ω ̂ c ρ 31 , j ,

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