Abstract

We present the design of a transflective and low-power LCD using a low-twist vertically aligned liquid crystal (LC) cell, achieved by blending a chiral additive with a patterned reflector in a single-domain configuration. Unlike the conventional single-domain transflective LCD, in which it is possible to optimize only one of the transmissive and reflective regions, the device suggests that it is possible to optimize both the transmission and reflection design to obtain favorable results in both reflective and transmissive light conditions by optimizing the chiral pitch and twist angle. From the parameter space diagram (PSD) method, which does not include the information on chiral pitch and the nonuniform LC director tilt angle, optimization focused on the transmissive region is performed. By analyzing the relation between the transmittance and the chiral pitch under the applied voltage, the optimized twist angle and chiral pitch are proposed. It is described that the optimized twist angle is also available for the reflective region by the dynamic PSD method by considering the average tilt angle under applied voltage.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. H.-I. Baek, Y.-B. Kim, K.-S. Ha, D.-G. Kim, and S.-B. Kwon, in Proceedings of the Seventh International Display Workshops (2000), p. 41.
  2. M. Jisaki and H. Yamaguchi, in Proceedings of the Eighth International Display Workshops (2000), p. 133.
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    [CrossRef]
  4. S. J. Roosendaal, B. M. I. van der Zande, A. C. Nieuwkerk, C. A. Renders, J. T. M. Osenga, C. Doornkamp, E. Peeters, J. Bruinink, J. A. M. M. van Haaren, and S. Takahashi, in 2003 SID International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (2003), p. 78.
    [CrossRef]
  5. S.-R. Lee, M. J. Jung, K.-H. Park, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, in 2005 SID International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (2005), p. 734.
    [CrossRef]
  6. C.-J. Yu, D.-W. Kim, and S.-D. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5146 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. H. Lee, K.-H. Park, J. S. Gwag, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 42, 5127 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H.-D. Liu, W.-J. Lin, H.-H. Hsu, W.-C. Tang, J. Hsieh, and S.-Y. Chang, in 2002 SID International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (2002), p. 766.
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. H. Lee, H. W. Do, G.-D. Lee, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 42, L455 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  12. T. Sonehara, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 2 29, L231 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  13. F. H. Yu, J. Chen, S. T. Tang, and H. S. Kwok, J. Appl. Phys. 82, 5287 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  14. C. H. Gooch and H. A. Tarry, J. Phys. D 8, 1575 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  15. H. S. Kwok, J. Appl. Phys. 80, 3687 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  16. H. Cheng, H. Gao, and F. Zhou, J. Appl. Phys. 86, 5935 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

2005 (1)

J. H. Song, Y. J. Kim, M.-H. Lee, S. H. Lee, and S. T. Shin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 011108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

C.-J. Yu, D.-W. Kim, and S.-D. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5146 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

S. H. Lee, K.-H. Park, J. S. Gwag, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 42, 5127 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Lee, H. W. Do, G.-D. Lee, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 42, L455 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

H. Cheng, H. Gao, and F. Zhou, J. Appl. Phys. 86, 5935 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

F. H. Yu, J. Chen, S. T. Tang, and H. S. Kwok, J. Appl. Phys. 82, 5287 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

H. S. Kwok, J. Appl. Phys. 80, 3687 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

T. Sonehara, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 2 29, L231 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

C. H. Gooch and H. A. Tarry, J. Phys. D 8, 1575 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Baek, H.-I.

H.-I. Baek, Y.-B. Kim, K.-S. Ha, D.-G. Kim, and S.-B. Kwon, in Proceedings of the Seventh International Display Workshops (2000), p. 41.

Bruinink, J.

S. J. Roosendaal, B. M. I. van der Zande, A. C. Nieuwkerk, C. A. Renders, J. T. M. Osenga, C. Doornkamp, E. Peeters, J. Bruinink, J. A. M. M. van Haaren, and S. Takahashi, in 2003 SID International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (2003), p. 78.
[CrossRef]

Chang, S.-Y.

H.-D. Liu, W.-J. Lin, H.-H. Hsu, W.-C. Tang, J. Hsieh, and S.-Y. Chang, in 2002 SID International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (2002), p. 766.
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

F. H. Yu, J. Chen, S. T. Tang, and H. S. Kwok, J. Appl. Phys. 82, 5287 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, H.

H. Cheng, H. Gao, and F. Zhou, J. Appl. Phys. 86, 5935 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Do, H. W.

S. H. Lee, H. W. Do, G.-D. Lee, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 42, L455 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Doornkamp, C.

S. J. Roosendaal, B. M. I. van der Zande, A. C. Nieuwkerk, C. A. Renders, J. T. M. Osenga, C. Doornkamp, E. Peeters, J. Bruinink, J. A. M. M. van Haaren, and S. Takahashi, in 2003 SID International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (2003), p. 78.
[CrossRef]

Gao, H.

H. Cheng, H. Gao, and F. Zhou, J. Appl. Phys. 86, 5935 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gooch, C. H.

C. H. Gooch and H. A. Tarry, J. Phys. D 8, 1575 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Gwag, J. S.

S. H. Lee, K.-H. Park, J. S. Gwag, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 42, 5127 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ha, K.-S.

H.-I. Baek, Y.-B. Kim, K.-S. Ha, D.-G. Kim, and S.-B. Kwon, in Proceedings of the Seventh International Display Workshops (2000), p. 41.

Hsieh, J.

H.-D. Liu, W.-J. Lin, H.-H. Hsu, W.-C. Tang, J. Hsieh, and S.-Y. Chang, in 2002 SID International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (2002), p. 766.
[CrossRef]

Hsu, H.-H.

H.-D. Liu, W.-J. Lin, H.-H. Hsu, W.-C. Tang, J. Hsieh, and S.-Y. Chang, in 2002 SID International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (2002), p. 766.
[CrossRef]

Jisaki, M.

M. Jisaki and H. Yamaguchi, in Proceedings of the Eighth International Display Workshops (2000), p. 133.

Jung, M. J.

S.-R. Lee, M. J. Jung, K.-H. Park, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, in 2005 SID International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (2005), p. 734.
[CrossRef]

Kim, D.-G.

H.-I. Baek, Y.-B. Kim, K.-S. Ha, D.-G. Kim, and S.-B. Kwon, in Proceedings of the Seventh International Display Workshops (2000), p. 41.

Kim, D.-W.

C.-J. Yu, D.-W. Kim, and S.-D. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5146 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. C.

S. H. Lee, H. W. Do, G.-D. Lee, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 42, L455 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Lee, K.-H. Park, J. S. Gwag, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 42, 5127 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S.-R. Lee, M. J. Jung, K.-H. Park, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, in 2005 SID International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (2005), p. 734.
[CrossRef]

T.-H. Yoon, K.-H. Park, Y. J. Ko, J. C. Kim, and G.-D. Lee, in 2004 SID International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (2004), p. 26.
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y. J.

J. H. Song, Y. J. Kim, M.-H. Lee, S. H. Lee, and S. T. Shin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 011108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y.-B.

H.-I. Baek, Y.-B. Kim, K.-S. Ha, D.-G. Kim, and S.-B. Kwon, in Proceedings of the Seventh International Display Workshops (2000), p. 41.

Ko, Y. J.

T.-H. Yoon, K.-H. Park, Y. J. Ko, J. C. Kim, and G.-D. Lee, in 2004 SID International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (2004), p. 26.
[CrossRef]

Kwok, H. S.

F. H. Yu, J. Chen, S. T. Tang, and H. S. Kwok, J. Appl. Phys. 82, 5287 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Kwok, J. Appl. Phys. 80, 3687 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kwon, S.-B.

H.-I. Baek, Y.-B. Kim, K.-S. Ha, D.-G. Kim, and S.-B. Kwon, in Proceedings of the Seventh International Display Workshops (2000), p. 41.

Lee, G.-D.

S. H. Lee, H. W. Do, G.-D. Lee, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 42, L455 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T.-H. Yoon, K.-H. Park, Y. J. Ko, J. C. Kim, and G.-D. Lee, in 2004 SID International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (2004), p. 26.
[CrossRef]

Lee, M.-H.

J. H. Song, Y. J. Kim, M.-H. Lee, S. H. Lee, and S. T. Shin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 011108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. H.

J. H. Song, Y. J. Kim, M.-H. Lee, S. H. Lee, and S. T. Shin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 011108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Lee, K.-H. Park, J. S. Gwag, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 42, 5127 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Lee, H. W. Do, G.-D. Lee, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 42, L455 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.-D.

C.-J. Yu, D.-W. Kim, and S.-D. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5146 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.-R.

S.-R. Lee, M. J. Jung, K.-H. Park, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, in 2005 SID International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (2005), p. 734.
[CrossRef]

Lin, W.-J.

H.-D. Liu, W.-J. Lin, H.-H. Hsu, W.-C. Tang, J. Hsieh, and S.-Y. Chang, in 2002 SID International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (2002), p. 766.
[CrossRef]

Liu, H.-D.

H.-D. Liu, W.-J. Lin, H.-H. Hsu, W.-C. Tang, J. Hsieh, and S.-Y. Chang, in 2002 SID International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (2002), p. 766.
[CrossRef]

Nieuwkerk, A. C.

S. J. Roosendaal, B. M. I. van der Zande, A. C. Nieuwkerk, C. A. Renders, J. T. M. Osenga, C. Doornkamp, E. Peeters, J. Bruinink, J. A. M. M. van Haaren, and S. Takahashi, in 2003 SID International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (2003), p. 78.
[CrossRef]

Nishimura, S.

T. Uesaka, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and E. Yoda, in 2005 SID International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (2005), p. 742.
[CrossRef]

Osenga, J. T. M.

S. J. Roosendaal, B. M. I. van der Zande, A. C. Nieuwkerk, C. A. Renders, J. T. M. Osenga, C. Doornkamp, E. Peeters, J. Bruinink, J. A. M. M. van Haaren, and S. Takahashi, in 2003 SID International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (2003), p. 78.
[CrossRef]

Park, K.-H.

S. H. Lee, K.-H. Park, J. S. Gwag, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 42, 5127 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T.-H. Yoon, K.-H. Park, Y. J. Ko, J. C. Kim, and G.-D. Lee, in 2004 SID International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (2004), p. 26.
[CrossRef]

S.-R. Lee, M. J. Jung, K.-H. Park, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, in 2005 SID International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (2005), p. 734.
[CrossRef]

Peeters, E.

S. J. Roosendaal, B. M. I. van der Zande, A. C. Nieuwkerk, C. A. Renders, J. T. M. Osenga, C. Doornkamp, E. Peeters, J. Bruinink, J. A. M. M. van Haaren, and S. Takahashi, in 2003 SID International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (2003), p. 78.
[CrossRef]

Renders, C. A.

S. J. Roosendaal, B. M. I. van der Zande, A. C. Nieuwkerk, C. A. Renders, J. T. M. Osenga, C. Doornkamp, E. Peeters, J. Bruinink, J. A. M. M. van Haaren, and S. Takahashi, in 2003 SID International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (2003), p. 78.
[CrossRef]

Roosendaal, S. J.

S. J. Roosendaal, B. M. I. van der Zande, A. C. Nieuwkerk, C. A. Renders, J. T. M. Osenga, C. Doornkamp, E. Peeters, J. Bruinink, J. A. M. M. van Haaren, and S. Takahashi, in 2003 SID International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (2003), p. 78.
[CrossRef]

Shin, S. T.

J. H. Song, Y. J. Kim, M.-H. Lee, S. H. Lee, and S. T. Shin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 011108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sonehara, T.

T. Sonehara, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 2 29, L231 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Song, J. H.

J. H. Song, Y. J. Kim, M.-H. Lee, S. H. Lee, and S. T. Shin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 011108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, S.

S. J. Roosendaal, B. M. I. van der Zande, A. C. Nieuwkerk, C. A. Renders, J. T. M. Osenga, C. Doornkamp, E. Peeters, J. Bruinink, J. A. M. M. van Haaren, and S. Takahashi, in 2003 SID International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (2003), p. 78.
[CrossRef]

Tang, S. T.

F. H. Yu, J. Chen, S. T. Tang, and H. S. Kwok, J. Appl. Phys. 82, 5287 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tang, W.-C.

H.-D. Liu, W.-J. Lin, H.-H. Hsu, W.-C. Tang, J. Hsieh, and S.-Y. Chang, in 2002 SID International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (2002), p. 766.
[CrossRef]

Tarry, H. A.

C. H. Gooch and H. A. Tarry, J. Phys. D 8, 1575 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Toyooka, T.

T. Uesaka, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and E. Yoda, in 2005 SID International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (2005), p. 742.
[CrossRef]

Uesaka, T.

T. Uesaka, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and E. Yoda, in 2005 SID International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (2005), p. 742.
[CrossRef]

van der Zande, B. M. I.

S. J. Roosendaal, B. M. I. van der Zande, A. C. Nieuwkerk, C. A. Renders, J. T. M. Osenga, C. Doornkamp, E. Peeters, J. Bruinink, J. A. M. M. van Haaren, and S. Takahashi, in 2003 SID International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (2003), p. 78.
[CrossRef]

van Haaren, J. A. M. M.

S. J. Roosendaal, B. M. I. van der Zande, A. C. Nieuwkerk, C. A. Renders, J. T. M. Osenga, C. Doornkamp, E. Peeters, J. Bruinink, J. A. M. M. van Haaren, and S. Takahashi, in 2003 SID International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (2003), p. 78.
[CrossRef]

Yamaguchi, H.

M. Jisaki and H. Yamaguchi, in Proceedings of the Eighth International Display Workshops (2000), p. 133.

Yoda, E.

T. Uesaka, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and E. Yoda, in 2005 SID International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (2005), p. 742.
[CrossRef]

Yoon, T.-H.

S. H. Lee, H. W. Do, G.-D. Lee, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 42, L455 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Lee, K.-H. Park, J. S. Gwag, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 42, 5127 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S.-R. Lee, M. J. Jung, K.-H. Park, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, in 2005 SID International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (2005), p. 734.
[CrossRef]

T.-H. Yoon, K.-H. Park, Y. J. Ko, J. C. Kim, and G.-D. Lee, in 2004 SID International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (2004), p. 26.
[CrossRef]

Yu, C.-J.

C.-J. Yu, D.-W. Kim, and S.-D. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5146 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yu, F. H.

F. H. Yu, J. Chen, S. T. Tang, and H. S. Kwok, J. Appl. Phys. 82, 5287 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, F.

H. Cheng, H. Gao, and F. Zhou, J. Appl. Phys. 86, 5935 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

C.-J. Yu, D.-W. Kim, and S.-D. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5146 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Song, Y. J. Kim, M.-H. Lee, S. H. Lee, and S. T. Shin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 011108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

F. H. Yu, J. Chen, S. T. Tang, and H. S. Kwok, J. Appl. Phys. 82, 5287 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Kwok, J. Appl. Phys. 80, 3687 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. Cheng, H. Gao, and F. Zhou, J. Appl. Phys. 86, 5935 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D (1)

C. H. Gooch and H. A. Tarry, J. Phys. D 8, 1575 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 (1)

S. H. Lee, K.-H. Park, J. S. Gwag, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 42, 5127 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 (1)

S. H. Lee, H. W. Do, G.-D. Lee, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 42, L455 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 2 (1)

T. Sonehara, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 2 29, L231 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Other (7)

T.-H. Yoon, K.-H. Park, Y. J. Ko, J. C. Kim, and G.-D. Lee, in 2004 SID International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (2004), p. 26.
[CrossRef]

H.-D. Liu, W.-J. Lin, H.-H. Hsu, W.-C. Tang, J. Hsieh, and S.-Y. Chang, in 2002 SID International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (2002), p. 766.
[CrossRef]

H.-I. Baek, Y.-B. Kim, K.-S. Ha, D.-G. Kim, and S.-B. Kwon, in Proceedings of the Seventh International Display Workshops (2000), p. 41.

M. Jisaki and H. Yamaguchi, in Proceedings of the Eighth International Display Workshops (2000), p. 133.

T. Uesaka, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and E. Yoda, in 2005 SID International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (2005), p. 742.
[CrossRef]

S. J. Roosendaal, B. M. I. van der Zande, A. C. Nieuwkerk, C. A. Renders, J. T. M. Osenga, C. Doornkamp, E. Peeters, J. Bruinink, J. A. M. M. van Haaren, and S. Takahashi, in 2003 SID International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (2003), p. 78.
[CrossRef]

S.-R. Lee, M. J. Jung, K.-H. Park, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, in 2005 SID International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (2005), p. 734.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the proposed transflective LCD with single-cell gap of single-domain configuration. In the reflective region, the insulated reflector is patterned in the lower elector.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Parameter space diagram of twist angle versus d Δ n in wavelength of 550 nm .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Transmittance of the proposed cell with respect to the chiral pitch. Twist angle and cell gap are 45° and 4.2 μ m , respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Electro-optic characteristics of the proposed transflective LCD: (a) calculated results and (b) measured results.

Metrics