Abstract

Irregular waveguide elements in a silicon-on-insulator platform that allow new device concepts are introduced. Specific designs are achieved using a multiresolution optimization strategy where the waveguide width is varied in stepwise increments. Simulation results are given for high-efficiency waveguide mode converters, power splitters, and waveguide transitions operating at 1.55μm. The degrees of freedom available permit these functions and small dimensions, making these devices candidates for optical integrated circuits.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. Yang, J. Li, and K. J. Webb, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 52, 161 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Yang, H. Chen, K. J. Webb, S. Minin, S. L. Chuang, and G. R. Cueva, Opt. Lett. 31, 383 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. van Thourhout, and R. Baets, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1328 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. B. Luyssaert, P. Vandersteegen, D. Taillaert, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, D. V. Thourhout, V. Wiaux, S. Beckx, and R. Baets, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 73 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, P. Vandersteegen, P. Dumon, and R. Baets, J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 2462 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Jin, The Finite Element Method in Electromagnetics (Wiley, 1993).
  7. M. Yang, J. Li, and K. J. Webb, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2736 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. Sakai, T. Fukazawa, and T. Baba, IEICE Trans. Electron. 85, 1033 (2002).
  9. J. S. Foresi, D. R. Lim, L. Liao, A. M. Agarwal, and L. C. Kimerling, in Proc. SPIE 3007, 112 (1997).
    [CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2005 (2)

B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, P. Vandersteegen, P. Dumon, and R. Baets, J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 2462 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Luyssaert, P. Vandersteegen, D. Taillaert, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, D. V. Thourhout, V. Wiaux, S. Beckx, and R. Baets, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 73 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

M. Yang, J. Li, and K. J. Webb, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 52, 161 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. van Thourhout, and R. Baets, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1328 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

M. Yang, J. Li, and K. J. Webb, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2736 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

A. Sakai, T. Fukazawa, and T. Baba, IEICE Trans. Electron. 85, 1033 (2002).

1997 (1)

J. S. Foresi, D. R. Lim, L. Liao, A. M. Agarwal, and L. C. Kimerling, in Proc. SPIE 3007, 112 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Agarwal, A. M.

J. S. Foresi, D. R. Lim, L. Liao, A. M. Agarwal, and L. C. Kimerling, in Proc. SPIE 3007, 112 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Baba, T.

A. Sakai, T. Fukazawa, and T. Baba, IEICE Trans. Electron. 85, 1033 (2002).

Baets, R.

B. Luyssaert, P. Vandersteegen, D. Taillaert, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, D. V. Thourhout, V. Wiaux, S. Beckx, and R. Baets, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 73 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, P. Vandersteegen, P. Dumon, and R. Baets, J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 2462 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. van Thourhout, and R. Baets, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1328 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Beckx, S.

B. Luyssaert, P. Vandersteegen, D. Taillaert, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, D. V. Thourhout, V. Wiaux, S. Beckx, and R. Baets, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 73 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. van Thourhout, and R. Baets, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1328 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bienstman, P.

B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, P. Vandersteegen, P. Dumon, and R. Baets, J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 2462 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Luyssaert, P. Vandersteegen, D. Taillaert, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, D. V. Thourhout, V. Wiaux, S. Beckx, and R. Baets, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 73 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. van Thourhout, and R. Baets, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1328 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bogaerts, W.

B. Luyssaert, P. Vandersteegen, D. Taillaert, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, D. V. Thourhout, V. Wiaux, S. Beckx, and R. Baets, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 73 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. van Thourhout, and R. Baets, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1328 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.

Chuang, S. L.

Cueva, G. R.

Dumon, P.

B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, P. Vandersteegen, P. Dumon, and R. Baets, J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 2462 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Luyssaert, P. Vandersteegen, D. Taillaert, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, D. V. Thourhout, V. Wiaux, S. Beckx, and R. Baets, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 73 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. van Thourhout, and R. Baets, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1328 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Foresi, J. S.

J. S. Foresi, D. R. Lim, L. Liao, A. M. Agarwal, and L. C. Kimerling, in Proc. SPIE 3007, 112 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fukazawa, T.

A. Sakai, T. Fukazawa, and T. Baba, IEICE Trans. Electron. 85, 1033 (2002).

Jin, J.

J. Jin, The Finite Element Method in Electromagnetics (Wiley, 1993).

Kimerling, L. C.

J. S. Foresi, D. R. Lim, L. Liao, A. M. Agarwal, and L. C. Kimerling, in Proc. SPIE 3007, 112 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

M. Yang, J. Li, and K. J. Webb, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 52, 161 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Yang, J. Li, and K. J. Webb, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2736 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Liao, L.

J. S. Foresi, D. R. Lim, L. Liao, A. M. Agarwal, and L. C. Kimerling, in Proc. SPIE 3007, 112 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lim, D. R.

J. S. Foresi, D. R. Lim, L. Liao, A. M. Agarwal, and L. C. Kimerling, in Proc. SPIE 3007, 112 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Luyssaert, B.

B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, P. Vandersteegen, P. Dumon, and R. Baets, J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 2462 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Luyssaert, P. Vandersteegen, D. Taillaert, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, D. V. Thourhout, V. Wiaux, S. Beckx, and R. Baets, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 73 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. van Thourhout, and R. Baets, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1328 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Minin, S.

Sakai, A.

A. Sakai, T. Fukazawa, and T. Baba, IEICE Trans. Electron. 85, 1033 (2002).

Taillaert, D.

B. Luyssaert, P. Vandersteegen, D. Taillaert, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, D. V. Thourhout, V. Wiaux, S. Beckx, and R. Baets, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 73 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. van Thourhout, and R. Baets, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1328 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Thourhout, D. V.

B. Luyssaert, P. Vandersteegen, D. Taillaert, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, D. V. Thourhout, V. Wiaux, S. Beckx, and R. Baets, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 73 (2005).
[CrossRef]

van Campenhout, J.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. van Thourhout, and R. Baets, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1328 (2004).
[CrossRef]

van Thourhout, D.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. van Thourhout, and R. Baets, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1328 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Vandersteegen, P.

B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, P. Vandersteegen, P. Dumon, and R. Baets, J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 2462 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Luyssaert, P. Vandersteegen, D. Taillaert, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, D. V. Thourhout, V. Wiaux, S. Beckx, and R. Baets, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 73 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Webb, K. J.

M. Yang, H. Chen, K. J. Webb, S. Minin, S. L. Chuang, and G. R. Cueva, Opt. Lett. 31, 383 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Yang, J. Li, and K. J. Webb, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 52, 161 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Yang, J. Li, and K. J. Webb, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2736 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wiaux, V.

B. Luyssaert, P. Vandersteegen, D. Taillaert, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, D. V. Thourhout, V. Wiaux, S. Beckx, and R. Baets, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 73 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. van Thourhout, and R. Baets, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1328 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wouters, J.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. van Thourhout, and R. Baets, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1328 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yang, M.

M. Yang, H. Chen, K. J. Webb, S. Minin, S. L. Chuang, and G. R. Cueva, Opt. Lett. 31, 383 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Yang, J. Li, and K. J. Webb, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 52, 161 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Yang, J. Li, and K. J. Webb, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2736 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. Yang, J. Li, and K. J. Webb, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2736 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. van Thourhout, and R. Baets, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1328 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Luyssaert, P. Vandersteegen, D. Taillaert, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, D. V. Thourhout, V. Wiaux, S. Beckx, and R. Baets, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 73 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. (1)

M. Yang, J. Li, and K. J. Webb, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 52, 161 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEICE Trans. Electron. (1)

A. Sakai, T. Fukazawa, and T. Baba, IEICE Trans. Electron. 85, 1033 (2002).

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (1)

J. S. Foresi, D. R. Lim, L. Liao, A. M. Agarwal, and L. C. Kimerling, in Proc. SPIE 3007, 112 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

J. Jin, The Finite Element Method in Electromagnetics (Wiley, 1993).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of an SOI mode converter showing the Si substrate, the oxide layer (which we assume is 1 μ m thick), and the Si waveguide (thickness 0.2 μ m ).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Illustration of a multiresolution optimization sequence that was used in designing the transformation elements: (a) 1 section, (b) 5 sections, (c) 20 sections. The unknowns in each section are the waveguide width w i and the offset o i .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Example SOI mode converter designs: (a) fundamental mode to the first higher-order mode, (b) first higher-order mode to the fundamental mode, (c) equal power divider, (d) power divider with a 1:2 output power ratio, (e) planar coupler with 2.5 μ m wide and 0.5 μ m wide ports, (f) thick to thin waveguide coupler. (a)–(e) Magnitude of the instantaneous electric field at the top surface of the Si waveguide and over the cross section of the input port. (f) Field around the surface of the Si waveguide.

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