Abstract

We present a fully planar integrated optical approach to single-molecule detection based on microfabricated planar networks of intersecting solid and liquid-core waveguides. We study fluorescence from dye molecules in liquid-core antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides, and demonstrate subpicoliter excitation volumes, parallel excitation through multiple pump waveguides, and single-molecule detection sensitivity. Integrated silicon photonics combined with single-molecule detection in solution create a compact, robust, and sensitive platform that has applications in numerous fields ranging from atomic physics to the life sciences.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. W. E. Moerner and D. P. Fromm, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 3597 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  2. W. P. Ambrose, P. M. Goodwin, J. H. Jett, A. Van Orden, J. H. Werner, and R. A. Keller, Chem. Rev. 99, 2929 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  3. K. Doerre, J. Stephan, M. Labczyna, M. Stuke, H. Dunkel, and M. Eigen, J. Biotechnol. 86, 225 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. J. Levene, J. Korlach, S. Turner, M. Foquet, H. Craighead, and W. W. Webb, Science 299, 682 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. L. Chabinyc, D. T. Chiu, J. McDonald, A. D. Stroock, J. F. Christian, A. M. Karger, and G. M. Whitesides, Anal. Chem. 73, 4491 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. V. Lien, Y. Berdichevsky, and Y. Lo, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1525 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. P. Dress and H. Franke, Appl. Phys. B 63, 12 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  8. W. Risk, H. Kim, R. Miller, H. Temkin, and S. Gangopadhyay, Opt. Express 12, 6446 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. Y. Fink, J. N. Winn, S. Fan, C. Chen, J. Michel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and E. L. Thomas, Science 282, 1679 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. P. Russell, Laser Focus World 38, 77 (2002).
  11. G. R. Hadley, J. Fleming, and S. Lin, Opt. Lett. 29, 809 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. D. Yin, J. P. Barber, A. R. Hawkins, D. W. Deamer, and H. Schmidt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3477 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. A. Duguay, Y. Kokubun, T. Koch, and L. Pfeiffer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 13 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. P. Barber, E. Lunt, Z. George, D. Yin, H. Schmidt, and A. R. Hawkins, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 28 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  15. D. Yin, J. P. Barber, A. R. Hawkins, and H. Schmidt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 211111 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  16. H. Schmidt, D. Yin, J. P. Barber, and A. R. Hawkins, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 519 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2006 (1)

J. P. Barber, E. Lunt, Z. George, D. Yin, H. Schmidt, and A. R. Hawkins, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 28 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

D. Yin, J. P. Barber, A. R. Hawkins, and H. Schmidt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 211111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Schmidt, D. Yin, J. P. Barber, and A. R. Hawkins, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 519 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (4)

G. R. Hadley, J. Fleming, and S. Lin, Opt. Lett. 29, 809 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Yin, J. P. Barber, A. R. Hawkins, D. W. Deamer, and H. Schmidt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3477 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. Lien, Y. Berdichevsky, and Y. Lo, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1525 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. Risk, H. Kim, R. Miller, H. Temkin, and S. Gangopadhyay, Opt. Express 12, 6446 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

W. E. Moerner and D. P. Fromm, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 3597 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Levene, J. Korlach, S. Turner, M. Foquet, H. Craighead, and W. W. Webb, Science 299, 682 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

P. Russell, Laser Focus World 38, 77 (2002).

2001 (2)

K. Doerre, J. Stephan, M. Labczyna, M. Stuke, H. Dunkel, and M. Eigen, J. Biotechnol. 86, 225 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Chabinyc, D. T. Chiu, J. McDonald, A. D. Stroock, J. F. Christian, A. M. Karger, and G. M. Whitesides, Anal. Chem. 73, 4491 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

W. P. Ambrose, P. M. Goodwin, J. H. Jett, A. Van Orden, J. H. Werner, and R. A. Keller, Chem. Rev. 99, 2929 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

Y. Fink, J. N. Winn, S. Fan, C. Chen, J. Michel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and E. L. Thomas, Science 282, 1679 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

P. Dress and H. Franke, Appl. Phys. B 63, 12 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

M. A. Duguay, Y. Kokubun, T. Koch, and L. Pfeiffer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 13 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Ambrose, W. P.

W. P. Ambrose, P. M. Goodwin, J. H. Jett, A. Van Orden, J. H. Werner, and R. A. Keller, Chem. Rev. 99, 2929 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Barber, J. P.

J. P. Barber, E. Lunt, Z. George, D. Yin, H. Schmidt, and A. R. Hawkins, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 28 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Yin, J. P. Barber, A. R. Hawkins, and H. Schmidt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 211111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Schmidt, D. Yin, J. P. Barber, and A. R. Hawkins, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 519 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Yin, J. P. Barber, A. R. Hawkins, D. W. Deamer, and H. Schmidt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3477 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Berdichevsky, Y.

V. Lien, Y. Berdichevsky, and Y. Lo, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1525 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chabinyc, M. L.

M. L. Chabinyc, D. T. Chiu, J. McDonald, A. D. Stroock, J. F. Christian, A. M. Karger, and G. M. Whitesides, Anal. Chem. 73, 4491 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, C.

Y. Fink, J. N. Winn, S. Fan, C. Chen, J. Michel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and E. L. Thomas, Science 282, 1679 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chiu, D. T.

M. L. Chabinyc, D. T. Chiu, J. McDonald, A. D. Stroock, J. F. Christian, A. M. Karger, and G. M. Whitesides, Anal. Chem. 73, 4491 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Christian, J. F.

M. L. Chabinyc, D. T. Chiu, J. McDonald, A. D. Stroock, J. F. Christian, A. M. Karger, and G. M. Whitesides, Anal. Chem. 73, 4491 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Craighead, H.

M. J. Levene, J. Korlach, S. Turner, M. Foquet, H. Craighead, and W. W. Webb, Science 299, 682 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deamer, D. W.

D. Yin, J. P. Barber, A. R. Hawkins, D. W. Deamer, and H. Schmidt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3477 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Doerre, K.

K. Doerre, J. Stephan, M. Labczyna, M. Stuke, H. Dunkel, and M. Eigen, J. Biotechnol. 86, 225 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Dress, P.

P. Dress and H. Franke, Appl. Phys. B 63, 12 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Duguay, M. A.

M. A. Duguay, Y. Kokubun, T. Koch, and L. Pfeiffer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 13 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Dunkel, H.

K. Doerre, J. Stephan, M. Labczyna, M. Stuke, H. Dunkel, and M. Eigen, J. Biotechnol. 86, 225 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Eigen, M.

K. Doerre, J. Stephan, M. Labczyna, M. Stuke, H. Dunkel, and M. Eigen, J. Biotechnol. 86, 225 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S.

Y. Fink, J. N. Winn, S. Fan, C. Chen, J. Michel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and E. L. Thomas, Science 282, 1679 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fink, Y.

Y. Fink, J. N. Winn, S. Fan, C. Chen, J. Michel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and E. L. Thomas, Science 282, 1679 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fleming, J.

Foquet, M.

M. J. Levene, J. Korlach, S. Turner, M. Foquet, H. Craighead, and W. W. Webb, Science 299, 682 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Franke, H.

P. Dress and H. Franke, Appl. Phys. B 63, 12 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fromm, D. P.

W. E. Moerner and D. P. Fromm, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 3597 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gangopadhyay, S.

George, Z.

J. P. Barber, E. Lunt, Z. George, D. Yin, H. Schmidt, and A. R. Hawkins, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 28 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Goodwin, P. M.

W. P. Ambrose, P. M. Goodwin, J. H. Jett, A. Van Orden, J. H. Werner, and R. A. Keller, Chem. Rev. 99, 2929 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hadley, G. R.

Hawkins, A. R.

J. P. Barber, E. Lunt, Z. George, D. Yin, H. Schmidt, and A. R. Hawkins, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 28 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Schmidt, D. Yin, J. P. Barber, and A. R. Hawkins, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 519 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Yin, J. P. Barber, A. R. Hawkins, and H. Schmidt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 211111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Yin, J. P. Barber, A. R. Hawkins, D. W. Deamer, and H. Schmidt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3477 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jett, J. H.

W. P. Ambrose, P. M. Goodwin, J. H. Jett, A. Van Orden, J. H. Werner, and R. A. Keller, Chem. Rev. 99, 2929 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

Y. Fink, J. N. Winn, S. Fan, C. Chen, J. Michel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and E. L. Thomas, Science 282, 1679 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Karger, A. M.

M. L. Chabinyc, D. T. Chiu, J. McDonald, A. D. Stroock, J. F. Christian, A. M. Karger, and G. M. Whitesides, Anal. Chem. 73, 4491 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Keller, R. A.

W. P. Ambrose, P. M. Goodwin, J. H. Jett, A. Van Orden, J. H. Werner, and R. A. Keller, Chem. Rev. 99, 2929 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H.

Koch, T.

M. A. Duguay, Y. Kokubun, T. Koch, and L. Pfeiffer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 13 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Kokubun, Y.

M. A. Duguay, Y. Kokubun, T. Koch, and L. Pfeiffer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 13 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Korlach, J.

M. J. Levene, J. Korlach, S. Turner, M. Foquet, H. Craighead, and W. W. Webb, Science 299, 682 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Labczyna, M.

K. Doerre, J. Stephan, M. Labczyna, M. Stuke, H. Dunkel, and M. Eigen, J. Biotechnol. 86, 225 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Levene, M. J.

M. J. Levene, J. Korlach, S. Turner, M. Foquet, H. Craighead, and W. W. Webb, Science 299, 682 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lien, V.

V. Lien, Y. Berdichevsky, and Y. Lo, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1525 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lin, S.

Lo, Y.

V. Lien, Y. Berdichevsky, and Y. Lo, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1525 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lunt, E.

J. P. Barber, E. Lunt, Z. George, D. Yin, H. Schmidt, and A. R. Hawkins, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 28 (2006).
[CrossRef]

McDonald, J.

M. L. Chabinyc, D. T. Chiu, J. McDonald, A. D. Stroock, J. F. Christian, A. M. Karger, and G. M. Whitesides, Anal. Chem. 73, 4491 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Michel, J.

Y. Fink, J. N. Winn, S. Fan, C. Chen, J. Michel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and E. L. Thomas, Science 282, 1679 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miller, R.

Moerner, W. E.

W. E. Moerner and D. P. Fromm, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 3597 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pfeiffer, L.

M. A. Duguay, Y. Kokubun, T. Koch, and L. Pfeiffer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 13 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Risk, W.

Russell, P.

P. Russell, Laser Focus World 38, 77 (2002).

Schmidt, H.

J. P. Barber, E. Lunt, Z. George, D. Yin, H. Schmidt, and A. R. Hawkins, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 28 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Yin, J. P. Barber, A. R. Hawkins, and H. Schmidt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 211111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Schmidt, D. Yin, J. P. Barber, and A. R. Hawkins, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 519 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Yin, J. P. Barber, A. R. Hawkins, D. W. Deamer, and H. Schmidt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3477 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Stephan, J.

K. Doerre, J. Stephan, M. Labczyna, M. Stuke, H. Dunkel, and M. Eigen, J. Biotechnol. 86, 225 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Stroock, A. D.

M. L. Chabinyc, D. T. Chiu, J. McDonald, A. D. Stroock, J. F. Christian, A. M. Karger, and G. M. Whitesides, Anal. Chem. 73, 4491 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stuke, M.

K. Doerre, J. Stephan, M. Labczyna, M. Stuke, H. Dunkel, and M. Eigen, J. Biotechnol. 86, 225 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Temkin, H.

Thomas, E. L.

Y. Fink, J. N. Winn, S. Fan, C. Chen, J. Michel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and E. L. Thomas, Science 282, 1679 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Turner, S.

M. J. Levene, J. Korlach, S. Turner, M. Foquet, H. Craighead, and W. W. Webb, Science 299, 682 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van Orden, A.

W. P. Ambrose, P. M. Goodwin, J. H. Jett, A. Van Orden, J. H. Werner, and R. A. Keller, Chem. Rev. 99, 2929 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Webb, W. W.

M. J. Levene, J. Korlach, S. Turner, M. Foquet, H. Craighead, and W. W. Webb, Science 299, 682 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Werner, J. H.

W. P. Ambrose, P. M. Goodwin, J. H. Jett, A. Van Orden, J. H. Werner, and R. A. Keller, Chem. Rev. 99, 2929 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Whitesides, G. M.

M. L. Chabinyc, D. T. Chiu, J. McDonald, A. D. Stroock, J. F. Christian, A. M. Karger, and G. M. Whitesides, Anal. Chem. 73, 4491 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Winn, J. N.

Y. Fink, J. N. Winn, S. Fan, C. Chen, J. Michel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and E. L. Thomas, Science 282, 1679 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yin, D.

J. P. Barber, E. Lunt, Z. George, D. Yin, H. Schmidt, and A. R. Hawkins, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 28 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Schmidt, D. Yin, J. P. Barber, and A. R. Hawkins, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 519 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Yin, J. P. Barber, A. R. Hawkins, and H. Schmidt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 211111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Yin, J. P. Barber, A. R. Hawkins, D. W. Deamer, and H. Schmidt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3477 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Chem. (1)

M. L. Chabinyc, D. T. Chiu, J. McDonald, A. D. Stroock, J. F. Christian, A. M. Karger, and G. M. Whitesides, Anal. Chem. 73, 4491 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

P. Dress and H. Franke, Appl. Phys. B 63, 12 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

D. Yin, J. P. Barber, A. R. Hawkins, D. W. Deamer, and H. Schmidt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3477 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Duguay, Y. Kokubun, T. Koch, and L. Pfeiffer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 13 (1986).
[CrossRef]

D. Yin, J. P. Barber, A. R. Hawkins, and H. Schmidt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 211111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Rev. (1)

W. P. Ambrose, P. M. Goodwin, J. H. Jett, A. Van Orden, J. H. Werner, and R. A. Keller, Chem. Rev. 99, 2929 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

H. Schmidt, D. Yin, J. P. Barber, and A. R. Hawkins, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 519 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

J. P. Barber, E. Lunt, Z. George, D. Yin, H. Schmidt, and A. R. Hawkins, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 28 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. Lien, Y. Berdichevsky, and Y. Lo, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1525 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Biotechnol. (1)

K. Doerre, J. Stephan, M. Labczyna, M. Stuke, H. Dunkel, and M. Eigen, J. Biotechnol. 86, 225 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Laser Focus World (1)

P. Russell, Laser Focus World 38, 77 (2002).

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

W. E. Moerner and D. P. Fromm, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 3597 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Science (2)

Y. Fink, J. N. Winn, S. Fan, C. Chen, J. Michel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and E. L. Thomas, Science 282, 1679 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Levene, J. Korlach, S. Turner, M. Foquet, H. Craighead, and W. W. Webb, Science 299, 682 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Side view of hollow-core ARROW. Light propagates with wave vector β along the z direction in the liquid core (index n C ). High reflection of the transverse component k T is achieved with cladding layers of higher index ( n 1 , n 2 ) . Also shown is a sketch of molecule emitting into ARROW waveguide.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

SEM image of intersecting hollow- and solid-core waveguides with fully planar beam geometry. A sub - picoliter excitation volume for single-molecule fluorescence detection is formed at the point of intersection. Inset, observed mode image.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Top microscope view of four solid-core waveguides intersecting liquid core at locations E1–E4 for parallel fluorescence excitation on chip.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Number of photon counts versus average number of molecules in excitation volume. Symbols, different experimental runs; error bars, variations in setup; dashed line, linear fit.

Metrics