Abstract

We present results on the power stabilization of a Nd:YAG laser in the frequency band from 1 Hz to 100kHz. High-power, low-noise photodetectors are used in a dc-coupled control loop to achieve relative power fluctuations down to 5×109Hz12 at 10Hz and 3.5×109Hz12 up to several kHz, which is very close to the shot-noise limit for 80mA of detected photocurrent on each detector. We investigated and eliminated several noise sources such as ground loops and beam pointing. The achieved stability level is close to the requirements for the Advanced LIGO gravitational wave detector.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  17. L. He, Y. Lin, A. D. van Rheenen, A. van der Ziel, A. Young, and J. P. van der Ziel, J. Appl. Phys. 68, 5200 (1990).
    [CrossRef]

2006 (1)

S. Hild, H. Grote, J. R. Smith, and M. Hewitson, J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 32, 66 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

B. W. Barr, K. A. Strain, and C. J. Killow, Class. Quantum Grav. 22, 4279 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

D. Sigg, Class. Quantum Grav. 21, S409 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Nocera, Class. Quantum Grav. 21, S481 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Rollins, D. Ottaway, M. Zucker, R. Weiss, and R. Abbott, Opt. Lett. 29, 1876 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

A. Weinstein, Class. Quantum Grav. 19, 1575 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

R. Abbott and P. King, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 1346 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1993 (1)

A. M. Joshi, G. H. Olsen, V. S. Ban, E. Mykietyn, M. J. Lange, and D. T. Mohr, IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 40, 303 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

M. Rimini-Döring, A. Hangleiter, S. Winkler, and N. Klötzer, Appl. Phys. A 54, 120 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

L. He, Y. Lin, A. D. van Rheenen, A. van der Ziel, A. Young, and J. P. van der Ziel, J. Appl. Phys. 68, 5200 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

T. G. M. Kleinpenning, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 3, 176 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Abbott, R.

Ban, V. S.

A. M. Joshi, G. H. Olsen, V. S. Ban, E. Mykietyn, M. J. Lange, and D. T. Mohr, IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 40, 303 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Barr, B. W.

B. W. Barr, K. A. Strain, and C. J. Killow, Class. Quantum Grav. 22, 4279 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Byer, R.

Grote, H.

S. Hild, H. Grote, J. R. Smith, and M. Hewitson, J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 32, 66 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gustafson, E.

Hangleiter, A.

M. Rimini-Döring, A. Hangleiter, S. Winkler, and N. Klötzer, Appl. Phys. A 54, 120 (1992).
[CrossRef]

He, L.

L. He, Y. Lin, A. D. van Rheenen, A. van der Ziel, A. Young, and J. P. van der Ziel, J. Appl. Phys. 68, 5200 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hewitson, M.

S. Hild, H. Grote, J. R. Smith, and M. Hewitson, J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 32, 66 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hild, S.

S. Hild, H. Grote, J. R. Smith, and M. Hewitson, J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 32, 66 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hildebrand, O.

J. Kimmerle, W. Kuebart, E. Kuehn, O. Hildebrand, K. Loesch, and G. Seitz, in Noise in Physical Systems and 1/f Noise, M.Savelli, G.Lecoy, and J.-P.Nougier, eds. (Elsevier Science, 1983), pp. 249-252.

Joshi, A. M.

A. M. Joshi, G. H. Olsen, V. S. Ban, E. Mykietyn, M. J. Lange, and D. T. Mohr, IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 40, 303 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Killow, C. J.

B. W. Barr, K. A. Strain, and C. J. Killow, Class. Quantum Grav. 22, 4279 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kimmerle, J.

J. Kimmerle, W. Kuebart, E. Kuehn, O. Hildebrand, K. Loesch, and G. Seitz, in Noise in Physical Systems and 1/f Noise, M.Savelli, G.Lecoy, and J.-P.Nougier, eds. (Elsevier Science, 1983), pp. 249-252.

King, P.

Kleinpenning, T. G. M.

T. G. M. Kleinpenning, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 3, 176 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Klötzer, N.

M. Rimini-Döring, A. Hangleiter, S. Winkler, and N. Klötzer, Appl. Phys. A 54, 120 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kuebart, W.

J. Kimmerle, W. Kuebart, E. Kuehn, O. Hildebrand, K. Loesch, and G. Seitz, in Noise in Physical Systems and 1/f Noise, M.Savelli, G.Lecoy, and J.-P.Nougier, eds. (Elsevier Science, 1983), pp. 249-252.

Kuehn, E.

J. Kimmerle, W. Kuebart, E. Kuehn, O. Hildebrand, K. Loesch, and G. Seitz, in Noise in Physical Systems and 1/f Noise, M.Savelli, G.Lecoy, and J.-P.Nougier, eds. (Elsevier Science, 1983), pp. 249-252.

Kwee, P.

P. Kwee, "Charakterisierung von Lasersystemen für Gravitationswellendetektoren," diploma thesis (University of Hannover, 2005).

Lange, M. J.

A. M. Joshi, G. H. Olsen, V. S. Ban, E. Mykietyn, M. J. Lange, and D. T. Mohr, IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 40, 303 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Y.

L. He, Y. Lin, A. D. van Rheenen, A. van der Ziel, A. Young, and J. P. van der Ziel, J. Appl. Phys. 68, 5200 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Loesch, K.

J. Kimmerle, W. Kuebart, E. Kuehn, O. Hildebrand, K. Loesch, and G. Seitz, in Noise in Physical Systems and 1/f Noise, M.Savelli, G.Lecoy, and J.-P.Nougier, eds. (Elsevier Science, 1983), pp. 249-252.

Mohr, D. T.

A. M. Joshi, G. H. Olsen, V. S. Ban, E. Mykietyn, M. J. Lange, and D. T. Mohr, IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 40, 303 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Mykietyn, E.

A. M. Joshi, G. H. Olsen, V. S. Ban, E. Mykietyn, M. J. Lange, and D. T. Mohr, IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 40, 303 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Nocera, F.

F. Nocera, Class. Quantum Grav. 21, S481 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Olsen, G. H.

A. M. Joshi, G. H. Olsen, V. S. Ban, E. Mykietyn, M. J. Lange, and D. T. Mohr, IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 40, 303 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ottaway, D.

Rimini-Döring, M.

M. Rimini-Döring, A. Hangleiter, S. Winkler, and N. Klötzer, Appl. Phys. A 54, 120 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Rollins, J.

Savage, R.

Seel, S.

Seitz, G.

J. Kimmerle, W. Kuebart, E. Kuehn, O. Hildebrand, K. Loesch, and G. Seitz, in Noise in Physical Systems and 1/f Noise, M.Savelli, G.Lecoy, and J.-P.Nougier, eds. (Elsevier Science, 1983), pp. 249-252.

Sigg, D.

D. Sigg, Class. Quantum Grav. 21, S409 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Smith, J. R.

S. Hild, H. Grote, J. R. Smith, and M. Hewitson, J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 32, 66 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Strain, K. A.

B. W. Barr, K. A. Strain, and C. J. Killow, Class. Quantum Grav. 22, 4279 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Uehara, N.

van der Ziel, A.

L. He, Y. Lin, A. D. van Rheenen, A. van der Ziel, A. Young, and J. P. van der Ziel, J. Appl. Phys. 68, 5200 (1990).
[CrossRef]

van der Ziel, J. P.

L. He, Y. Lin, A. D. van Rheenen, A. van der Ziel, A. Young, and J. P. van der Ziel, J. Appl. Phys. 68, 5200 (1990).
[CrossRef]

van Rheenen, A. D.

L. He, Y. Lin, A. D. van Rheenen, A. van der Ziel, A. Young, and J. P. van der Ziel, J. Appl. Phys. 68, 5200 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Weinstein, A.

A. Weinstein, Class. Quantum Grav. 19, 1575 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Weiss, R.

Willke, B.

Winkler, S.

M. Rimini-Döring, A. Hangleiter, S. Winkler, and N. Klötzer, Appl. Phys. A 54, 120 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Young, A.

L. He, Y. Lin, A. D. van Rheenen, A. van der Ziel, A. Young, and J. P. van der Ziel, J. Appl. Phys. 68, 5200 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Zucker, M.

Appl. Phys. A (1)

M. Rimini-Döring, A. Hangleiter, S. Winkler, and N. Klötzer, Appl. Phys. A 54, 120 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Class. Quantum Grav. (4)

D. Sigg, Class. Quantum Grav. 21, S409 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Weinstein, Class. Quantum Grav. 19, 1575 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. W. Barr, K. A. Strain, and C. J. Killow, Class. Quantum Grav. 22, 4279 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Nocera, Class. Quantum Grav. 21, S481 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices (1)

A. M. Joshi, G. H. Olsen, V. S. Ban, E. Mykietyn, M. J. Lange, and D. T. Mohr, IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 40, 303 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

L. He, Y. Lin, A. D. van Rheenen, A. van der Ziel, A. Young, and J. P. van der Ziel, J. Appl. Phys. 68, 5200 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. (1)

S. Hild, H. Grote, J. R. Smith, and M. Hewitson, J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 32, 66 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A (1)

T. G. M. Kleinpenning, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 3, 176 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

R. Abbott and P. King, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 1346 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

Perkin-Elmer Optoelectronics, "Large-area InGaAs photodiodes," data sheet, www.perkinelmer.com(2000).

Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., "InGaAs PIN photodiode G8605 series," data sheet, www.hamamatsu.com (2001).

Analog Devices, "High precision 10V reference," data sheet, www.analog.com (2005).

P. Kwee, "Charakterisierung von Lasersystemen für Gravitationswellendetektoren," diploma thesis (University of Hannover, 2005).

J. Kimmerle, W. Kuebart, E. Kuehn, O. Hildebrand, K. Loesch, and G. Seitz, in Noise in Physical Systems and 1/f Noise, M.Savelli, G.Lecoy, and J.-P.Nougier, eds. (Elsevier Science, 1983), pp. 249-252.

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup: The laser (NPRO) is locked to a ring cavity (PMC). The control signal for the power stabilization comes from the in-loop detector (IL-PD), and the out-of-loop detector (OOL-PD) is used as an independent sensor. An acousto-optical modulator (AOM) is used as the power actuator. A quadrant photodiode (QPD) is used to measure pointing of the laser beam at the output of the PMC. EOM, electro-optical modulator; FI, Faraday isolator; PZT, piezoelectrically controlled mirror.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Performance of the power stabilization loop: Relative intensity noise as measured by in-loop and out-of-loop photodetectors. The measurements were taken with 80 mA of photocurrent. Also shown: free-running laser noise, detection noise (photodetector dark noise, amplifier and analyzer noise), and the calculated shot-noise limit for this measurement.

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