Abstract

Humidity is the most problematic parameter for the accurate determination of the refractive index of air. Besides the fact that the humidity measurement can be limiting, the existing empirical equations for the refractive index of moist air are either restricted to 20°C or are based on insufficient knowledge of the refractivity of water vapor. To overcome this problem, a new kind of measurement method for the refractivity of water vapor is suggested that is based on the accurate measurement of the absolute length of a step length by interferometry under vacuum conditions and subsequent measurements at different well-defined absolute water vapor pressures.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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References

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2004

2003

R. Schödel, A. Nicolaus, and G. Bönsch, in Proc. SPIE 5190, 34 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

2001

R. Schödel and G. Bönsch, in Proc. SPIE 4410, 54 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998

G. Bönsch and E. Potulski, Metrologia 35, 133 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996

1994

K. P. Birch and M. J. Downs, Metrologia 31, 315 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

K. P. Birch and M. J. Downs, Metrologia 30, 155 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

R. S. Davis, Metrologia 29, 67 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1982

P. Giacomo, Metrologia 18, 33 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1967

1966

B. Edlén, Metrologia 2, 71 (1966).
[CrossRef]

1962

1949

1939

H. Barrell and J. E. Sears, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 238, 1 (1939).
[CrossRef]

1914

C. Cuthbertson and M. Cuthbertson, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London 213, 1 (1914).
[CrossRef]

Barrell, H.

H. Barrell and J. E. Sears, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 238, 1 (1939).
[CrossRef]

Birch, K. P.

K. P. Birch and M. J. Downs, Metrologia 31, 315 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. P. Birch and M. J. Downs, Metrologia 30, 155 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bönsch, G.

R. Schödel and G. Bönsch, Appl. Opt. 43, 5738 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Schödel, A. Nicolaus, and G. Bönsch, in Proc. SPIE 5190, 34 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Schödel, A. Nicolaus, and G. Bönsch, Appl. Opt. 41, 55 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Schödel and G. Bönsch, in Proc. SPIE 4410, 54 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Bönsch and E. Potulski, Metrologia 35, 133 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ciddor, P. E.

Cuthbertson, C.

C. Cuthbertson and M. Cuthbertson, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London 213, 1 (1914).
[CrossRef]

Cuthbertson, M.

C. Cuthbertson and M. Cuthbertson, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London 213, 1 (1914).
[CrossRef]

Davis, R. S.

R. S. Davis, Metrologia 29, 67 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Downs, M. J.

K. P. Birch and M. J. Downs, Metrologia 31, 315 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. P. Birch and M. J. Downs, Metrologia 30, 155 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Edlén, B.

B. Edlén, Metrologia 2, 71 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Erickson, K. E.

Giacomo, P.

P. Giacomo, Metrologia 18, 33 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Newbound, K. B.

Nicolaus, A.

R. Schödel, A. Nicolaus, and G. Bönsch, in Proc. SPIE 5190, 34 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Schödel, A. Nicolaus, and G. Bönsch, Appl. Opt. 41, 55 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Owens, J. C.

Potulski, E.

G. Bönsch and E. Potulski, Metrologia 35, 133 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schödel, R.

R. Schödel and G. Bönsch, Appl. Opt. 43, 5738 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Schödel, A. Nicolaus, and G. Bönsch, in Proc. SPIE 5190, 34 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Schödel, A. Nicolaus, and G. Bönsch, Appl. Opt. 41, 55 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Schödel and G. Bönsch, in Proc. SPIE 4410, 54 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sears, J. E.

H. Barrell and J. E. Sears, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 238, 1 (1939).
[CrossRef]

Stone, J. A.

J. A. Stone and J. H. Zimmerman, "Index of refraction of air," http://emtoolbox.nist.gov/Wavelength/Documentation.asp (2001).

Zimmerman, J. H.

J. A. Stone and J. H. Zimmerman, "Index of refraction of air," http://emtoolbox.nist.gov/Wavelength/Documentation.asp (2001).

Appl. Opt.

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

Metrologia

B. Edlén, Metrologia 2, 71 (1966).
[CrossRef]

K. P. Birch and M. J. Downs, Metrologia 30, 155 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K. P. Birch and M. J. Downs, Metrologia 31, 315 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. Bönsch and E. Potulski, Metrologia 35, 133 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Davis, Metrologia 29, 67 (1992).
[CrossRef]

P. Giacomo, Metrologia 18, 33 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London

C. Cuthbertson and M. Cuthbertson, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London 213, 1 (1914).
[CrossRef]

Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. A

H. Barrell and J. E. Sears, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 238, 1 (1939).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

R. Schödel, A. Nicolaus, and G. Bönsch, in Proc. SPIE 5190, 34 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Schödel and G. Bönsch, in Proc. SPIE 4410, 54 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other

J. A. Stone and J. H. Zimmerman, "Index of refraction of air," http://emtoolbox.nist.gov/Wavelength/Documentation.asp (2001).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Configuration of the PTB precision interferometer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Refractivity of water vapor (data points, lower part) as a function of p w at sample I. The straight lines represent linear regressions related to the density, ρ w . The upper part shows the fit residuals.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Averages of Data Sets I and II from Table 1 (black data points) and the linear regression of these data vs. λ 2 (black solid line). Literature data are shown for comparison.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Specific Refractivities Resulting from the Refractivity Measurements of Sample I (Data Set I) and Sample II, Respectively, and Applying the BIPM 81 91 Equation [see Eq. (1)]

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ρ a w = ρ a + ρ w = p Z R T [ M a ( 1 x w ) + M w x w ] ,
n a w 1 ρ a ρ a i ( n a i 1 ) + ρ w ρ w i ( n w i 1 ) ,
L vac k = 1 2 λ vac k ( i vac k + f vac k ) , k = 1 , 2 , 3 ,
L k = L vac k [ 1 + α 20 ° C ( ϑ 20 ° C ) κ 3 p w + δ L drift ( t t 0 ) ] .
n w ( p w , λ vac k , ϑ 20 ° C ) = λ vac k 2 ( i w k + f w k ) L k ( p w , ϑ , t ) ,

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