Abstract

We successfully fabricated a high-performance half-wave plate for the 405nm wavelength based on monolithic integration of two nanograting layers. Each of the nanograting layers functions as a quarter-wave plate. Both of the nanograting layers were fully filled and planarized to achieve the monolithic integration. UV-nanoimprint lithography, along with thin-film deposition, high-aspect-ratio reactive ion etching, and trench-filling technologies, was used in fabrication and integration of the individual nanograting layers. High-aspect-ratio nanogratings with sub-50nm linewidths and 100nm spacing were fabricated to achieve good optical performance at the near-UV wavelength. The ability to integrate multiple nanostructure-based optical layers opens a path for integrated multifunction devices, as well as a new strategy for driving both miniaturization and cost.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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J. Wang, P. Sciortino, J. Deng, X. Deng, F. Liu, R. Varghese, A. Nikolov, and A. Graham, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 396 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, X. Deng, F. Liu, L. Chen, A. Nikolov, X. Liu, J. D. Deng, and P. Sciortino, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 23, 2950 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, P. Sciortino, F. Liu, P. Yuan, X. Deng, F. Walters, X. Liu, J. Bacon, and L. Chen, in Proc. SPIE 5931, 455 (2005).

J. Wang, R. Varghese, A. Nikolov, P. Sciortino, F. Liu, L. Chen, and X. Deng, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 23, 3209 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, W. Zhang, X. Deng, J. Deng, F. Liu, P. Sciortino, and L. Chen, Opt. Lett. 30, 195 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wang, L. Chen, S. Tai, D. Deng, P. Sciortino, J. Deng, and F. Liu, J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 474 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, X. Deng, R. Varghese, A. Nikolov, P. Sciortino, F. Liu, and L. Chen, Opt. Lett. 30, 1864 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Deng, F. Liu, J. Wang, P. Sciortino, L. Chen, and X. Liu, Opt. Lett. 30, 2614 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

1998 (2)

A. G. Lopez and H. G. Craighead, Opt. Lett. 23, 1627 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Giaconia, R. Torrini, S. K. Murad, and C. D. W. Wilkinson, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16, 3903 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

J. R. Wendt, G. A. Vawter, R. E. Smith, and M. E. Warren, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15, 2946 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Tyan, A. A. Salvekar, H. Chou, C. Cheng, A. Scherer, P. Sun, F. Xu, and Y. Fainman, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 1627 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (3)

L. Li, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 1870 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Chou, P. Krauss, W. Zhang, L. Guo, and L. Zhuang, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15, 2897 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Haisma, M. Verheijen, K. van den Heuvel, and J. van den Berg, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 14, 4124 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1990 (1)

T. Suntola and M. Simpson, Atomic Layer Epitaxy (Blackie, 1990).
[CrossRef]

1964 (1)

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principle of Optics, 6th ed. (Macmillan, 1964), Chap. 15.

Bacon, J.

J. Wang, P. Sciortino, F. Liu, P. Yuan, X. Deng, F. Walters, X. Liu, J. Bacon, and L. Chen, in Proc. SPIE 5931, 455 (2005).

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principle of Optics, 6th ed. (Macmillan, 1964), Chap. 15.

Chen, L.

X. Deng, F. Liu, J. Wang, P. Sciortino, L. Chen, and X. Liu, Opt. Lett. 30, 2614 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wang, X. Deng, F. Liu, L. Chen, A. Nikolov, X. Liu, J. D. Deng, and P. Sciortino, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 23, 2950 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, P. Sciortino, F. Liu, P. Yuan, X. Deng, F. Walters, X. Liu, J. Bacon, and L. Chen, in Proc. SPIE 5931, 455 (2005).

J. Wang, L. Chen, S. Tai, D. Deng, P. Sciortino, J. Deng, and F. Liu, J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 474 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, X. Deng, R. Varghese, A. Nikolov, P. Sciortino, F. Liu, and L. Chen, Opt. Lett. 30, 1864 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wang, W. Zhang, X. Deng, J. Deng, F. Liu, P. Sciortino, and L. Chen, Opt. Lett. 30, 195 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wang, R. Varghese, A. Nikolov, P. Sciortino, F. Liu, L. Chen, and X. Deng, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 23, 3209 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, C.

Chou, H.

Chou, S. Y.

S. Y. Chou, P. Krauss, W. Zhang, L. Guo, and L. Zhuang, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15, 2897 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Craighead, H. G.

Deguzman, P. C.

Deng, D.

Deng, J.

Deng, J. D.

J. Wang, X. Deng, F. Liu, L. Chen, A. Nikolov, X. Liu, J. D. Deng, and P. Sciortino, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 23, 2950 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Deng, X.

J. Wang, P. Sciortino, J. Deng, X. Deng, F. Liu, R. Varghese, A. Nikolov, and A. Graham, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 396 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, X. Deng, F. Liu, L. Chen, A. Nikolov, X. Liu, J. D. Deng, and P. Sciortino, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 23, 2950 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. Deng, F. Liu, J. Wang, P. Sciortino, L. Chen, and X. Liu, Opt. Lett. 30, 2614 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wang, W. Zhang, X. Deng, J. Deng, F. Liu, P. Sciortino, and L. Chen, Opt. Lett. 30, 195 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wang, R. Varghese, A. Nikolov, P. Sciortino, F. Liu, L. Chen, and X. Deng, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 23, 3209 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, X. Deng, R. Varghese, A. Nikolov, P. Sciortino, F. Liu, and L. Chen, Opt. Lett. 30, 1864 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wang, P. Sciortino, F. Liu, P. Yuan, X. Deng, F. Walters, X. Liu, J. Bacon, and L. Chen, in Proc. SPIE 5931, 455 (2005).

Fainman, Y.

Gaylord, T. K.

Giaconia, C.

C. Giaconia, R. Torrini, S. K. Murad, and C. D. W. Wilkinson, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16, 3903 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Graham, A.

J. Wang, P. Sciortino, J. Deng, X. Deng, F. Liu, R. Varghese, A. Nikolov, and A. Graham, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 396 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Grann, E. B.

Guo, L.

S. Y. Chou, P. Krauss, W. Zhang, L. Guo, and L. Zhuang, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15, 2897 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Haisma, J.

J. Haisma, M. Verheijen, K. van den Heuvel, and J. van den Berg, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 14, 4124 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Krauss, P.

S. Y. Chou, P. Krauss, W. Zhang, L. Guo, and L. Zhuang, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15, 2897 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Li, L.

Liu, F.

J. Wang, R. Varghese, A. Nikolov, P. Sciortino, F. Liu, L. Chen, and X. Deng, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 23, 3209 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, W. Zhang, X. Deng, J. Deng, F. Liu, P. Sciortino, and L. Chen, Opt. Lett. 30, 195 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wang, P. Sciortino, F. Liu, P. Yuan, X. Deng, F. Walters, X. Liu, J. Bacon, and L. Chen, in Proc. SPIE 5931, 455 (2005).

J. Wang, L. Chen, S. Tai, D. Deng, P. Sciortino, J. Deng, and F. Liu, J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 474 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, X. Deng, R. Varghese, A. Nikolov, P. Sciortino, F. Liu, and L. Chen, Opt. Lett. 30, 1864 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wang, P. Sciortino, J. Deng, X. Deng, F. Liu, R. Varghese, A. Nikolov, and A. Graham, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 396 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. Deng, F. Liu, J. Wang, P. Sciortino, L. Chen, and X. Liu, Opt. Lett. 30, 2614 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wang, X. Deng, F. Liu, L. Chen, A. Nikolov, X. Liu, J. D. Deng, and P. Sciortino, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 23, 2950 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

X. Deng, F. Liu, J. Wang, P. Sciortino, L. Chen, and X. Liu, Opt. Lett. 30, 2614 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wang, X. Deng, F. Liu, L. Chen, A. Nikolov, X. Liu, J. D. Deng, and P. Sciortino, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 23, 2950 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, P. Sciortino, F. Liu, P. Yuan, X. Deng, F. Walters, X. Liu, J. Bacon, and L. Chen, in Proc. SPIE 5931, 455 (2005).

Lopez, A. G.

Moharam, M. G.

Murad, S. K.

C. Giaconia, R. Torrini, S. K. Murad, and C. D. W. Wilkinson, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16, 3903 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nikolov, A.

J. Wang, X. Deng, R. Varghese, A. Nikolov, P. Sciortino, F. Liu, and L. Chen, Opt. Lett. 30, 1864 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wang, R. Varghese, A. Nikolov, P. Sciortino, F. Liu, L. Chen, and X. Deng, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 23, 3209 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, X. Deng, F. Liu, L. Chen, A. Nikolov, X. Liu, J. D. Deng, and P. Sciortino, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 23, 2950 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, P. Sciortino, J. Deng, X. Deng, F. Liu, R. Varghese, A. Nikolov, and A. Graham, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 396 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nordin, G. P.

Pommet, D. A.

Salvekar, A. A.

Scherer, A.

Sciortino, P.

J. Wang, P. Sciortino, J. Deng, X. Deng, F. Liu, R. Varghese, A. Nikolov, and A. Graham, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 396 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. Deng, F. Liu, J. Wang, P. Sciortino, L. Chen, and X. Liu, Opt. Lett. 30, 2614 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wang, X. Deng, F. Liu, L. Chen, A. Nikolov, X. Liu, J. D. Deng, and P. Sciortino, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 23, 2950 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, W. Zhang, X. Deng, J. Deng, F. Liu, P. Sciortino, and L. Chen, Opt. Lett. 30, 195 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wang, R. Varghese, A. Nikolov, P. Sciortino, F. Liu, L. Chen, and X. Deng, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 23, 3209 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, X. Deng, R. Varghese, A. Nikolov, P. Sciortino, F. Liu, and L. Chen, Opt. Lett. 30, 1864 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wang, L. Chen, S. Tai, D. Deng, P. Sciortino, J. Deng, and F. Liu, J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 474 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, P. Sciortino, F. Liu, P. Yuan, X. Deng, F. Walters, X. Liu, J. Bacon, and L. Chen, in Proc. SPIE 5931, 455 (2005).

Simpson, M.

T. Suntola and M. Simpson, Atomic Layer Epitaxy (Blackie, 1990).
[CrossRef]

Smith, R. E.

J. R. Wendt, G. A. Vawter, R. E. Smith, and M. E. Warren, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15, 2946 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sun, P.

Suntola, T.

T. Suntola and M. Simpson, Atomic Layer Epitaxy (Blackie, 1990).
[CrossRef]

Tai, S.

Torrini, R.

C. Giaconia, R. Torrini, S. K. Murad, and C. D. W. Wilkinson, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16, 3903 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tyan, R.

van den Berg, J.

J. Haisma, M. Verheijen, K. van den Heuvel, and J. van den Berg, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 14, 4124 (1996).
[CrossRef]

van den Heuvel, K.

J. Haisma, M. Verheijen, K. van den Heuvel, and J. van den Berg, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 14, 4124 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Varghese, R.

J. Wang, P. Sciortino, J. Deng, X. Deng, F. Liu, R. Varghese, A. Nikolov, and A. Graham, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 396 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, X. Deng, R. Varghese, A. Nikolov, P. Sciortino, F. Liu, and L. Chen, Opt. Lett. 30, 1864 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wang, R. Varghese, A. Nikolov, P. Sciortino, F. Liu, L. Chen, and X. Deng, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 23, 3209 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vawter, G. A.

J. R. Wendt, G. A. Vawter, R. E. Smith, and M. E. Warren, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15, 2946 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Verheijen, M.

J. Haisma, M. Verheijen, K. van den Heuvel, and J. van den Berg, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 14, 4124 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Walters, F.

J. Wang, P. Sciortino, F. Liu, P. Yuan, X. Deng, F. Walters, X. Liu, J. Bacon, and L. Chen, in Proc. SPIE 5931, 455 (2005).

Wang, J.

J. Wang, P. Sciortino, F. Liu, P. Yuan, X. Deng, F. Walters, X. Liu, J. Bacon, and L. Chen, in Proc. SPIE 5931, 455 (2005).

J. Wang, X. Deng, R. Varghese, A. Nikolov, P. Sciortino, F. Liu, and L. Chen, Opt. Lett. 30, 1864 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wang, L. Chen, S. Tai, D. Deng, P. Sciortino, J. Deng, and F. Liu, J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 474 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, R. Varghese, A. Nikolov, P. Sciortino, F. Liu, L. Chen, and X. Deng, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 23, 3209 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, W. Zhang, X. Deng, J. Deng, F. Liu, P. Sciortino, and L. Chen, Opt. Lett. 30, 195 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wang, P. Sciortino, J. Deng, X. Deng, F. Liu, R. Varghese, A. Nikolov, and A. Graham, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 396 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, X. Deng, F. Liu, L. Chen, A. Nikolov, X. Liu, J. D. Deng, and P. Sciortino, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 23, 2950 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. Deng, F. Liu, J. Wang, P. Sciortino, L. Chen, and X. Liu, Opt. Lett. 30, 2614 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Warren, M. E.

J. R. Wendt, G. A. Vawter, R. E. Smith, and M. E. Warren, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15, 2946 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wendt, J. R.

J. R. Wendt, G. A. Vawter, R. E. Smith, and M. E. Warren, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15, 2946 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wilkinson, C. D. W.

C. Giaconia, R. Torrini, S. K. Murad, and C. D. W. Wilkinson, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16, 3903 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, E.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principle of Optics, 6th ed. (Macmillan, 1964), Chap. 15.

Xu, F.

Yuan, P.

J. Wang, P. Sciortino, F. Liu, P. Yuan, X. Deng, F. Walters, X. Liu, J. Bacon, and L. Chen, in Proc. SPIE 5931, 455 (2005).

Zhang, W.

J. Wang, W. Zhang, X. Deng, J. Deng, F. Liu, P. Sciortino, and L. Chen, Opt. Lett. 30, 195 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Y. Chou, P. Krauss, W. Zhang, L. Guo, and L. Zhuang, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15, 2897 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Zhuang, L.

S. Y. Chou, P. Krauss, W. Zhang, L. Guo, and L. Zhuang, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15, 2897 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

J. Wang, P. Sciortino, J. Deng, X. Deng, F. Liu, R. Varghese, A. Nikolov, and A. Graham, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 396 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (3)

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (6)

J. Wang, X. Deng, F. Liu, L. Chen, A. Nikolov, X. Liu, J. D. Deng, and P. Sciortino, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 23, 2950 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Wendt, G. A. Vawter, R. E. Smith, and M. E. Warren, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15, 2946 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. Giaconia, R. Torrini, S. K. Murad, and C. D. W. Wilkinson, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16, 3903 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Chou, P. Krauss, W. Zhang, L. Guo, and L. Zhuang, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15, 2897 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Haisma, M. Verheijen, K. van den Heuvel, and J. van den Berg, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 14, 4124 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, R. Varghese, A. Nikolov, P. Sciortino, F. Liu, L. Chen, and X. Deng, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 23, 3209 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Proc. SPIE (1)

J. Wang, P. Sciortino, F. Liu, P. Yuan, X. Deng, F. Walters, X. Liu, J. Bacon, and L. Chen, in Proc. SPIE 5931, 455 (2005).

Other (2)

T. Suntola and M. Simpson, Atomic Layer Epitaxy (Blackie, 1990).
[CrossRef]

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principle of Optics, 6th ed. (Macmillan, 1964), Chap. 15.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of a two-layer monolithically integrated nano-optical device. Each individual nanograting layer is fully trench filled and planarized.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Cross-sectional scanning electron microscope (SEM) photograph of a QWP with a fully trench-filled nanograting structure. The nanograting has a period of 145 nm , a linewidth of 50 nm , and a depth of 630 nm .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Cross-sectional SEM photograph of a two-layer monolithically integrated half-wave plate with two fully trench-filled nanostructure grating layers.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Phase retardance performance of a 100 mm diameter wafer. This performance corresponds to the structure shown in Fig. 3, i.e., an integrated half-wave plate with two-layer integrated nanostructured gratings. λ = 405 nm .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Optical performance of the monolithically integrated half-wave plate.

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