Abstract

We demonstrate a new approach to coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy that significantly increases the detection sensitivity. CARS signals are generated by collinearly overlapped, tightly focused, and raster scanned pump and Stokes laser beams, whose difference frequency is rapidly modulated. The resulting amplitude modulation of the CARS signal is detected through a lock-in amplifier. This scheme efficiently suppresses the nonresonant background and allows for the detection of far fewer vibrational oscillators than possible through existing CARS microscopy methods.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. X. Cheng and X. S. Xie, J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 827 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, M. Pourgish'haag, D. Côté, C. P. Lin, and X. S. Xie, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 16807 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  3. X. L. Nan, J. X. Cheng, and X. S. Xie, J. Lipid Res. 44, 2202 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  4. N. Dudovich, D. Oron, and Y. Silberberg, Nature 418, 512 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. Oron, N. Dudovich, and Y. Silberberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 273001 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  6. E. O. Potma, C. L. Evans, and X. S. Xie, Opt. Lett. 31, 241 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  7. E. Frumker, D. Oron, D. Mandelik, and Y. Silberberg, Opt. Lett. 29, 890 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. L. Li, H. Wang, and J. X. Cheng, Biophys. J. 89, 3480 (2005).
  9. M. Schwartz, A. Moradi-Araghi, and W. H. Koehler, J. Mol. Struct. 63, 279 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  10. F. Ganikhanov, S. Carrasco, X. S. Xie, M. Katz, W. Steitz, and D. Kopf, Opt. Lett. 31, 1292 (2006).

2006 (2)

2005 (2)

C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, M. Pourgish'haag, D. Côté, C. P. Lin, and X. S. Xie, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 16807 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Li, H. Wang, and J. X. Cheng, Biophys. J. 89, 3480 (2005).

2004 (2)

2003 (1)

X. L. Nan, J. X. Cheng, and X. S. Xie, J. Lipid Res. 44, 2202 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

N. Dudovich, D. Oron, and Y. Silberberg, Nature 418, 512 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Oron, N. Dudovich, and Y. Silberberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 273001 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

M. Schwartz, A. Moradi-Araghi, and W. H. Koehler, J. Mol. Struct. 63, 279 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Carrasco, S.

Cheng, J. X.

L. Li, H. Wang, and J. X. Cheng, Biophys. J. 89, 3480 (2005).

J. X. Cheng and X. S. Xie, J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 827 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. L. Nan, J. X. Cheng, and X. S. Xie, J. Lipid Res. 44, 2202 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Côté, D.

C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, M. Pourgish'haag, D. Côté, C. P. Lin, and X. S. Xie, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 16807 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dudovich, N.

N. Dudovich, D. Oron, and Y. Silberberg, Nature 418, 512 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Oron, N. Dudovich, and Y. Silberberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 273001 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Evans, C. L.

E. O. Potma, C. L. Evans, and X. S. Xie, Opt. Lett. 31, 241 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, M. Pourgish'haag, D. Côté, C. P. Lin, and X. S. Xie, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 16807 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Frumker, E.

Ganikhanov, F.

Katz, M.

Koehler, W. H.

M. Schwartz, A. Moradi-Araghi, and W. H. Koehler, J. Mol. Struct. 63, 279 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Kopf, D.

Li, L.

L. Li, H. Wang, and J. X. Cheng, Biophys. J. 89, 3480 (2005).

Lin, C. P.

C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, M. Pourgish'haag, D. Côté, C. P. Lin, and X. S. Xie, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 16807 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mandelik, D.

Moradi-Araghi, A.

M. Schwartz, A. Moradi-Araghi, and W. H. Koehler, J. Mol. Struct. 63, 279 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Nan, X. L.

X. L. Nan, J. X. Cheng, and X. S. Xie, J. Lipid Res. 44, 2202 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Oron, D.

E. Frumker, D. Oron, D. Mandelik, and Y. Silberberg, Opt. Lett. 29, 890 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Oron, N. Dudovich, and Y. Silberberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 273001 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. Dudovich, D. Oron, and Y. Silberberg, Nature 418, 512 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Potma, E. O.

E. O. Potma, C. L. Evans, and X. S. Xie, Opt. Lett. 31, 241 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, M. Pourgish'haag, D. Côté, C. P. Lin, and X. S. Xie, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 16807 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pourgish'haag, M.

C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, M. Pourgish'haag, D. Côté, C. P. Lin, and X. S. Xie, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 16807 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schwartz, M.

M. Schwartz, A. Moradi-Araghi, and W. H. Koehler, J. Mol. Struct. 63, 279 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Silberberg, Y.

E. Frumker, D. Oron, D. Mandelik, and Y. Silberberg, Opt. Lett. 29, 890 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. Dudovich, D. Oron, and Y. Silberberg, Nature 418, 512 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Oron, N. Dudovich, and Y. Silberberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 273001 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Steitz, W.

Wang, H.

L. Li, H. Wang, and J. X. Cheng, Biophys. J. 89, 3480 (2005).

Xie, X. S.

F. Ganikhanov, S. Carrasco, X. S. Xie, M. Katz, W. Steitz, and D. Kopf, Opt. Lett. 31, 1292 (2006).

E. O. Potma, C. L. Evans, and X. S. Xie, Opt. Lett. 31, 241 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, M. Pourgish'haag, D. Côté, C. P. Lin, and X. S. Xie, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 16807 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. X. Cheng and X. S. Xie, J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 827 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. L. Nan, J. X. Cheng, and X. S. Xie, J. Lipid Res. 44, 2202 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Biophys. J. (1)

L. Li, H. Wang, and J. X. Cheng, Biophys. J. 89, 3480 (2005).

J. Lipid Res. (1)

X. L. Nan, J. X. Cheng, and X. S. Xie, J. Lipid Res. 44, 2202 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Mol. Struct. (1)

M. Schwartz, A. Moradi-Araghi, and W. H. Koehler, J. Mol. Struct. 63, 279 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

J. X. Cheng and X. S. Xie, J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 827 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

N. Dudovich, D. Oron, and Y. Silberberg, Nature 418, 512 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

D. Oron, N. Dudovich, and Y. Silberberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 273001 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, M. Pourgish'haag, D. Côté, C. P. Lin, and X. S. Xie, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 16807 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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