Abstract

We improved our recently reported retinal OCT system based on transverse priority scanning to achieve high resolution in both the transverse and the axial directions. The implementation of an additional SLO channel enables precise on-line focusing. The system enables imaging of the human retinal cone mosaic off the foveal center without adaptive optics. We demonstrate, for what is believed to be the first time, cone mosaic imaging simultaneously in the scanning laser ophthalmoscope and optical coherence tomography (OCT) channels. OCT B-scan images demonstrate that the cone mosaic is observable in two adjacent layers. Furthermore, we present what are believed to be the first C-scan OCT images of the cone mosaic and show that the major part of light backscattered from below the photoreceptor layer is not guided back toward the pupil by the photoreceptors.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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2005 (3)

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F. Vargas-Martín, P. M. Prieto, and P. Artal, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 2552 (1998).
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A. R. Wade and F. W. Fitzke, Lasers Light Ophthalmol. 12, 129 (1998).

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

D. T. Miller, D. R. Williams, G. M. Morris, and J. Liang, Vision Res. 36, 1067 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
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1990 (1)

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Bower, B. A.

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D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
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Chen, L.

Choi, S.

Choi, S. S.

Christou, J.

Curcio, C. A.

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, and A. E. Hendrickson, J. Comp. Neurol. 292, 497 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Doble, N.

Dobre, G. M.

Donnelly, W. J.

Drexler, W.

Fercher, A. F.

Fernández, E. J.

Findl, O.

Fitzke, F. W.

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
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Goetzinger, E.

M. Pircher, E. Goetzinger, R. Leitgeb, and C. K. Hitzenberger, Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1257 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Götzinger, E.

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
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Hebert, T. J.

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hendrickson, A. E.

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, and A. E. Hendrickson, J. Comp. Neurol. 292, 497 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hermann, B.

Hitzenberger, C. K.

Hofer, H.

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Izatt, J. A.

Jackson, D. A.

Jones, S. M.

Jonnal, R. S.

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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J. Liang, D. R. Williams, and D. T. Miller, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 2884 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. T. Miller, D. R. Williams, G. M. Morris, and J. Liang, Vision Res. 36, 1067 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Lo, P.-W.

Miller, D. T.

Morris, G. M.

D. T. Miller, D. R. Williams, G. M. Morris, and J. Liang, Vision Res. 36, 1067 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Olivier, S. S.

Pircher, M.

Podoleanu, A. G.

Prieto, P. M.

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Queener, H.

Rha, J.

Rogers, J. A.

Romero-Borja, F.

Roorda, A.

Sattmann, H.

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D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Singer, B.

Sloan, K. R.

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, and A. E. Hendrickson, J. Comp. Neurol. 292, 497 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trost, P.

Unterhuber, A.

Vargas-Martín, F.

Vohnsen, B.

Wade, A. R.

A. R. Wade and F. W. Fitzke, Lasers Light Ophthalmol. 12, 129 (1998).

Werner, J. S.

Williams, D. R.

Yamauchi, Y.

Yoon, G. Y.

Zawadzki, R. J.

Zhang, Y.

Zhao, M.

Zhou, Q.

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

W. Drexler, J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 47 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Comp. Neurol. (1)

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, and A. E. Hendrickson, J. Comp. Neurol. 292, 497 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (3)

Lasers Light Ophthalmol. (1)

A. R. Wade and F. W. Fitzke, Lasers Light Ophthalmol. 12, 129 (1998).

Opt. Express (7)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

M. Pircher, E. Goetzinger, R. Leitgeb, and C. K. Hitzenberger, Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1257 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vision Res. (1)

D. T. Miller, D. R. Williams, G. M. Morris, and J. Liang, Vision Res. 36, 1067 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Sketch of the instrument. AMP, amplifier; AOM, acousto-optic modulator; BS, beam splitter; Det, single-mode fiber pigtailed detector; L1 and L2, lenses; SLD, superluminescent diode; SLO-Det, scanning laser ophthalmoscope detector (single-mode fiber pigtailed).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

OCT B-scan of human retina centered 4 ° nasal. Image size, 2.9 mm (1600 pixels, x) × 1 mm (500 pixels, z, optical depth). The posterior layers are labeled 1 to 4 (see text).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

B-scans of human retina centered 4 ° nasal. Image size, 200 μ m (3500 pixels, x) × 370 μ m (185 pixels, z, optical depth). (a) OCT channel (logarithmic intensity scale), layer labeling as in Fig. 2; (b) SLO channel.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Transverse images of human retina centered at 4 ° nasal. (a), (c), (e), SLO channel; (b), (d), (f), OCT channel (linear intensity scale). (a), (b), coherence gate slightly above the photoreceptor layer; (c), (d), coherence gate within the photoreceptor layer; (e), (f), coherence gate slightly below the photoreceptor layer.

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