Abstract

We demonstrate robust single-transverse-mode light propagation in higher-order modes of a fiber, with effective area Aeff ranging from 2100 to 3200μm2. These modes are accessed using long-period fiber gratings that enable higher-order-mode excitation over a bandwidth of 94mm with greater than 99% of the light in the desired mode. The fiber is designed such that the effective index separation between modes is always large, hence minimizing in-fiber mode mixing and enabling light propagation over lengths as large as 12m, with bends down to 4.5cm radii. The modal stability increases with mode order, suggesting that Aeff of this platform is substantially scalable.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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References

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S. Ramachandran, J. W. Nicholson, S. Ghalmi, and M. F. Yan, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1171 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Limpert, T. Schreiber, S. Nolte, H. Zellmer, and A. Tünnermann, Opt. Express 11, 3332 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

2001

A. Galvanauskas, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 504 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998

Broeng, J.

Davidson, N.

Deguil-Robin, N.

Dong, L.

Fermann, M. E.

Friesem, A. A.

Galvanauskas, A.

A. Galvanauskas, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 504 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ghalmi, S.

S. Ramachandran, J. W. Nicholson, S. Ghalmi, and M. F. Yan, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1171 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ishaaya, A. A.

Jakobsen, C.

Liem, A.

Limpert, J.

Manek-Hönninger, I.

McLaughlin, J. M.

Nicholson, J. W.

S. Ramachandran, J. W. Nicholson, S. Ghalmi, and M. F. Yan, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1171 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nolte, S.

Peng, X.

Petersson, A.

Ramachandran, S.

S. Ramachandran, J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 3426 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Ramachandran, J. W. Nicholson, S. Ghalmi, and M. F. Yan, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1171 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Ramachandran, Z. Wang, and M. F. Yan, Opt. Lett. 27, 698 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Röser, F.

Salin, F.

Schreiber, T.

Tünnermann, A.

Wang, Z.

Wong, J. S.

Yan, M. F.

S. Ramachandran, J. W. Nicholson, S. Ghalmi, and M. F. Yan, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1171 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Ramachandran, Z. Wang, and M. F. Yan, Opt. Lett. 27, 698 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zellmer, H.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Effective index difference between nearest neighbors (stability proxy) versus A eff . Mode stability increases with modal order. Top, near-field images after > 2 m propagation with 7 cm bends of LPG-excited HOMs with A eff ranging from 2100 to 3200 μ m 2 .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Characteristics of HOM fiber. The horizontal and vertical scales of the images and the horizontal scales of the plots are identical. (a) Near-field image of a fiber facet, showing 86 μ m inner cladding. (b) Refractive-index profile of the HOM fiber, with a core similar to SMF and 86 μ m inner cladding followed by a downdoped outer trench. (c) Near-field image of the LP 07 mode at 1600 nm after 12 m propagation with 4.5 cm radius bends. (d) Intensity line scan of (c) and theoretical profile: A eff 2100 μ m 2 .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Device schematic: light is coupled into and out of HOM with LPGs whose conversion efficiency is shown in (b). LPG, broadband coupling with efficiency η > 99 % over 94 nm , with peak coupling as high as 99.93%. (c) Alternative schematic for characterizing HOM fiber: the cleave serves to fold the device propagation path so that the single LPG acts as both input and output LPGs. X, splice; OSA, optical spectrum analyzer.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

HOM propagation characterization in 3 m long fiber as shown in Fig. 3c. (a) Excess bend loss (top) and mode-mixing efficiency (bottom) versus bend radius. (b) Near-field images for bend radii R 1 = 7 cm , R 2 = 4.5 cm , R 3 = 3.8 cm . There is no change for R > 7 cm ; there are distortions for R < 4 cm . Modal output is stable down to R 4.5 cm .

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