Abstract

We present a multiple parameter integrated fiber sensor that can detect vector bending and ambient temperature simultaneously with a single asymmetric multimode fiber Bragg grating. Multimode Bragg gratings were fabricated in an all-silica core fiber by an infrared femtosecond laser, which showed multiple transmission dips in the transmission spectrum. Bending and ambient temperature fluctuations affect the shapes of multiple transmission dips in different ways. In bending, different dips have different sensitivities. On the other hand, temperature fluctuations tended to influence the dips uniformly across different dips. By analyzing the changing spectrum of dips, one can distinguish the changes induced by bending or temperature fluctuations. Furthermore, the high thermal stability of Bragg gratings inscribed by an infrared femtosecond laser can make this double parameter fiber sensor work in very harsh, high-temperature environments.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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References

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2005 (3)

D. Grobnic, C. Smelser, S. Mihailov, and R. Walker, in Proc. SPIE 5855, 106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Martinez, Y. Lai, M. Dubov, I. Khrushehev, and I. Bennion, Electron. Lett. 41, 472 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Smelser, S. Mihailov, and D. Grobnic, Opt. Express 13, 5377 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

C. Christopher, W. Smelser, S. Mihailov, D. Grobnic, P. Lu, R. Walker, H. Ding, and X. Dai, Opt. Lett. 29, 1458 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Zhao, K. Zhou, X. Chen, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, G. Flockhart, W. Pherson, J. Barton, and J. Jones, Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 1647 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

2001 (1)

F. Araujo, L. Ferreira, J. Santos, and F. Farahi, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 829 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1996 (1)

C. M. Lawrence, D. V. Nelson, and E. Udd, in Proc. SPIE 2872, 24 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

Araujo, F.

F. Araujo, L. Ferreira, J. Santos, and F. Farahi, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 829 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Barton, J.

D. Zhao, K. Zhou, X. Chen, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, G. Flockhart, W. Pherson, J. Barton, and J. Jones, Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 1647 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bennion, I.

A. Martinez, Y. Lai, M. Dubov, I. Khrushehev, and I. Bennion, Electron. Lett. 41, 472 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Zhao, K. Zhou, X. Chen, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, G. Flockhart, W. Pherson, J. Barton, and J. Jones, Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 1647 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X.

D. Zhao, K. Zhou, X. Chen, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, G. Flockhart, W. Pherson, J. Barton, and J. Jones, Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 1647 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Christopher, C.

Dai, X.

Ding, H.

Djambova, T.

Dubov, M.

A. Martinez, Y. Lai, M. Dubov, I. Khrushehev, and I. Bennion, Electron. Lett. 41, 472 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Farahi, F.

F. Araujo, L. Ferreira, J. Santos, and F. Farahi, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 829 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ferreira, L.

F. Araujo, L. Ferreira, J. Santos, and F. Farahi, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 829 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Flockhart, G.

D. Zhao, K. Zhou, X. Chen, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, G. Flockhart, W. Pherson, J. Barton, and J. Jones, Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 1647 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Glenn, W.

Grobnic, D.

Gupta, S.

Henderson, G.

Jones, J.

D. Zhao, K. Zhou, X. Chen, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, G. Flockhart, W. Pherson, J. Barton, and J. Jones, Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 1647 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Khrushehev, I.

A. Martinez, Y. Lai, M. Dubov, I. Khrushehev, and I. Bennion, Electron. Lett. 41, 472 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lai, Y.

A. Martinez, Y. Lai, M. Dubov, I. Khrushehev, and I. Bennion, Electron. Lett. 41, 472 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lawrence, C. M.

C. M. Lawrence, D. V. Nelson, and E. Udd, in Proc. SPIE 2872, 24 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lu, P.

Martinez, A.

A. Martinez, Y. Lai, M. Dubov, I. Khrushehev, and I. Bennion, Electron. Lett. 41, 472 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Meltz, G.

Mihailov, S.

Mizunami, T.

Morey, W.

Nelson, D. V.

C. M. Lawrence, D. V. Nelson, and E. Udd, in Proc. SPIE 2872, 24 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Niiho, T.

Pherson, W.

D. Zhao, K. Zhou, X. Chen, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, G. Flockhart, W. Pherson, J. Barton, and J. Jones, Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 1647 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Santos, J.

F. Araujo, L. Ferreira, J. Santos, and F. Farahi, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 829 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Smelser, C.

Smelser, W.

Udd, E.

C. M. Lawrence, D. V. Nelson, and E. Udd, in Proc. SPIE 2872, 24 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Unruh, J.

Walker, R.

Zhang, L.

D. Zhao, K. Zhou, X. Chen, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, G. Flockhart, W. Pherson, J. Barton, and J. Jones, Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 1647 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, D.

D. Zhao, K. Zhou, X. Chen, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, G. Flockhart, W. Pherson, J. Barton, and J. Jones, Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 1647 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, K.

D. Zhao, K. Zhou, X. Chen, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, G. Flockhart, W. Pherson, J. Barton, and J. Jones, Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 1647 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

A. Martinez, Y. Lai, M. Dubov, I. Khrushehev, and I. Bennion, Electron. Lett. 41, 472 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Meas. Sci. Technol. (2)

F. Araujo, L. Ferreira, J. Santos, and F. Farahi, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 829 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Zhao, K. Zhou, X. Chen, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, G. Flockhart, W. Pherson, J. Barton, and J. Jones, Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 1647 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Proc. SPIE (2)

D. Grobnic, C. Smelser, S. Mihailov, and R. Walker, in Proc. SPIE 5855, 106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Lawrence, D. V. Nelson, and E. Udd, in Proc. SPIE 2872, 24 (1996).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Microscopic image of an asymmetric FBG fabricated in a multimode silica fiber by an IR femtosecond laser with 150 fs , 800 nm laser pulses and a phase mask with a 2.66 μ m pitch.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measured spectra of a FBG in a multimode fiber inscribed by an IR femtosecond laser at a spectral range from room temperature to 700 ° C . (b) Spectra of dip locations as a function of temperature for four dips.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured spectra of FBG in multimode fiber inscribed by an IR femtosecond laser at three bending conditions: without bending (references), bending in X direction, and bending in the Y direction. (b) Spectra of dip locations as a function of bending direction for four dips.

Equations (2)

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2 n eff q Λ g = m λ Bragg q ,
n eff q = n 1 ( 1 4 Δ q + 1 V ) 1 2 ,

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