Abstract

A novel method for light coupling between single-mode fibers (SMFs) and small-core photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) is demonstrated. The method is based on growing photopolymer microtips directly on the end faces of SMFs. The shape and size of the tips can be controlled by adjusting the laser power and the exposure time for polymerization to match the mode field to the small-core PCFs. A 5dB improvement in coupling efficiency between a SMF and a commercial small-core, highly nonlinear PCF is experimentally demonstrated. This compact and efficient butt-coupling method is particularly suitable for PCF gas sensor applications.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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Y. L. Hoo, W. Jin, H. L. Ho, D. N. Wang, and R. S. Windeler, Opt. Eng. 41, 8 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

Barchiesi, D.

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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Chong, J. H.

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[CrossRef]

Demokan, M. S.

Ecoffet, C.

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Émond, F.

Fares, A.

R. Bachelot, A. Fares, D. Barchiesi, G. Lerondel, and P. Royer, Opt. Lett. 17, 1971 (2004).
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Ho, H. L.

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[CrossRef]

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Hoo, Y. L.

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

Jin, W.

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

Monro, T. M.

Paré, C.

Proulx, A.

Rao, M. K.

Richardson, D. J.

Royer, P.

R. Bachelot, A. Fares, D. Barchiesi, G. Lerondel, and P. Royer, Opt. Lett. 17, 1971 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Bachelot, C. Ecoffet, D. Deloeil, P. Royer, and D. J. Lougnot, Appl. Opt. 40, 1560 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P. St. J.

Vallée, R.

Wadsworth, W. J.

Wang, D. N.

Y. L. Hoo, W. Jin, H. L. Ho, and D. N. Wang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1434 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. L. Hoo, W. Jin, H. L. Ho, D. N. Wang, and R. S. Windeler, Opt. Eng. 41, 8 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Windeler, R. S.

Y. L. Hoo, W. Jin, H. L. Ho, D. N. Wang, and R. S. Windeler, Opt. Eng. 41, 8 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Witkowska, A.

Xiao, L.

Yablon, A. D.

A. D. Yablon and R. T. Bise, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 118 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, C.

Appl. Opt.

R. Bachelot, C. Ecoffet, D. Deloeil, P. Royer, and D. J. Lougnot, Appl. Opt. 40, 1560 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

A. D. Yablon and R. T. Bise, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 118 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. L. Hoo, W. Jin, H. L. Ho, and D. N. Wang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1434 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

Y. L. Hoo, W. Jin, H. L. Ho, D. N. Wang, and R. S. Windeler, Opt. Eng. 41, 8 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Images of the photopolymer microtip fabrication process: (a) a drop of liquid formulation is deposited at the end part of a SMF that is aligned with a freshly cleaved SMF; (b) the left SMF, which is prepared to grow the tip, is moved to touch the drop; (c) a droplet is deposited at the end face of the left SMF; (d) a green laser with suitable power is coupled from the other end of the left SMF; (e) the liquid that is not polymerized is washed off by a few drops of ethanol.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Scanning electron microscope images of photopolymer microtips fabricated with different green laser power and various exposure times. The insets are close-ups of the ends of the microtips. (a) 3 μ W , 60 s ; (b) 15 μ W , 3 s .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Optical images of butt coupling between SMFs integrated with different-sized microtips and small-core PCFs. (a) Coupling between a SMF with a tip as shown in Fig. 2a and NL-3.3-880. (b) Coupling between a SMF with a tip as shown in Fig. 2b and LMA-5.

Equations (1)

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α = 20 log ( 2 ω PCF ω SMF ω PCF 2 + ω SMF 2 ) ,

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