Abstract

Because of the stochastic nature of self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE), it is crucial to measure for single pulses the spectral characteristics of ultrashort pulses from the vacuum ultraviolet free electron laser (FLASH) at DESY, Germany. To meet this particular challenge, we have employed both photon and photoelectron spectroscopy. Each FEL pulse is composed of an intense and spectrally complex fundamental, centered at a photon energy of about 38.5eV, with a bandwidth of 0.5% accompanied by higher harmonics, each carrying an intensity of typically 0.3 to 0.6% of that of the fundamental. The correlation between the harmonics and the fundamental is in remarkable agreement with a simple statistical model of SASE FEL radiation.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. Andruszkow, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3825 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. I. Themelis, P. Lambropoulos, and M. Meyer, J. Phys. B 37, 4281 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. A. Kornberg and P. Lambropoulos, J. Phys. B 32, L603 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  4. V. Sajaev, Z. Huang, S. Biedron, P. Den Hartog, E. Gluskin, K. Kim, J. Lewellen, Y. Li, O. Makarov, S. Milton, and E. Moog, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 506, 304 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. Tremaine, X. Wang, M. Babzien, I. Ben-Zvi, M. Cornacchia, H.-D. Nuhn, R. Malone, A. Murokh, C. Pellegrini, S. Reiche, J. Rosenzweig, and V. Yakimenko, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 204801 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. E. Saldin, E. Schneidmiller, and M. Yurkov, 'Properties of the odd harmonics of the radiation from SASE FEL with planar undulator,' Opt. Commun. (to be published).
  7. G. Geloni, E. Saldin, E. Schneidmiller, and M. Yurkov, 'Exact solution for the second harmonic generation in XFELS,' Opt. Commun. (to be published).
  8. J. Eland, O. Vieuxmaire, T. Kinugawa, P. Lablanquie, R. Hall, and F. Penent, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 530031 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  9. V. Ayvazyan, Eur. Phys. J. D 37, 297 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. U. Becker and D. A. Shirley, eds., VUV and Soft X-Ray Photoionization (Plenum, 1996).
    [CrossRef]
  11. E. Saldin, E. Schneidmiller, and M. Yurkov, The Physics of Free Electron Lasers (Springer, 1999).
  12. W. Brefeld, B. Faatz, J. Feldhaus, M. Korfer, J. Krzywinski, T. Möller, J. Pflueger, E. Saldin, E. Schneidmiller, S. Schreiber, and M. Jurkov, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 507, 431 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  13. L. Poletto, L. Epulandi, P. Nicolosi, M. Pelizzo, P. Zambolin, J. Feldhaus, U. Jastrow, U. Hahn, E. Plönjes, and K. Tiedtke, in Proc. SPIE 5534, 37 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  14. The main causes of error are (i) the uncalibrated fluorescence yield of the Ce:YAG screen and (ii) the different angular distributions of the fundamental and the harmonics.
  15. Since the transmission of the beamline is almost constant over the 30-130eV photon energy range, only the total FEL intensity is reduced between the spectrometer and the end station, located about 25 and 70m behind the undulator, respectively.

2006

V. Ayvazyan, Eur. Phys. J. D 37, 297 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004

S. I. Themelis, P. Lambropoulos, and M. Meyer, J. Phys. B 37, 4281 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Poletto, L. Epulandi, P. Nicolosi, M. Pelizzo, P. Zambolin, J. Feldhaus, U. Jastrow, U. Hahn, E. Plönjes, and K. Tiedtke, in Proc. SPIE 5534, 37 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

V. Sajaev, Z. Huang, S. Biedron, P. Den Hartog, E. Gluskin, K. Kim, J. Lewellen, Y. Li, O. Makarov, S. Milton, and E. Moog, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 506, 304 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. Brefeld, B. Faatz, J. Feldhaus, M. Korfer, J. Krzywinski, T. Möller, J. Pflueger, E. Saldin, E. Schneidmiller, S. Schreiber, and M. Jurkov, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 507, 431 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Eland, O. Vieuxmaire, T. Kinugawa, P. Lablanquie, R. Hall, and F. Penent, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 530031 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

A. Tremaine, X. Wang, M. Babzien, I. Ben-Zvi, M. Cornacchia, H.-D. Nuhn, R. Malone, A. Murokh, C. Pellegrini, S. Reiche, J. Rosenzweig, and V. Yakimenko, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 204801 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

J. Andruszkow, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3825 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

M. A. Kornberg and P. Lambropoulos, J. Phys. B 32, L603 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Andruszkow, J.

J. Andruszkow, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3825 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ayvazyan, V.

V. Ayvazyan, Eur. Phys. J. D 37, 297 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Babzien, M.

A. Tremaine, X. Wang, M. Babzien, I. Ben-Zvi, M. Cornacchia, H.-D. Nuhn, R. Malone, A. Murokh, C. Pellegrini, S. Reiche, J. Rosenzweig, and V. Yakimenko, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 204801 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Becker, U.

U. Becker and D. A. Shirley, eds., VUV and Soft X-Ray Photoionization (Plenum, 1996).
[CrossRef]

Ben-Zvi, I.

A. Tremaine, X. Wang, M. Babzien, I. Ben-Zvi, M. Cornacchia, H.-D. Nuhn, R. Malone, A. Murokh, C. Pellegrini, S. Reiche, J. Rosenzweig, and V. Yakimenko, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 204801 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biedron, S.

V. Sajaev, Z. Huang, S. Biedron, P. Den Hartog, E. Gluskin, K. Kim, J. Lewellen, Y. Li, O. Makarov, S. Milton, and E. Moog, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 506, 304 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Brefeld, W.

W. Brefeld, B. Faatz, J. Feldhaus, M. Korfer, J. Krzywinski, T. Möller, J. Pflueger, E. Saldin, E. Schneidmiller, S. Schreiber, and M. Jurkov, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 507, 431 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cornacchia, M.

A. Tremaine, X. Wang, M. Babzien, I. Ben-Zvi, M. Cornacchia, H.-D. Nuhn, R. Malone, A. Murokh, C. Pellegrini, S. Reiche, J. Rosenzweig, and V. Yakimenko, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 204801 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Den Hartog, P.

V. Sajaev, Z. Huang, S. Biedron, P. Den Hartog, E. Gluskin, K. Kim, J. Lewellen, Y. Li, O. Makarov, S. Milton, and E. Moog, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 506, 304 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Eland, J.

J. Eland, O. Vieuxmaire, T. Kinugawa, P. Lablanquie, R. Hall, and F. Penent, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 530031 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Epulandi, L.

L. Poletto, L. Epulandi, P. Nicolosi, M. Pelizzo, P. Zambolin, J. Feldhaus, U. Jastrow, U. Hahn, E. Plönjes, and K. Tiedtke, in Proc. SPIE 5534, 37 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Faatz, B.

W. Brefeld, B. Faatz, J. Feldhaus, M. Korfer, J. Krzywinski, T. Möller, J. Pflueger, E. Saldin, E. Schneidmiller, S. Schreiber, and M. Jurkov, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 507, 431 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Feldhaus, J.

L. Poletto, L. Epulandi, P. Nicolosi, M. Pelizzo, P. Zambolin, J. Feldhaus, U. Jastrow, U. Hahn, E. Plönjes, and K. Tiedtke, in Proc. SPIE 5534, 37 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. Brefeld, B. Faatz, J. Feldhaus, M. Korfer, J. Krzywinski, T. Möller, J. Pflueger, E. Saldin, E. Schneidmiller, S. Schreiber, and M. Jurkov, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 507, 431 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Geloni, G.

G. Geloni, E. Saldin, E. Schneidmiller, and M. Yurkov, 'Exact solution for the second harmonic generation in XFELS,' Opt. Commun. (to be published).

Gluskin, E.

V. Sajaev, Z. Huang, S. Biedron, P. Den Hartog, E. Gluskin, K. Kim, J. Lewellen, Y. Li, O. Makarov, S. Milton, and E. Moog, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 506, 304 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hahn, U.

L. Poletto, L. Epulandi, P. Nicolosi, M. Pelizzo, P. Zambolin, J. Feldhaus, U. Jastrow, U. Hahn, E. Plönjes, and K. Tiedtke, in Proc. SPIE 5534, 37 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hall, R.

J. Eland, O. Vieuxmaire, T. Kinugawa, P. Lablanquie, R. Hall, and F. Penent, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 530031 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Z.

V. Sajaev, Z. Huang, S. Biedron, P. Den Hartog, E. Gluskin, K. Kim, J. Lewellen, Y. Li, O. Makarov, S. Milton, and E. Moog, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 506, 304 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jastrow, U.

L. Poletto, L. Epulandi, P. Nicolosi, M. Pelizzo, P. Zambolin, J. Feldhaus, U. Jastrow, U. Hahn, E. Plönjes, and K. Tiedtke, in Proc. SPIE 5534, 37 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jurkov, M.

W. Brefeld, B. Faatz, J. Feldhaus, M. Korfer, J. Krzywinski, T. Möller, J. Pflueger, E. Saldin, E. Schneidmiller, S. Schreiber, and M. Jurkov, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 507, 431 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K.

V. Sajaev, Z. Huang, S. Biedron, P. Den Hartog, E. Gluskin, K. Kim, J. Lewellen, Y. Li, O. Makarov, S. Milton, and E. Moog, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 506, 304 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kinugawa, T.

J. Eland, O. Vieuxmaire, T. Kinugawa, P. Lablanquie, R. Hall, and F. Penent, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 530031 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Korfer, M.

W. Brefeld, B. Faatz, J. Feldhaus, M. Korfer, J. Krzywinski, T. Möller, J. Pflueger, E. Saldin, E. Schneidmiller, S. Schreiber, and M. Jurkov, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 507, 431 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kornberg, M. A.

M. A. Kornberg and P. Lambropoulos, J. Phys. B 32, L603 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Krzywinski, J.

W. Brefeld, B. Faatz, J. Feldhaus, M. Korfer, J. Krzywinski, T. Möller, J. Pflueger, E. Saldin, E. Schneidmiller, S. Schreiber, and M. Jurkov, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 507, 431 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lablanquie, P.

J. Eland, O. Vieuxmaire, T. Kinugawa, P. Lablanquie, R. Hall, and F. Penent, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 530031 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lambropoulos, P.

S. I. Themelis, P. Lambropoulos, and M. Meyer, J. Phys. B 37, 4281 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Kornberg and P. Lambropoulos, J. Phys. B 32, L603 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lewellen, J.

V. Sajaev, Z. Huang, S. Biedron, P. Den Hartog, E. Gluskin, K. Kim, J. Lewellen, Y. Li, O. Makarov, S. Milton, and E. Moog, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 506, 304 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

V. Sajaev, Z. Huang, S. Biedron, P. Den Hartog, E. Gluskin, K. Kim, J. Lewellen, Y. Li, O. Makarov, S. Milton, and E. Moog, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 506, 304 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Makarov, O.

V. Sajaev, Z. Huang, S. Biedron, P. Den Hartog, E. Gluskin, K. Kim, J. Lewellen, Y. Li, O. Makarov, S. Milton, and E. Moog, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 506, 304 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Malone, R.

A. Tremaine, X. Wang, M. Babzien, I. Ben-Zvi, M. Cornacchia, H.-D. Nuhn, R. Malone, A. Murokh, C. Pellegrini, S. Reiche, J. Rosenzweig, and V. Yakimenko, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 204801 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meyer, M.

S. I. Themelis, P. Lambropoulos, and M. Meyer, J. Phys. B 37, 4281 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Milton, S.

V. Sajaev, Z. Huang, S. Biedron, P. Den Hartog, E. Gluskin, K. Kim, J. Lewellen, Y. Li, O. Makarov, S. Milton, and E. Moog, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 506, 304 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Möller, T.

W. Brefeld, B. Faatz, J. Feldhaus, M. Korfer, J. Krzywinski, T. Möller, J. Pflueger, E. Saldin, E. Schneidmiller, S. Schreiber, and M. Jurkov, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 507, 431 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Moog, E.

V. Sajaev, Z. Huang, S. Biedron, P. Den Hartog, E. Gluskin, K. Kim, J. Lewellen, Y. Li, O. Makarov, S. Milton, and E. Moog, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 506, 304 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Murokh, A.

A. Tremaine, X. Wang, M. Babzien, I. Ben-Zvi, M. Cornacchia, H.-D. Nuhn, R. Malone, A. Murokh, C. Pellegrini, S. Reiche, J. Rosenzweig, and V. Yakimenko, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 204801 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nicolosi, P.

L. Poletto, L. Epulandi, P. Nicolosi, M. Pelizzo, P. Zambolin, J. Feldhaus, U. Jastrow, U. Hahn, E. Plönjes, and K. Tiedtke, in Proc. SPIE 5534, 37 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nuhn, H.-D.

A. Tremaine, X. Wang, M. Babzien, I. Ben-Zvi, M. Cornacchia, H.-D. Nuhn, R. Malone, A. Murokh, C. Pellegrini, S. Reiche, J. Rosenzweig, and V. Yakimenko, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 204801 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pelizzo, M.

L. Poletto, L. Epulandi, P. Nicolosi, M. Pelizzo, P. Zambolin, J. Feldhaus, U. Jastrow, U. Hahn, E. Plönjes, and K. Tiedtke, in Proc. SPIE 5534, 37 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pellegrini, C.

A. Tremaine, X. Wang, M. Babzien, I. Ben-Zvi, M. Cornacchia, H.-D. Nuhn, R. Malone, A. Murokh, C. Pellegrini, S. Reiche, J. Rosenzweig, and V. Yakimenko, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 204801 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Penent, F.

J. Eland, O. Vieuxmaire, T. Kinugawa, P. Lablanquie, R. Hall, and F. Penent, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 530031 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pflueger, J.

W. Brefeld, B. Faatz, J. Feldhaus, M. Korfer, J. Krzywinski, T. Möller, J. Pflueger, E. Saldin, E. Schneidmiller, S. Schreiber, and M. Jurkov, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 507, 431 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Plönjes, E.

L. Poletto, L. Epulandi, P. Nicolosi, M. Pelizzo, P. Zambolin, J. Feldhaus, U. Jastrow, U. Hahn, E. Plönjes, and K. Tiedtke, in Proc. SPIE 5534, 37 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Poletto, L.

L. Poletto, L. Epulandi, P. Nicolosi, M. Pelizzo, P. Zambolin, J. Feldhaus, U. Jastrow, U. Hahn, E. Plönjes, and K. Tiedtke, in Proc. SPIE 5534, 37 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Reiche, S.

A. Tremaine, X. Wang, M. Babzien, I. Ben-Zvi, M. Cornacchia, H.-D. Nuhn, R. Malone, A. Murokh, C. Pellegrini, S. Reiche, J. Rosenzweig, and V. Yakimenko, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 204801 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rosenzweig, J.

A. Tremaine, X. Wang, M. Babzien, I. Ben-Zvi, M. Cornacchia, H.-D. Nuhn, R. Malone, A. Murokh, C. Pellegrini, S. Reiche, J. Rosenzweig, and V. Yakimenko, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 204801 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sajaev, V.

V. Sajaev, Z. Huang, S. Biedron, P. Den Hartog, E. Gluskin, K. Kim, J. Lewellen, Y. Li, O. Makarov, S. Milton, and E. Moog, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 506, 304 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Saldin, E.

W. Brefeld, B. Faatz, J. Feldhaus, M. Korfer, J. Krzywinski, T. Möller, J. Pflueger, E. Saldin, E. Schneidmiller, S. Schreiber, and M. Jurkov, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 507, 431 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Saldin, E. Schneidmiller, and M. Yurkov, 'Properties of the odd harmonics of the radiation from SASE FEL with planar undulator,' Opt. Commun. (to be published).

G. Geloni, E. Saldin, E. Schneidmiller, and M. Yurkov, 'Exact solution for the second harmonic generation in XFELS,' Opt. Commun. (to be published).

E. Saldin, E. Schneidmiller, and M. Yurkov, The Physics of Free Electron Lasers (Springer, 1999).

Schneidmiller, E.

W. Brefeld, B. Faatz, J. Feldhaus, M. Korfer, J. Krzywinski, T. Möller, J. Pflueger, E. Saldin, E. Schneidmiller, S. Schreiber, and M. Jurkov, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 507, 431 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Saldin, E. Schneidmiller, and M. Yurkov, 'Properties of the odd harmonics of the radiation from SASE FEL with planar undulator,' Opt. Commun. (to be published).

E. Saldin, E. Schneidmiller, and M. Yurkov, The Physics of Free Electron Lasers (Springer, 1999).

G. Geloni, E. Saldin, E. Schneidmiller, and M. Yurkov, 'Exact solution for the second harmonic generation in XFELS,' Opt. Commun. (to be published).

Schreiber, S.

W. Brefeld, B. Faatz, J. Feldhaus, M. Korfer, J. Krzywinski, T. Möller, J. Pflueger, E. Saldin, E. Schneidmiller, S. Schreiber, and M. Jurkov, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 507, 431 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shirley, D. A.

U. Becker and D. A. Shirley, eds., VUV and Soft X-Ray Photoionization (Plenum, 1996).
[CrossRef]

Themelis, S. I.

S. I. Themelis, P. Lambropoulos, and M. Meyer, J. Phys. B 37, 4281 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tiedtke, K.

L. Poletto, L. Epulandi, P. Nicolosi, M. Pelizzo, P. Zambolin, J. Feldhaus, U. Jastrow, U. Hahn, E. Plönjes, and K. Tiedtke, in Proc. SPIE 5534, 37 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tremaine, A.

A. Tremaine, X. Wang, M. Babzien, I. Ben-Zvi, M. Cornacchia, H.-D. Nuhn, R. Malone, A. Murokh, C. Pellegrini, S. Reiche, J. Rosenzweig, and V. Yakimenko, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 204801 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vieuxmaire, O.

J. Eland, O. Vieuxmaire, T. Kinugawa, P. Lablanquie, R. Hall, and F. Penent, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 530031 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

A. Tremaine, X. Wang, M. Babzien, I. Ben-Zvi, M. Cornacchia, H.-D. Nuhn, R. Malone, A. Murokh, C. Pellegrini, S. Reiche, J. Rosenzweig, and V. Yakimenko, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 204801 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yakimenko, V.

A. Tremaine, X. Wang, M. Babzien, I. Ben-Zvi, M. Cornacchia, H.-D. Nuhn, R. Malone, A. Murokh, C. Pellegrini, S. Reiche, J. Rosenzweig, and V. Yakimenko, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 204801 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yurkov, M.

E. Saldin, E. Schneidmiller, and M. Yurkov, 'Properties of the odd harmonics of the radiation from SASE FEL with planar undulator,' Opt. Commun. (to be published).

G. Geloni, E. Saldin, E. Schneidmiller, and M. Yurkov, 'Exact solution for the second harmonic generation in XFELS,' Opt. Commun. (to be published).

E. Saldin, E. Schneidmiller, and M. Yurkov, The Physics of Free Electron Lasers (Springer, 1999).

Zambolin, P.

L. Poletto, L. Epulandi, P. Nicolosi, M. Pelizzo, P. Zambolin, J. Feldhaus, U. Jastrow, U. Hahn, E. Plönjes, and K. Tiedtke, in Proc. SPIE 5534, 37 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Eur. Phys. J. D

V. Ayvazyan, Eur. Phys. J. D 37, 297 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. B

S. I. Themelis, P. Lambropoulos, and M. Meyer, J. Phys. B 37, 4281 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Kornberg and P. Lambropoulos, J. Phys. B 32, L603 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A

V. Sajaev, Z. Huang, S. Biedron, P. Den Hartog, E. Gluskin, K. Kim, J. Lewellen, Y. Li, O. Makarov, S. Milton, and E. Moog, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 506, 304 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. Brefeld, B. Faatz, J. Feldhaus, M. Korfer, J. Krzywinski, T. Möller, J. Pflueger, E. Saldin, E. Schneidmiller, S. Schreiber, and M. Jurkov, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 507, 431 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

A. Tremaine, X. Wang, M. Babzien, I. Ben-Zvi, M. Cornacchia, H.-D. Nuhn, R. Malone, A. Murokh, C. Pellegrini, S. Reiche, J. Rosenzweig, and V. Yakimenko, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 204801 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Andruszkow, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3825 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Eland, O. Vieuxmaire, T. Kinugawa, P. Lablanquie, R. Hall, and F. Penent, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 530031 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

L. Poletto, L. Epulandi, P. Nicolosi, M. Pelizzo, P. Zambolin, J. Feldhaus, U. Jastrow, U. Hahn, E. Plönjes, and K. Tiedtke, in Proc. SPIE 5534, 37 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other

The main causes of error are (i) the uncalibrated fluorescence yield of the Ce:YAG screen and (ii) the different angular distributions of the fundamental and the harmonics.

Since the transmission of the beamline is almost constant over the 30-130eV photon energy range, only the total FEL intensity is reduced between the spectrometer and the end station, located about 25 and 70m behind the undulator, respectively.

U. Becker and D. A. Shirley, eds., VUV and Soft X-Ray Photoionization (Plenum, 1996).
[CrossRef]

E. Saldin, E. Schneidmiller, and M. Yurkov, The Physics of Free Electron Lasers (Springer, 1999).

E. Saldin, E. Schneidmiller, and M. Yurkov, 'Properties of the odd harmonics of the radiation from SASE FEL with planar undulator,' Opt. Commun. (to be published).

G. Geloni, E. Saldin, E. Schneidmiller, and M. Yurkov, 'Exact solution for the second harmonic generation in XFELS,' Opt. Commun. (to be published).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Photoelectron spectrum of Xe recorded after interaction with VUV photons from the FEL lasing at 32.2 nm ( 38.5 eV ) . The 5p photolines as well as the additional structures induced by the second and third harmonics of the FEL are indicated.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Relative pulse energies of the fundamental and the third harmonic were measured for 100 individual FEL pulses (stars) by TOF spectroscopy. The simulated SASE pulses (six modes, circles) and the TOF data were scaled to the provided average pulse energy of 5 μ J .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

VUV spectra for ten arbitrarily chosen FEL pulses. The main wavelength for all pulses is about 32.2 nm , with an overall width of about 0.4 nm . Inset, third-harmonic spectrum, centered at 10.7 nm , averaged over 2500 pulses .

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