Abstract

We demonstrate the experimental generation at optical frequencies of the lowest- and first-order Bessel beams with TE and TM polarizations in free space by means of a Mach–Zehnder interferometer. The polarization and angular momentum properties of these waves are analyzed and discussed.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. Durnin, J. J. Miceli, and J. H. Eberly, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1499 (1987).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. D. McGloin and K. Dholakia, Contemp. Phys. 46, 15 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  3. J. Turunen and A. T. Friberg, Pure Appl. Opt. 2, 51 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  4. R. Horak, Z. Bouchal, and J. Bajer, Opt. Commun. 133, 315 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  5. S. R. Mishra, Opt. Commun. 85, 159 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  6. R. Jauregui and S. Hacyan, Phys. Rev. A 71, 033411 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  7. S. Hacyan, and R. Jauregui, J. Phys. B 39, 1669 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  8. A. Niv, G. Biener, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, Opt. Lett. 29, 238 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. G. Volpe and D. Petrov, Opt. Commun. 237, 89 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  10. K. C. Toussaint, Jr., S. Park, J. E. Jureller, and N. F. Scherer, Opt. Lett. 30, 2846 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. S. C. Tidwell, D. H. Ford, and W. D. Kimura, Appl. Opt. 29, 2234 (1990).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. E. Engel, N. Huse, T. A. Klar, and S. W. Hell, Appl. Phys. B 77, 11 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  13. J. Arlt and K. Dholakia, Opt. Commun. 177, 297 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  14. J. Arlt, K. Dholakia, J. Soneson, and E. M. Wright, Phys. Rev. A 63, 063602 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  15. J. Tervo and J. Turunen, Opt. Commun. 192, 13 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  16. L. Mandel and E. Wolf, Optical Coherence and Quantum Optics (Cambridge U. Press, 1995).
  17. L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185 (1992).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

S. Hacyan, and R. Jauregui, J. Phys. B 39, 1669 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (3)

R. Jauregui and S. Hacyan, Phys. Rev. A 71, 033411 (2005).
[Crossref]

D. McGloin and K. Dholakia, Contemp. Phys. 46, 15 (2005).
[Crossref]

K. C. Toussaint, Jr., S. Park, J. E. Jureller, and N. F. Scherer, Opt. Lett. 30, 2846 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

2003 (1)

E. Engel, N. Huse, T. A. Klar, and S. W. Hell, Appl. Phys. B 77, 11 (2003).
[Crossref]

2001 (2)

J. Arlt, K. Dholakia, J. Soneson, and E. M. Wright, Phys. Rev. A 63, 063602 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. Tervo and J. Turunen, Opt. Commun. 192, 13 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

J. Arlt and K. Dholakia, Opt. Commun. 177, 297 (2000).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

R. Horak, Z. Bouchal, and J. Bajer, Opt. Commun. 133, 315 (1997).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

J. Turunen and A. T. Friberg, Pure Appl. Opt. 2, 51 (1993).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

S. R. Mishra, Opt. Commun. 85, 159 (1991).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

1987 (1)

J. Durnin, J. J. Miceli, and J. H. Eberly, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1499 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Allen, L.

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arlt, J.

J. Arlt, K. Dholakia, J. Soneson, and E. M. Wright, Phys. Rev. A 63, 063602 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. Arlt and K. Dholakia, Opt. Commun. 177, 297 (2000).
[Crossref]

Bajer, J.

R. Horak, Z. Bouchal, and J. Bajer, Opt. Commun. 133, 315 (1997).
[Crossref]

Beijersbergen, M. W.

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biener, G.

Bouchal, Z.

R. Horak, Z. Bouchal, and J. Bajer, Opt. Commun. 133, 315 (1997).
[Crossref]

Dholakia, K.

D. McGloin and K. Dholakia, Contemp. Phys. 46, 15 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Arlt, K. Dholakia, J. Soneson, and E. M. Wright, Phys. Rev. A 63, 063602 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. Arlt and K. Dholakia, Opt. Commun. 177, 297 (2000).
[Crossref]

Durnin, J.

J. Durnin, J. J. Miceli, and J. H. Eberly, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1499 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eberly, J. H.

J. Durnin, J. J. Miceli, and J. H. Eberly, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1499 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Engel, E.

E. Engel, N. Huse, T. A. Klar, and S. W. Hell, Appl. Phys. B 77, 11 (2003).
[Crossref]

Ford, D. H.

Friberg, A. T.

J. Turunen and A. T. Friberg, Pure Appl. Opt. 2, 51 (1993).
[Crossref]

Hacyan, S.

S. Hacyan, and R. Jauregui, J. Phys. B 39, 1669 (2006).
[Crossref]

R. Jauregui and S. Hacyan, Phys. Rev. A 71, 033411 (2005).
[Crossref]

Hasman, E.

Hell, S. W.

E. Engel, N. Huse, T. A. Klar, and S. W. Hell, Appl. Phys. B 77, 11 (2003).
[Crossref]

Horak, R.

R. Horak, Z. Bouchal, and J. Bajer, Opt. Commun. 133, 315 (1997).
[Crossref]

Huse, N.

E. Engel, N. Huse, T. A. Klar, and S. W. Hell, Appl. Phys. B 77, 11 (2003).
[Crossref]

Jauregui, R.

S. Hacyan, and R. Jauregui, J. Phys. B 39, 1669 (2006).
[Crossref]

R. Jauregui and S. Hacyan, Phys. Rev. A 71, 033411 (2005).
[Crossref]

Jureller, J. E.

Kimura, W. D.

Klar, T. A.

E. Engel, N. Huse, T. A. Klar, and S. W. Hell, Appl. Phys. B 77, 11 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kleiner, V.

Mandel, L.

L. Mandel and E. Wolf, Optical Coherence and Quantum Optics (Cambridge U. Press, 1995).

McGloin, D.

D. McGloin and K. Dholakia, Contemp. Phys. 46, 15 (2005).
[Crossref]

Miceli, J. J.

J. Durnin, J. J. Miceli, and J. H. Eberly, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1499 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mishra, S. R.

S. R. Mishra, Opt. Commun. 85, 159 (1991).
[Crossref]

Niv, A.

Park, S.

Petrov, D.

G. Volpe and D. Petrov, Opt. Commun. 237, 89 (2004).
[Crossref]

Scherer, N. F.

Soneson, J.

J. Arlt, K. Dholakia, J. Soneson, and E. M. Wright, Phys. Rev. A 63, 063602 (2001).
[Crossref]

Spreeuw, R. J. C.

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tervo, J.

J. Tervo and J. Turunen, Opt. Commun. 192, 13 (2001).
[Crossref]

Tidwell, S. C.

Toussaint, K. C.

Turunen, J.

J. Tervo and J. Turunen, Opt. Commun. 192, 13 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. Turunen and A. T. Friberg, Pure Appl. Opt. 2, 51 (1993).
[Crossref]

Volpe, G.

G. Volpe and D. Petrov, Opt. Commun. 237, 89 (2004).
[Crossref]

Woerdman, J. P.

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wolf, E.

L. Mandel and E. Wolf, Optical Coherence and Quantum Optics (Cambridge U. Press, 1995).

Wright, E. M.

J. Arlt, K. Dholakia, J. Soneson, and E. M. Wright, Phys. Rev. A 63, 063602 (2001).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

E. Engel, N. Huse, T. A. Klar, and S. W. Hell, Appl. Phys. B 77, 11 (2003).
[Crossref]

Contemp. Phys. (1)

D. McGloin and K. Dholakia, Contemp. Phys. 46, 15 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. B (1)

S. Hacyan, and R. Jauregui, J. Phys. B 39, 1669 (2006).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (5)

G. Volpe and D. Petrov, Opt. Commun. 237, 89 (2004).
[Crossref]

R. Horak, Z. Bouchal, and J. Bajer, Opt. Commun. 133, 315 (1997).
[Crossref]

S. R. Mishra, Opt. Commun. 85, 159 (1991).
[Crossref]

J. Arlt and K. Dholakia, Opt. Commun. 177, 297 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. Tervo and J. Turunen, Opt. Commun. 192, 13 (2001).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. A (3)

R. Jauregui and S. Hacyan, Phys. Rev. A 71, 033411 (2005).
[Crossref]

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Arlt, K. Dholakia, J. Soneson, and E. M. Wright, Phys. Rev. A 63, 063602 (2001).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

J. Durnin, J. J. Miceli, and J. H. Eberly, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1499 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

J. Turunen and A. T. Friberg, Pure Appl. Opt. 2, 51 (1993).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

L. Mandel and E. Wolf, Optical Coherence and Quantum Optics (Cambridge U. Press, 1995).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup: L1 and L2, beam expander lenses; CGH, vortex mask; M1–M4, mirrors; ID1 and ID2, iris diaphragms; GP, tilting glass plate; Pl, linear polarizer; PBS, polarizing beam splitter; QWP, quarter-wave plate; AX, axicon; PA, analyzer polarizer; CCD, camera.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Theoretical simulations (columns A and C) and experimental results (columns B and D) for the intensity distributions (top row) and polarization analysis (middle and bottom rows) for a zero-order TM mode (A and B) and a first-order TE mode (C and D).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Vector diagrams for the transverse components of the electric field for first-order TE (top row) and TM (bottom row) modes at instants from left to right, t = 0 , t = 0.125 , in units of 2 π ω .

Equations (4)

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E l = { [ i E TM ( J l 1 J l + 1 ) k k z E TE ( J l 1 + J l + 1 ) ] u ρ ] [ E TM ( J l 1 + J l + 1 ) + i k k z E TE ( J l 1 J l + 1 ) ] u φ + { 2 k t k z E TM J l u z } e i k z z + i l φ i ω t ,
E l = [ ( i E TM + k k z E TE ) J l 1 e i ( l 1 ) φ u + + ( i E TM + k k 2 E TE ) J l + 1 e i ( l + 1 ) φ u ) + [ 2 k t k z E TM J l e i l φ u z ] e i k z z i ω t .
L z TM = ϵ l k E TM 2 [ J l 1 2 + J l + 1 2 + 2 k t 2 k z 2 J l 2 + 2 ( J l 1 J l + 1 + 2 k t 2 k z 2 J l 2 ) cos 2 ( l φ k z z ω t ) ] ,
S z TM = ϵ k E TM 2 ( J l 1 2 J l + 1 2 )

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