Abstract

We study whether helium ion implantation can reduce the carrier lifetime and thus reduce the density of two-photon-absorption-generated free carriers. Our experiments and theoretical model show that helium ion implantation into silicon waveguides can successfully reduce the free-carrier losses and allow net gain to be attained by cw-pumped stimulated Raman scattering without requiring reverse bias to remove the photogenerated free carriers.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. L. Espinola, J. I. Dadap, R. M. Osgood, Jr., S. J. McNab, and Y. A. Vlasov, Opt. Express 12, 3713 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. Q. F. Xu, V. R. Almeida, and M. Lipson, Opt. Lett. 30, 35 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. T. K. Liang and H. K. Tsang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3343 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. O. Boyraz and B. Jalali, IEICE Electron. Express 1, 429 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. Liu, H. Rong, M. Paniccia, O. Cohen, and D. Hak, Opt. Express 12, 4261 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. R. Jones, H. Rong, A. Liu, A. W. Fang, M. J. Paniccia, D. Hak, and O. Cohen, Opt. Express 13, 519 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. O. Boyraz and B. Jalali, Opt. Express 12, 5269 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, Nature 433, 725 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. R. Claps, D. Dimitropoulos, and B. Jalali, Electron. Lett. 38, 1352 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  10. T. K. Liang and H. K. Tsang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2745 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  11. D. Dimitropoulos, R. Jhaveri, R. Claps, J. C. S. Woo, and B. Jalali, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 071115 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  12. D. Dimitropoulos, S. Fathpour, and B. Jalali, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 261108 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  13. V. K. Khanna, Eur. J. Phys. 25, 221 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  14. P. Spirito, S. Daliento, A. Sanseverino, L. Gialanella, M. Romano, B. N. Limata, R. Carta, and L. Bellemo, IEEE Electron Device Lett. 25, 602 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  15. Y. Liu, C. W. Chow, W. Y. Cheung, and H. K. Tsang, in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference & Exposition, OFC '06 (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper OWI78.
  16. H. K. Tsang, P. A. Snow, I. E. Day, I. H. White, R. V. Penty, R. S. Grant, Z. Su, G. T. Kennedy, and W. Sibbett, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1451 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  17. R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 123 (1987).
    [CrossRef]

2005

Q. F. Xu, V. R. Almeida, and M. Lipson, Opt. Lett. 30, 35 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Jones, H. Rong, A. Liu, A. W. Fang, M. J. Paniccia, D. Hak, and O. Cohen, Opt. Express 13, 519 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, Nature 433, 725 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Dimitropoulos, R. Jhaveri, R. Claps, J. C. S. Woo, and B. Jalali, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 071115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Dimitropoulos, S. Fathpour, and B. Jalali, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 261108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

V. K. Khanna, Eur. J. Phys. 25, 221 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Spirito, S. Daliento, A. Sanseverino, L. Gialanella, M. Romano, B. N. Limata, R. Carta, and L. Bellemo, IEEE Electron Device Lett. 25, 602 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Espinola, J. I. Dadap, R. M. Osgood, Jr., S. J. McNab, and Y. A. Vlasov, Opt. Express 12, 3713 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. K. Liang and H. K. Tsang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2745 (2004).
[CrossRef]

O. Boyraz and B. Jalali, Opt. Express 12, 5269 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. K. Liang and H. K. Tsang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3343 (2004).
[CrossRef]

O. Boyraz and B. Jalali, IEICE Electron. Express 1, 429 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Liu, H. Rong, M. Paniccia, O. Cohen, and D. Hak, Opt. Express 12, 4261 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

R. Claps, D. Dimitropoulos, and B. Jalali, Electron. Lett. 38, 1352 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1993

H. K. Tsang, P. A. Snow, I. E. Day, I. H. White, R. V. Penty, R. S. Grant, Z. Su, G. T. Kennedy, and W. Sibbett, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1451 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1987

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 123 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Almeida, V. R.

Bellemo, L.

P. Spirito, S. Daliento, A. Sanseverino, L. Gialanella, M. Romano, B. N. Limata, R. Carta, and L. Bellemo, IEEE Electron Device Lett. 25, 602 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, B. R.

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 123 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Boyraz, O.

O. Boyraz and B. Jalali, IEICE Electron. Express 1, 429 (2004).
[CrossRef]

O. Boyraz and B. Jalali, Opt. Express 12, 5269 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carta, R.

P. Spirito, S. Daliento, A. Sanseverino, L. Gialanella, M. Romano, B. N. Limata, R. Carta, and L. Bellemo, IEEE Electron Device Lett. 25, 602 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cheung, W. Y.

Y. Liu, C. W. Chow, W. Y. Cheung, and H. K. Tsang, in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference & Exposition, OFC '06 (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper OWI78.

Chow, C. W.

Y. Liu, C. W. Chow, W. Y. Cheung, and H. K. Tsang, in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference & Exposition, OFC '06 (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper OWI78.

Claps, R.

D. Dimitropoulos, R. Jhaveri, R. Claps, J. C. S. Woo, and B. Jalali, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 071115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Claps, D. Dimitropoulos, and B. Jalali, Electron. Lett. 38, 1352 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, O.

Dadap, J. I.

Daliento, S.

P. Spirito, S. Daliento, A. Sanseverino, L. Gialanella, M. Romano, B. N. Limata, R. Carta, and L. Bellemo, IEEE Electron Device Lett. 25, 602 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Day, I. E.

H. K. Tsang, P. A. Snow, I. E. Day, I. H. White, R. V. Penty, R. S. Grant, Z. Su, G. T. Kennedy, and W. Sibbett, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1451 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Dimitropoulos, D.

D. Dimitropoulos, S. Fathpour, and B. Jalali, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 261108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Dimitropoulos, R. Jhaveri, R. Claps, J. C. S. Woo, and B. Jalali, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 071115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Claps, D. Dimitropoulos, and B. Jalali, Electron. Lett. 38, 1352 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Espinola, R. L.

Fang, A.

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, Nature 433, 725 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fang, A. W.

Fathpour, S.

D. Dimitropoulos, S. Fathpour, and B. Jalali, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 261108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gialanella, L.

P. Spirito, S. Daliento, A. Sanseverino, L. Gialanella, M. Romano, B. N. Limata, R. Carta, and L. Bellemo, IEEE Electron Device Lett. 25, 602 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Grant, R. S.

H. K. Tsang, P. A. Snow, I. E. Day, I. H. White, R. V. Penty, R. S. Grant, Z. Su, G. T. Kennedy, and W. Sibbett, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1451 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hak, D.

Jalali, B.

D. Dimitropoulos, S. Fathpour, and B. Jalali, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 261108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Dimitropoulos, R. Jhaveri, R. Claps, J. C. S. Woo, and B. Jalali, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 071115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

O. Boyraz and B. Jalali, IEICE Electron. Express 1, 429 (2004).
[CrossRef]

O. Boyraz and B. Jalali, Opt. Express 12, 5269 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Claps, D. Dimitropoulos, and B. Jalali, Electron. Lett. 38, 1352 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jhaveri, R.

D. Dimitropoulos, R. Jhaveri, R. Claps, J. C. S. Woo, and B. Jalali, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 071115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jones, R.

Kennedy, G. T.

H. K. Tsang, P. A. Snow, I. E. Day, I. H. White, R. V. Penty, R. S. Grant, Z. Su, G. T. Kennedy, and W. Sibbett, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1451 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Khanna, V. K.

V. K. Khanna, Eur. J. Phys. 25, 221 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liang, T. K.

T. K. Liang and H. K. Tsang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3343 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. K. Liang and H. K. Tsang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2745 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Limata, B. N.

P. Spirito, S. Daliento, A. Sanseverino, L. Gialanella, M. Romano, B. N. Limata, R. Carta, and L. Bellemo, IEEE Electron Device Lett. 25, 602 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lipson, M.

Liu, A.

Liu, Y.

Y. Liu, C. W. Chow, W. Y. Cheung, and H. K. Tsang, in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference & Exposition, OFC '06 (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper OWI78.

McNab, S. J.

Osgood, R. M.

Paniccia, M.

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, Nature 433, 725 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liu, H. Rong, M. Paniccia, O. Cohen, and D. Hak, Opt. Express 12, 4261 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paniccia, M. J.

Penty, R. V.

H. K. Tsang, P. A. Snow, I. E. Day, I. H. White, R. V. Penty, R. S. Grant, Z. Su, G. T. Kennedy, and W. Sibbett, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1451 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Romano, M.

P. Spirito, S. Daliento, A. Sanseverino, L. Gialanella, M. Romano, B. N. Limata, R. Carta, and L. Bellemo, IEEE Electron Device Lett. 25, 602 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rong, H.

Sanseverino, A.

P. Spirito, S. Daliento, A. Sanseverino, L. Gialanella, M. Romano, B. N. Limata, R. Carta, and L. Bellemo, IEEE Electron Device Lett. 25, 602 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sibbett, W.

H. K. Tsang, P. A. Snow, I. E. Day, I. H. White, R. V. Penty, R. S. Grant, Z. Su, G. T. Kennedy, and W. Sibbett, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1451 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Snow, P. A.

H. K. Tsang, P. A. Snow, I. E. Day, I. H. White, R. V. Penty, R. S. Grant, Z. Su, G. T. Kennedy, and W. Sibbett, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1451 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Soref, R. A.

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 123 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Spirito, P.

P. Spirito, S. Daliento, A. Sanseverino, L. Gialanella, M. Romano, B. N. Limata, R. Carta, and L. Bellemo, IEEE Electron Device Lett. 25, 602 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Su, Z.

H. K. Tsang, P. A. Snow, I. E. Day, I. H. White, R. V. Penty, R. S. Grant, Z. Su, G. T. Kennedy, and W. Sibbett, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1451 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Tsang, H. K.

T. K. Liang and H. K. Tsang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3343 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. K. Liang and H. K. Tsang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2745 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Tsang, P. A. Snow, I. E. Day, I. H. White, R. V. Penty, R. S. Grant, Z. Su, G. T. Kennedy, and W. Sibbett, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1451 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, C. W. Chow, W. Y. Cheung, and H. K. Tsang, in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference & Exposition, OFC '06 (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper OWI78.

Vlasov, Y. A.

White, I. H.

H. K. Tsang, P. A. Snow, I. E. Day, I. H. White, R. V. Penty, R. S. Grant, Z. Su, G. T. Kennedy, and W. Sibbett, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1451 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Woo, J. C. S.

D. Dimitropoulos, R. Jhaveri, R. Claps, J. C. S. Woo, and B. Jalali, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 071115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Q. F.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

T. K. Liang and H. K. Tsang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3343 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. K. Liang and H. K. Tsang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2745 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Dimitropoulos, R. Jhaveri, R. Claps, J. C. S. Woo, and B. Jalali, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 071115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Dimitropoulos, S. Fathpour, and B. Jalali, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 261108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Tsang, P. A. Snow, I. E. Day, I. H. White, R. V. Penty, R. S. Grant, Z. Su, G. T. Kennedy, and W. Sibbett, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1451 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

R. Claps, D. Dimitropoulos, and B. Jalali, Electron. Lett. 38, 1352 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Eur. J. Phys.

V. K. Khanna, Eur. J. Phys. 25, 221 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Electron Device Lett.

P. Spirito, S. Daliento, A. Sanseverino, L. Gialanella, M. Romano, B. N. Limata, R. Carta, and L. Bellemo, IEEE Electron Device Lett. 25, 602 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 123 (1987).
[CrossRef]

IEICE Electron. Express

O. Boyraz and B. Jalali, IEICE Electron. Express 1, 429 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nature

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, Nature 433, 725 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Other

Y. Liu, C. W. Chow, W. Y. Cheung, and H. K. Tsang, in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference & Exposition, OFC '06 (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper OWI78.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

SRS measurement experimental setup. LIA, lock-in amplifier; RC, Raman coupler; PD, photodiode; MOD, modulator; VOA, variable optical attenuator.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Normalized probe signals transmission for the nonimplanted and ion-implanted samples at various coupled pump power. (a) Nonimplanted sample, (b) ion-implanted sample with a dose of 1 × 10 12 cm 2 .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured attenuation of the silicon waveguide as a function of forward bias current.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Net Raman gain in nonimplanted and ion-implanted samples as a function of coupled pump power.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Spectral dependence of the normalized transmission around the Stokes wavelength of 1556.5 nm and net Raman gain of the ion-implanted sample.

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

d I ( z ) d z = α s I ( z ) β I 2 ( z ) β σ τ 2 h ν I 3 ( z ) .
N ( z ) 1 2 h ν τ β I 2 ( z ) ,
d I s ( z ) d z = α s I s ( z ) 2 β I s ( z ) I ( z ) + g r I s ( z ) I ( z ) β σ S τ 2 h ν I s ( z ) I 2 ( z ) ,
G = 10 log P s ( L ) P s ( 0 ) = 10 log I s ( L ) I s ( 0 ) ,
N ( z ) 1 2 h ν τ β I 2 ( z ) + 1 h ν α e I τ ,
d I ( z ) d z = α I ( z ) β I 2 ( z ) β σ τ 2 h ν I 3 ( z ) α e σ τ h ν I 2 ( z ) ,
d I s ( z ) d z = α I s ( z ) 2 β I s ( z ) I ( z ) + g r I s ( z ) I ( z ) β σ s τ 2 h ν I s ( z ) I 2 ( z ) α e σ s τ h ν I s ( z ) I ( z ) ,

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