Abstract

We report experimental and theoretical investigations of multiple laser-line emission in a distributed-feedback dye laser pumped by two coherent optical beams. We have used a Lloyd interferometer configuration with second- and third-order Bragg reflections to study the interaction between the two incident pumps in an organic thin film. We demonstrated theoretically that the number of laser emission lines can be interpreted with reference to the saturation effect in the refractive index.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. H. Kogelnik and C. V. Shank, Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 152 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. Kogelnik and C. V. Shank, J. Appl. Phys. 43, 2327 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. N. Rubinov, T. S. Efendiev, and A. V. Adamushko, Opt. Commun. 20, 159 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Berggren, A. Dodabalapur, and R. E. Slusher, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2230 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. J. Eichler, P. Günter, and D. W. Pohl, Laser-Induced Dynamic Gratings, Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer-Verlag, 1986).
  6. Z. Bor, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16, 517 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  7. F. J. Duarte, Appl. Opt. 38, 6347 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. A. Turnbull, T. F. Krauss, W. L. Barnes, and I. D. W. Samuel, Synth. Met. 121, 1757 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  9. L. Rocha, V. Dumarcher, C. Denis, P. Raimond, C. Fiorini, and J. M. Nunzi, J. Appl. Phys. 89, 3067 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. Pisignano, L. Persano, E. Mele, P. Visconti, M. Anni, G. Gigli, R. Cingolani, L. Favaretto, and G. Barbarella, Synth. Met. 153, 237 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Gaal, C. Gadermaier, H. Plank, E. Moderegger, A. Pogantsch, G. Leising, and E. J. W. List, Adv. Mater. 15, 1165 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  12. N. Tsutsumi and A. Fujihara, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 61101 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  13. W. J. Wadsworth, I. T. McKinnie, A. D. Woolhouse, and T. G. Haskell, Appl. Phys. B 69, 163 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  14. N. Khan and T. A. Hall, Opt. Commun. 228, 177 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  15. N. Khan, Appl. Phys. B 78, 35 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  16. N. Khan, Appl. Opt. 43, 678 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. J. Bao, X. Zhang, K. Chen, and W. Zhou, Opt. Commun. 188, 31 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  18. F. Sobel, D. Gindre, J. M. Nunzi, C. Denis, V. Dumarcher, C. Fiorini, K. P. Kretsch, and L. Rocha, Opt. Mater. 27, 199 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  19. C. Ye, L. Shi, J. Wang, and D. Lo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4101 (2003).
    [CrossRef]

2005 (2)

D. Pisignano, L. Persano, E. Mele, P. Visconti, M. Anni, G. Gigli, R. Cingolani, L. Favaretto, and G. Barbarella, Synth. Met. 153, 237 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Tsutsumi and A. Fujihara, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 61101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

N. Khan, Appl. Phys. B 78, 35 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. Khan, Appl. Opt. 43, 678 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Sobel, D. Gindre, J. M. Nunzi, C. Denis, V. Dumarcher, C. Fiorini, K. P. Kretsch, and L. Rocha, Opt. Mater. 27, 199 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

C. Ye, L. Shi, J. Wang, and D. Lo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4101 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Gaal, C. Gadermaier, H. Plank, E. Moderegger, A. Pogantsch, G. Leising, and E. J. W. List, Adv. Mater. 15, 1165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. Khan and T. A. Hall, Opt. Commun. 228, 177 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

J. Bao, X. Zhang, K. Chen, and W. Zhou, Opt. Commun. 188, 31 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Turnbull, T. F. Krauss, W. L. Barnes, and I. D. W. Samuel, Synth. Met. 121, 1757 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. Rocha, V. Dumarcher, C. Denis, P. Raimond, C. Fiorini, and J. M. Nunzi, J. Appl. Phys. 89, 3067 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

F. J. Duarte, Appl. Opt. 38, 6347 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Wadsworth, I. T. McKinnie, A. D. Woolhouse, and T. G. Haskell, Appl. Phys. B 69, 163 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

M. Berggren, A. Dodabalapur, and R. E. Slusher, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2230 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

Z. Bor, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16, 517 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

A. N. Rubinov, T. S. Efendiev, and A. V. Adamushko, Opt. Commun. 20, 159 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

H. Kogelnik and C. V. Shank, J. Appl. Phys. 43, 2327 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

H. Kogelnik and C. V. Shank, Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 152 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Adamushko, A. V.

A. N. Rubinov, T. S. Efendiev, and A. V. Adamushko, Opt. Commun. 20, 159 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Anni, M.

D. Pisignano, L. Persano, E. Mele, P. Visconti, M. Anni, G. Gigli, R. Cingolani, L. Favaretto, and G. Barbarella, Synth. Met. 153, 237 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bao, J.

J. Bao, X. Zhang, K. Chen, and W. Zhou, Opt. Commun. 188, 31 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Barbarella, G.

D. Pisignano, L. Persano, E. Mele, P. Visconti, M. Anni, G. Gigli, R. Cingolani, L. Favaretto, and G. Barbarella, Synth. Met. 153, 237 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, W. L.

G. A. Turnbull, T. F. Krauss, W. L. Barnes, and I. D. W. Samuel, Synth. Met. 121, 1757 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Berggren, M.

M. Berggren, A. Dodabalapur, and R. E. Slusher, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2230 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bor, Z.

Z. Bor, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16, 517 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Chen, K.

J. Bao, X. Zhang, K. Chen, and W. Zhou, Opt. Commun. 188, 31 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cingolani, R.

D. Pisignano, L. Persano, E. Mele, P. Visconti, M. Anni, G. Gigli, R. Cingolani, L. Favaretto, and G. Barbarella, Synth. Met. 153, 237 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Denis, C.

F. Sobel, D. Gindre, J. M. Nunzi, C. Denis, V. Dumarcher, C. Fiorini, K. P. Kretsch, and L. Rocha, Opt. Mater. 27, 199 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Rocha, V. Dumarcher, C. Denis, P. Raimond, C. Fiorini, and J. M. Nunzi, J. Appl. Phys. 89, 3067 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Dodabalapur, A.

M. Berggren, A. Dodabalapur, and R. E. Slusher, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2230 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Duarte, F. J.

Dumarcher, V.

F. Sobel, D. Gindre, J. M. Nunzi, C. Denis, V. Dumarcher, C. Fiorini, K. P. Kretsch, and L. Rocha, Opt. Mater. 27, 199 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Rocha, V. Dumarcher, C. Denis, P. Raimond, C. Fiorini, and J. M. Nunzi, J. Appl. Phys. 89, 3067 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Efendiev, T. S.

A. N. Rubinov, T. S. Efendiev, and A. V. Adamushko, Opt. Commun. 20, 159 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Eichler, H. J.

H. J. Eichler, P. Günter, and D. W. Pohl, Laser-Induced Dynamic Gratings, Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer-Verlag, 1986).

Favaretto, L.

D. Pisignano, L. Persano, E. Mele, P. Visconti, M. Anni, G. Gigli, R. Cingolani, L. Favaretto, and G. Barbarella, Synth. Met. 153, 237 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fiorini, C.

F. Sobel, D. Gindre, J. M. Nunzi, C. Denis, V. Dumarcher, C. Fiorini, K. P. Kretsch, and L. Rocha, Opt. Mater. 27, 199 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Rocha, V. Dumarcher, C. Denis, P. Raimond, C. Fiorini, and J. M. Nunzi, J. Appl. Phys. 89, 3067 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fujihara, A.

N. Tsutsumi and A. Fujihara, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 61101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gaal, M.

M. Gaal, C. Gadermaier, H. Plank, E. Moderegger, A. Pogantsch, G. Leising, and E. J. W. List, Adv. Mater. 15, 1165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gadermaier, C.

M. Gaal, C. Gadermaier, H. Plank, E. Moderegger, A. Pogantsch, G. Leising, and E. J. W. List, Adv. Mater. 15, 1165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gigli, G.

D. Pisignano, L. Persano, E. Mele, P. Visconti, M. Anni, G. Gigli, R. Cingolani, L. Favaretto, and G. Barbarella, Synth. Met. 153, 237 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gindre, D.

F. Sobel, D. Gindre, J. M. Nunzi, C. Denis, V. Dumarcher, C. Fiorini, K. P. Kretsch, and L. Rocha, Opt. Mater. 27, 199 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Günter, P.

H. J. Eichler, P. Günter, and D. W. Pohl, Laser-Induced Dynamic Gratings, Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer-Verlag, 1986).

Hall, T. A.

N. Khan and T. A. Hall, Opt. Commun. 228, 177 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Haskell, T. G.

W. J. Wadsworth, I. T. McKinnie, A. D. Woolhouse, and T. G. Haskell, Appl. Phys. B 69, 163 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Khan, N.

N. Khan, Appl. Phys. B 78, 35 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. Khan, Appl. Opt. 43, 678 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Khan and T. A. Hall, Opt. Commun. 228, 177 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kogelnik, H.

H. Kogelnik and C. V. Shank, J. Appl. Phys. 43, 2327 (1972).
[CrossRef]

H. Kogelnik and C. V. Shank, Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 152 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Krauss, T. F.

G. A. Turnbull, T. F. Krauss, W. L. Barnes, and I. D. W. Samuel, Synth. Met. 121, 1757 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kretsch, K. P.

F. Sobel, D. Gindre, J. M. Nunzi, C. Denis, V. Dumarcher, C. Fiorini, K. P. Kretsch, and L. Rocha, Opt. Mater. 27, 199 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Leising, G.

M. Gaal, C. Gadermaier, H. Plank, E. Moderegger, A. Pogantsch, G. Leising, and E. J. W. List, Adv. Mater. 15, 1165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

List, E. J. W.

M. Gaal, C. Gadermaier, H. Plank, E. Moderegger, A. Pogantsch, G. Leising, and E. J. W. List, Adv. Mater. 15, 1165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lo, D.

C. Ye, L. Shi, J. Wang, and D. Lo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4101 (2003).
[CrossRef]

McKinnie, I. T.

W. J. Wadsworth, I. T. McKinnie, A. D. Woolhouse, and T. G. Haskell, Appl. Phys. B 69, 163 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mele, E.

D. Pisignano, L. Persano, E. Mele, P. Visconti, M. Anni, G. Gigli, R. Cingolani, L. Favaretto, and G. Barbarella, Synth. Met. 153, 237 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Moderegger, E.

M. Gaal, C. Gadermaier, H. Plank, E. Moderegger, A. Pogantsch, G. Leising, and E. J. W. List, Adv. Mater. 15, 1165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nunzi, J. M.

F. Sobel, D. Gindre, J. M. Nunzi, C. Denis, V. Dumarcher, C. Fiorini, K. P. Kretsch, and L. Rocha, Opt. Mater. 27, 199 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Rocha, V. Dumarcher, C. Denis, P. Raimond, C. Fiorini, and J. M. Nunzi, J. Appl. Phys. 89, 3067 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Persano, L.

D. Pisignano, L. Persano, E. Mele, P. Visconti, M. Anni, G. Gigli, R. Cingolani, L. Favaretto, and G. Barbarella, Synth. Met. 153, 237 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pisignano, D.

D. Pisignano, L. Persano, E. Mele, P. Visconti, M. Anni, G. Gigli, R. Cingolani, L. Favaretto, and G. Barbarella, Synth. Met. 153, 237 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Plank, H.

M. Gaal, C. Gadermaier, H. Plank, E. Moderegger, A. Pogantsch, G. Leising, and E. J. W. List, Adv. Mater. 15, 1165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pogantsch, A.

M. Gaal, C. Gadermaier, H. Plank, E. Moderegger, A. Pogantsch, G. Leising, and E. J. W. List, Adv. Mater. 15, 1165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pohl, D. W.

H. J. Eichler, P. Günter, and D. W. Pohl, Laser-Induced Dynamic Gratings, Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer-Verlag, 1986).

Raimond, P.

L. Rocha, V. Dumarcher, C. Denis, P. Raimond, C. Fiorini, and J. M. Nunzi, J. Appl. Phys. 89, 3067 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rocha, L.

F. Sobel, D. Gindre, J. M. Nunzi, C. Denis, V. Dumarcher, C. Fiorini, K. P. Kretsch, and L. Rocha, Opt. Mater. 27, 199 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Rocha, V. Dumarcher, C. Denis, P. Raimond, C. Fiorini, and J. M. Nunzi, J. Appl. Phys. 89, 3067 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rubinov, A. N.

A. N. Rubinov, T. S. Efendiev, and A. V. Adamushko, Opt. Commun. 20, 159 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Samuel, I. D. W.

G. A. Turnbull, T. F. Krauss, W. L. Barnes, and I. D. W. Samuel, Synth. Met. 121, 1757 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shank, C. V.

H. Kogelnik and C. V. Shank, J. Appl. Phys. 43, 2327 (1972).
[CrossRef]

H. Kogelnik and C. V. Shank, Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 152 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Shi, L.

C. Ye, L. Shi, J. Wang, and D. Lo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4101 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Slusher, R. E.

M. Berggren, A. Dodabalapur, and R. E. Slusher, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2230 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sobel, F.

F. Sobel, D. Gindre, J. M. Nunzi, C. Denis, V. Dumarcher, C. Fiorini, K. P. Kretsch, and L. Rocha, Opt. Mater. 27, 199 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tsutsumi, N.

N. Tsutsumi and A. Fujihara, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 61101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Turnbull, G. A.

G. A. Turnbull, T. F. Krauss, W. L. Barnes, and I. D. W. Samuel, Synth. Met. 121, 1757 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Visconti, P.

D. Pisignano, L. Persano, E. Mele, P. Visconti, M. Anni, G. Gigli, R. Cingolani, L. Favaretto, and G. Barbarella, Synth. Met. 153, 237 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wadsworth, W. J.

W. J. Wadsworth, I. T. McKinnie, A. D. Woolhouse, and T. G. Haskell, Appl. Phys. B 69, 163 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

C. Ye, L. Shi, J. Wang, and D. Lo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4101 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Woolhouse, A. D.

W. J. Wadsworth, I. T. McKinnie, A. D. Woolhouse, and T. G. Haskell, Appl. Phys. B 69, 163 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ye, C.

C. Ye, L. Shi, J. Wang, and D. Lo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4101 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

J. Bao, X. Zhang, K. Chen, and W. Zhou, Opt. Commun. 188, 31 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, W.

J. Bao, X. Zhang, K. Chen, and W. Zhou, Opt. Commun. 188, 31 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (1)

M. Gaal, C. Gadermaier, H. Plank, E. Moderegger, A. Pogantsch, G. Leising, and E. J. W. List, Adv. Mater. 15, 1165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. B (2)

N. Khan, Appl. Phys. B 78, 35 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Wadsworth, I. T. McKinnie, A. D. Woolhouse, and T. G. Haskell, Appl. Phys. B 69, 163 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

N. Tsutsumi and A. Fujihara, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 61101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Kogelnik and C. V. Shank, Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 152 (1971).
[CrossRef]

M. Berggren, A. Dodabalapur, and R. E. Slusher, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2230 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. Ye, L. Shi, J. Wang, and D. Lo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4101 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

Z. Bor, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16, 517 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

H. Kogelnik and C. V. Shank, J. Appl. Phys. 43, 2327 (1972).
[CrossRef]

L. Rocha, V. Dumarcher, C. Denis, P. Raimond, C. Fiorini, and J. M. Nunzi, J. Appl. Phys. 89, 3067 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (3)

A. N. Rubinov, T. S. Efendiev, and A. V. Adamushko, Opt. Commun. 20, 159 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. Bao, X. Zhang, K. Chen, and W. Zhou, Opt. Commun. 188, 31 (2001).
[CrossRef]

N. Khan and T. A. Hall, Opt. Commun. 228, 177 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Mater. (1)

F. Sobel, D. Gindre, J. M. Nunzi, C. Denis, V. Dumarcher, C. Fiorini, K. P. Kretsch, and L. Rocha, Opt. Mater. 27, 199 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Synth. Met. (2)

D. Pisignano, L. Persano, E. Mele, P. Visconti, M. Anni, G. Gigli, R. Cingolani, L. Favaretto, and G. Barbarella, Synth. Met. 153, 237 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Turnbull, T. F. Krauss, W. L. Barnes, and I. D. W. Samuel, Synth. Met. 121, 1757 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

H. J. Eichler, P. Günter, and D. W. Pohl, Laser-Induced Dynamic Gratings, Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer-Verlag, 1986).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup. The emitted beam is collected by an optical fiber (length 1 m ) and dispersed by a 1200 lines mm grating spectrometer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Configuration of incident wave vectors on the sample.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Comparison between theory and experimental results. (a) Experimental spectrum (dashed curve) obtained with θ 1 = 44.92 ° and θ 2 = 44.47 ° and plot of a part of the spectrum of the nonlinear index Δ n (solid curve) against the corresponding coupled wavelengths with m = 2 . The peaks correspond to the wavelengths emitted by the laser. The circles assign an arbitrary number to the laser lines. (b) Experimental spectrum (dashed curve) and calculated spectrum (solid curve) with m = 3 obtained with θ 1 = 28.16 ° and θ 2 = 27.90 ° . The lines are superposed onto a slope pattern because of residual ASE. The imperfect spatial matching of direct and reflected beams in the sample is probably at the origin of this effect.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E = j = 1 4 E j e i k j r ,
I = E 2 = j , l = 1 4 E j E l * e i ( k j k l ) r .
Δ n = j , l = 1 4 a j , l e i ( k j + k l ) x + j , l , m , p = 1 4 b j , l , m , p e i ( k j + k l + k m + k p ) x + j , l , m , p , q , s = 1 4 c j , l , m , p , q , s e i ( k j + k l + k m + k p + k q + k s ) x + ,
λ = n eff 2 π k = 2 n eff λ p ( sin θ j + sin θ l + sin θ m + sin θ p ) ,
λ = 2 n eff λ p ( sin θ j + sin θ l + sin θ m + sin θ p + sin θ q + sin θ s ) .

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