Abstract

Using cross-correlation frequency-resolved optical gating, we observe the phase-sensitive resonance in the interaction of a soliton with a continuous wave in a photonic crystal fiber. This interaction strongly depends on the difference in the phase velocities of the orthogonally polarized fiber modes and leads to generation of a new spectral peak. The spectral and temporal structure of this signal is revealed in our measurements, which are supported by analytical theory and numerical simulations.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, and A. J. Stentz, Opt. Lett. 25, 25 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, and G. Korn, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173901 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. L. F. Mollenauer, Science 302, 996 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. D. V. Skryabin, F. Luan, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, Science 301, 1705 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. D. Harvey, R. Leonhardt, S. Coen, G. K. L. Wong, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Lett. 28, 2225 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. F. Biancalana, D. V. Skryabin, and A. V. Yulin, Phys. Rev. E 70, 016615 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Efimov, A. J. Taylor, F. G. Omenetto, A. V. Yulin, N. Y. Joly, F. Biancalana, D. V. Skryabin, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Express 12, 6498 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. A. V. Yulin, D. V. Skryabin, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Lett. 29, 2411 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. D. V. Skryabin and A. V. Yulin, Phys. Rev. E 72, 016619 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. Efimov, A. V. Yulin, D. V. Skryabin, J. C. Knight, N. Joly, F. G. Omenetto, A. J. Taylor, and P. Russell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 213902 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. F. Lu, Q. Lin, W. H. Knox, and G. P. Agrawal, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 183901 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. A. Efimov and A. J. Taylor, Appl. Opt. 44, 4408 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

D. V. Skryabin and A. V. Yulin, Phys. Rev. E 72, 016619 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Efimov, A. V. Yulin, D. V. Skryabin, J. C. Knight, N. Joly, F. G. Omenetto, A. J. Taylor, and P. Russell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 213902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Efimov and A. J. Taylor, Appl. Opt. 44, 4408 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (4)

2003 (3)

L. F. Mollenauer, Science 302, 996 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. V. Skryabin, F. Luan, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, Science 301, 1705 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Harvey, R. Leonhardt, S. Coen, G. K. L. Wong, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Lett. 28, 2225 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, and G. Korn, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

Agrawal, G. P.

F. Lu, Q. Lin, W. H. Knox, and G. P. Agrawal, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 183901 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biancalana, F.

Coen, S.

Efimov, A.

Griebner, U.

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, and G. Korn, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harvey, J. D.

Herrmann, J.

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, and G. Korn, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Husakou, A.

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, and G. Korn, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Joly, N.

A. Efimov, A. V. Yulin, D. V. Skryabin, J. C. Knight, N. Joly, F. G. Omenetto, A. J. Taylor, and P. Russell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 213902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Joly, N. Y.

Knight, J. C.

A. Efimov, A. V. Yulin, D. V. Skryabin, J. C. Knight, N. Joly, F. G. Omenetto, A. J. Taylor, and P. Russell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 213902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Efimov, A. J. Taylor, F. G. Omenetto, A. V. Yulin, N. Y. Joly, F. Biancalana, D. V. Skryabin, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Express 12, 6498 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. V. Skryabin, F. Luan, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, Science 301, 1705 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Harvey, R. Leonhardt, S. Coen, G. K. L. Wong, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Lett. 28, 2225 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, and G. Korn, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knox, W. H.

F. Lu, Q. Lin, W. H. Knox, and G. P. Agrawal, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 183901 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Korn, G.

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, and G. Korn, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leonhardt, R.

Lin, Q.

F. Lu, Q. Lin, W. H. Knox, and G. P. Agrawal, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 183901 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, F.

F. Lu, Q. Lin, W. H. Knox, and G. P. Agrawal, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 183901 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luan, F.

D. V. Skryabin, F. Luan, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, Science 301, 1705 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mollenauer, L. F.

L. F. Mollenauer, Science 302, 996 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nickel, D.

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, and G. Korn, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Omenetto, F. G.

A. Efimov, A. V. Yulin, D. V. Skryabin, J. C. Knight, N. Joly, F. G. Omenetto, A. J. Taylor, and P. Russell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 213902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Efimov, A. J. Taylor, F. G. Omenetto, A. V. Yulin, N. Y. Joly, F. Biancalana, D. V. Skryabin, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Express 12, 6498 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ranka, J. K.

Russell, P.

A. Efimov, A. V. Yulin, D. V. Skryabin, J. C. Knight, N. Joly, F. G. Omenetto, A. J. Taylor, and P. Russell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 213902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Russell, P. St. J.

Skryabin, D. V.

D. V. Skryabin and A. V. Yulin, Phys. Rev. E 72, 016619 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Efimov, A. V. Yulin, D. V. Skryabin, J. C. Knight, N. Joly, F. G. Omenetto, A. J. Taylor, and P. Russell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 213902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Biancalana, D. V. Skryabin, and A. V. Yulin, Phys. Rev. E 70, 016615 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Yulin, D. V. Skryabin, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Lett. 29, 2411 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Efimov, A. J. Taylor, F. G. Omenetto, A. V. Yulin, N. Y. Joly, F. Biancalana, D. V. Skryabin, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Express 12, 6498 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. V. Skryabin, F. Luan, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, Science 301, 1705 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stentz, A. J.

Taylor, A. J.

Wadsworth, W. J.

J. D. Harvey, R. Leonhardt, S. Coen, G. K. L. Wong, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Lett. 28, 2225 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, and G. Korn, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Windeler, R. S.

Wong, G. K. L.

Yulin, A. V.

A. Efimov, A. V. Yulin, D. V. Skryabin, J. C. Knight, N. Joly, F. G. Omenetto, A. J. Taylor, and P. Russell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 213902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. V. Skryabin and A. V. Yulin, Phys. Rev. E 72, 016619 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Biancalana, D. V. Skryabin, and A. V. Yulin, Phys. Rev. E 70, 016615 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Efimov, A. J. Taylor, F. G. Omenetto, A. V. Yulin, N. Y. Joly, F. Biancalana, D. V. Skryabin, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Express 12, 6498 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Yulin, D. V. Skryabin, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Lett. 29, 2411 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhavoronkov, N.

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, and G. Korn, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. E (2)

F. Biancalana, D. V. Skryabin, and A. V. Yulin, Phys. Rev. E 70, 016615 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Skryabin and A. V. Yulin, Phys. Rev. E 72, 016619 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

A. Efimov, A. V. Yulin, D. V. Skryabin, J. C. Knight, N. Joly, F. G. Omenetto, A. J. Taylor, and P. Russell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 213902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Lu, Q. Lin, W. H. Knox, and G. P. Agrawal, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 183901 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, and G. Korn, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (2)

L. F. Mollenauer, Science 302, 996 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. V. Skryabin, F. Luan, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, Science 301, 1705 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Graphical solutions to the wave-vector matching equations. Wavelengths of the expected signals are given by the intersections of the quasi-parabolic function D y ( λ ) with the straight lines. The solid (dashed) curves correspond to the phase-sensitive (phase-insensitive) resonance; see the text for details. (b) Experimental XFROG diagram showing generation of the new spectral component near 1350 nm . (c) Numerically generated XFROG diagram corresponding to the experimental conditions of (b). (d) Experimental XFROG diagram showing no new spectral components when polarizations of the soliton and CW are swapped. The blob between the signal and the CW in (b)–(d) is a small part of the soliton power coupled to the orthogonal polarization.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Dependence of the signal wavelength on the soliton wavelength computed by solving the wave-vector matching equations for the phase-insensitive (dotted line) and phase sensitive (solid curve) resonances, and extracted from the experimental measurements (squares with error bars).

Equations (3)

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[ i z + D x , y ( i t ) ] A x , y + γ [ A x , y 2 + 2 3 A y , x 2 ] A x , y + γ 3 A y , x 2 A x , y * + γ A x , y d t R ( t ) I ( t t , z ) = 0 ,
k s signal ( x ) k s cw ( x ) = β signal ( y ) β cw ( y ) ,
k s signal ( x ) + k s cw ( x ) = β signal ( y ) + β cw ( y ) .

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