Abstract

We report the impulsive generation of terahertz (THz) radiation with a field amplitude of more than 1.5kVcm at megahertz repetition rates, using an interdigitated photoconducting device. The approach provides an average THz power of 190μW, corresponding to an optical-to-THz conversion efficiency of 2.5×104. Optimum conditions are achieved when the excitation spot size is of the order of the THz wavelength.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2005 (8)

H. O. Moser, B. D. F. Casse, O. Wilhelmi, and B. T. Saw, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 063901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Sekine and K. Hirakawa, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 057408 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Usami, M. Yamashita, K. Fukushima, C. Otani, and K. Kawase, Opt. Lett. 86, 141109 (2005).

A. Dreyhaupt, S. Winnerl, T. Dekorsy, and M. Helm, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 121114 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. C. M. Planken, C. E. W. M. van Rijmenam, and R. N. Schouten, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S121 (2005), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

T. Löffler, M. Kreß, M. Thomson, T. Hahn, N. Hasegawa, and H. G. Roskos, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S134 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Kim, A. Polley, and S. E. Ralph, Opt. Lett. 30, 2490 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Bartel, P. Gaal, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, and T. Elsaesser, Opt. Lett. 30, 2805 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (3)

J. Z. Xu and X.-C. Zhang, Opt. Lett. 27, 1067 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F. J. García de Abajo, Opt. Express 10, 1475 (2002).
[PubMed]

T. Bauer, J. S. Kolb, T. Löffler, E. Mohler, H. G. Roskos, and U. C. Pernisz, J. Appl. Phys. 92, 2210 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

A. Leitenstorfer, S. Hunsche, J. Shah, M. C. Nuss, and W. H. Knox, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1516 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 2, 693 (1996).

Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1604 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

K. Sato and S. Adachi, J. Appl. Phys. 73, 926 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

1944 (1)

H. A. Bethe, Phys. Rev. 66, 163 (1944).
[CrossRef]

Adachi, S.

K. Sato and S. Adachi, J. Appl. Phys. 73, 926 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bartel, T.

Bauer, T.

T. Bauer, J. S. Kolb, T. Löffler, E. Mohler, H. G. Roskos, and U. C. Pernisz, J. Appl. Phys. 92, 2210 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bethe, H. A.

H. A. Bethe, Phys. Rev. 66, 163 (1944).
[CrossRef]

Casse, B. D. F.

H. O. Moser, B. D. F. Casse, O. Wilhelmi, and B. T. Saw, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 063901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dekorsy, T.

A. Dreyhaupt, S. Winnerl, T. Dekorsy, and M. Helm, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 121114 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dreyhaupt, A.

A. Dreyhaupt, S. Winnerl, T. Dekorsy, and M. Helm, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 121114 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Elsaesser, T.

Fukushima, K.

M. Usami, M. Yamashita, K. Fukushima, C. Otani, and K. Kawase, Opt. Lett. 86, 141109 (2005).

Gaal, P.

García de Abajo, F. J.

Hahn, T.

T. Löffler, M. Kreß, M. Thomson, T. Hahn, N. Hasegawa, and H. G. Roskos, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S134 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hasegawa, N.

T. Löffler, M. Kreß, M. Thomson, T. Hahn, N. Hasegawa, and H. G. Roskos, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S134 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Helm, M.

A. Dreyhaupt, S. Winnerl, T. Dekorsy, and M. Helm, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 121114 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hirakawa, K.

N. Sekine and K. Hirakawa, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 057408 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hunsche, S.

A. Leitenstorfer, S. Hunsche, J. Shah, M. C. Nuss, and W. H. Knox, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1516 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jost, J. M.

Kawase, K.

M. Usami, M. Yamashita, K. Fukushima, C. Otani, and K. Kawase, Opt. Lett. 86, 141109 (2005).

Kim, J. H.

Knox, W. H.

A. Leitenstorfer, S. Hunsche, J. Shah, M. C. Nuss, and W. H. Knox, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1516 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kolb, J. S.

T. Bauer, J. S. Kolb, T. Löffler, E. Mohler, H. G. Roskos, and U. C. Pernisz, J. Appl. Phys. 92, 2210 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kreß, M.

T. Löffler, M. Kreß, M. Thomson, T. Hahn, N. Hasegawa, and H. G. Roskos, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S134 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Leitenstorfer, A.

A. Leitenstorfer, S. Hunsche, J. Shah, M. C. Nuss, and W. H. Knox, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1516 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Löffler, T.

T. Löffler, M. Kreß, M. Thomson, T. Hahn, N. Hasegawa, and H. G. Roskos, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S134 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Bauer, J. S. Kolb, T. Löffler, E. Mohler, H. G. Roskos, and U. C. Pernisz, J. Appl. Phys. 92, 2210 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mohler, E.

T. Bauer, J. S. Kolb, T. Löffler, E. Mohler, H. G. Roskos, and U. C. Pernisz, J. Appl. Phys. 92, 2210 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Moser, H. O.

H. O. Moser, B. D. F. Casse, O. Wilhelmi, and B. T. Saw, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 063901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nuss, M. C.

A. Leitenstorfer, S. Hunsche, J. Shah, M. C. Nuss, and W. H. Knox, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1516 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Otani, C.

M. Usami, M. Yamashita, K. Fukushima, C. Otani, and K. Kawase, Opt. Lett. 86, 141109 (2005).

Pernisz, U. C.

T. Bauer, J. S. Kolb, T. Löffler, E. Mohler, H. G. Roskos, and U. C. Pernisz, J. Appl. Phys. 92, 2210 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Planken, P. C. M.

P. C. M. Planken, C. E. W. M. van Rijmenam, and R. N. Schouten, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S121 (2005), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Polley, A.

Ralph, S. E.

Reimann, K.

Roskos, H. G.

T. Löffler, M. Kreß, M. Thomson, T. Hahn, N. Hasegawa, and H. G. Roskos, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S134 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Bauer, J. S. Kolb, T. Löffler, E. Mohler, H. G. Roskos, and U. C. Pernisz, J. Appl. Phys. 92, 2210 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sato, K.

K. Sato and S. Adachi, J. Appl. Phys. 73, 926 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Saw, B. T.

H. O. Moser, B. D. F. Casse, O. Wilhelmi, and B. T. Saw, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 063901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schouten, R. N.

P. C. M. Planken, C. E. W. M. van Rijmenam, and R. N. Schouten, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S121 (2005), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Sekine, N.

N. Sekine and K. Hirakawa, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 057408 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shah, J.

A. Leitenstorfer, S. Hunsche, J. Shah, M. C. Nuss, and W. H. Knox, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1516 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sliker, T. R.

Thomson, M.

T. Löffler, M. Kreß, M. Thomson, T. Hahn, N. Hasegawa, and H. G. Roskos, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S134 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Usami, M.

M. Usami, M. Yamashita, K. Fukushima, C. Otani, and K. Kawase, Opt. Lett. 86, 141109 (2005).

van Rijmenam, C. E. W. M.

P. C. M. Planken, C. E. W. M. van Rijmenam, and R. N. Schouten, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S121 (2005), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Wilhelmi, O.

H. O. Moser, B. D. F. Casse, O. Wilhelmi, and B. T. Saw, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 063901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Winnerl, S.

A. Dreyhaupt, S. Winnerl, T. Dekorsy, and M. Helm, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 121114 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Woerner, M.

Wu, Q.

Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 2, 693 (1996).

Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1604 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J. Z.

Yamashita, M.

M. Usami, M. Yamashita, K. Fukushima, C. Otani, and K. Kawase, Opt. Lett. 86, 141109 (2005).

Zhang, X.-C.

J. Z. Xu and X.-C. Zhang, Opt. Lett. 27, 1067 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 2, 693 (1996).

Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1604 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

A. Dreyhaupt, S. Winnerl, T. Dekorsy, and M. Helm, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 121114 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1604 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Leitenstorfer, S. Hunsche, J. Shah, M. C. Nuss, and W. H. Knox, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1516 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits (1)

Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 2, 693 (1996).

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

T. Bauer, J. S. Kolb, T. Löffler, E. Mohler, H. G. Roskos, and U. C. Pernisz, J. Appl. Phys. 92, 2210 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Sato and S. Adachi, J. Appl. Phys. 73, 926 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Rev. (1)

H. A. Bethe, Phys. Rev. 66, 163 (1944).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

H. O. Moser, B. D. F. Casse, O. Wilhelmi, and B. T. Saw, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 063901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Sekine and K. Hirakawa, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 057408 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (2)

P. C. M. Planken, C. E. W. M. van Rijmenam, and R. N. Schouten, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S121 (2005), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

T. Löffler, M. Kreß, M. Thomson, T. Hahn, N. Hasegawa, and H. G. Roskos, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S134 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Time-domain THz waveform for acceleration fields of 20 kV cm (dotted), 40 kV cm (dashed), and 60 kV cm (solid) at an excitation density of 4 × 10 17 cm 3 . (b) Power spectra calculated from the time-domain data of (a) for 60 kV cm . The dashed curve represents the calculated response of the ZnTe analyzer crystal.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Dependence of the THz power (measured with a pyroelectric detector) on excitation power using an acceleration field of 20 kV cm . Filled circles, measured data; solid curve, second-order polynomial. Inset, beam profile of the THz spot at the electro-optic sensor.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Dependence of the detected THz intensity ( E THz 2 ) on the size (FWHM) of the exciting NIR spot (double logarithmic scale). Filled circles, measured data; solid lines, guides to the eyes. Inset, THz spectra for various excitation spot sizes normalized to the intensity value at 1 THz ; 755 μ m (short dotted), 560 μ m (dotted), 430 μ m (short dashed), 210 μ m (dashed), 115 μ m (solid).

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

P NIR π a 2 = I NIR ,
I NIR n E THz , E THz 2 I THz ,
P THz = π a 2 2 I THz ,
P THz P NIR 2 a 2 .

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