Abstract

A high spectral resolution, 2D nanohole-array-based surface plasmon resonance sensor that operates at normal or near normal incidence—facilitating high spatial resolution imaging—is presented. The angular and spectral transmittance of the structure is modified from a Fano type to a pure Lorentzian line shape with a parallel and orthogonal polarizer–analyzer pair. This change leads to a linewidth narrowing that maximizes the sensor resolution, which we show to be of O(105) refractive index units (RIU). We estimate the potential of this system of O(106) RIU under optimal conditions.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  2. S. Y. Wu, H. P. Ho, W. C. Law, C. L. Lin, and S. K. Kong, Opt. Lett. 29, 2378 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2005 (5)

J. Dostalek, J. Homola, and M. Miler, Sens. Actuators B 107, 154 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Rindzevicius, Y. Alaverdyan, A. Dahlin, F. Hook, D. S. Sutherland, and M. Kall, Nano Lett. 5, 2335 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. A. Tetz, R. Rokitski, M. Nezhad, and Y. Fainman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 111110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. Lomakin and E. Michielssen, Phys. Rev. B 71, 235117 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. D. Su, S. J. Chen, and T. L. Yeh, Opt. Lett. 30, 1488 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (5)

J. Elliott, I. I. Smolyaninov, N. I. Zheludev, and A. V. Zayats, Opt. Lett. 29, 1414 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Y. Wu, H. P. Ho, W. C. Law, C. L. Lin, and S. K. Kong, Opt. Lett. 29, 2378 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. L. Barnes, W. A. Murray, J. Dintinger, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 107401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. G. Brolo, R. Gordon, B. Leathem, and K. L. Kavanagh, Langmuir 20, 4813 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. R. Hopper and J. R. Sambles, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3017 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (4)

C. Genet, M. P. van Exter, and J. P. Woerdman, Opt. Commun. 225, 331 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Sarrazin, J. P. Vigneron, and J. M. Vigoureux, Phys. Rev. B 67, 085415 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Muller, V. Malyarchuk, and C. Lienau, Phys. Rev. B 68, 205415 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. Pang, W. Nakagawa, and Y. Fainman, Appl. Opt. 42, 5450 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (2)

J. Homola, I. Koudela, and S. S. Yee, Sens. Actuators B 54, 16 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, Sens. Actuators B 54, 3 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, Nature 391, 667 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

S. J. Elston, G. P. Bryan-Brown, and J. R. Sambles, Phys. Rev. B 44, 6393 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Alaverdyan, Y.

T. Rindzevicius, Y. Alaverdyan, A. Dahlin, F. Hook, D. S. Sutherland, and M. Kall, Nano Lett. 5, 2335 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barnes, W. L.

W. L. Barnes, W. A. Murray, J. Dintinger, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 107401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brolo, A. G.

A. G. Brolo, R. Gordon, B. Leathem, and K. L. Kavanagh, Langmuir 20, 4813 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bryan-Brown, G. P.

S. J. Elston, G. P. Bryan-Brown, and J. R. Sambles, Phys. Rev. B 44, 6393 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S. J.

Dahlin, A.

T. Rindzevicius, Y. Alaverdyan, A. Dahlin, F. Hook, D. S. Sutherland, and M. Kall, Nano Lett. 5, 2335 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Devaux, E.

W. L. Barnes, W. A. Murray, J. Dintinger, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 107401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dintinger, J.

W. L. Barnes, W. A. Murray, J. Dintinger, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 107401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dostalek, J.

J. Dostalek, J. Homola, and M. Miler, Sens. Actuators B 107, 154 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ebbesen, T. W.

W. L. Barnes, W. A. Murray, J. Dintinger, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 107401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, Nature 391, 667 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Elliott, J.

Elston, S. J.

S. J. Elston, G. P. Bryan-Brown, and J. R. Sambles, Phys. Rev. B 44, 6393 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Fainman, Y.

K. A. Tetz, R. Rokitski, M. Nezhad, and Y. Fainman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 111110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Pang, W. Nakagawa, and Y. Fainman, Appl. Opt. 42, 5450 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gauglitz, G.

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, Sens. Actuators B 54, 3 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Genet, C.

C. Genet, M. P. van Exter, and J. P. Woerdman, Opt. Commun. 225, 331 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ghaemi, H. F.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, Nature 391, 667 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, R.

A. G. Brolo, R. Gordon, B. Leathem, and K. L. Kavanagh, Langmuir 20, 4813 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ho, H. P.

Homola, J.

J. Dostalek, J. Homola, and M. Miler, Sens. Actuators B 107, 154 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Homola, I. Koudela, and S. S. Yee, Sens. Actuators B 54, 16 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, Sens. Actuators B 54, 3 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hook, F.

T. Rindzevicius, Y. Alaverdyan, A. Dahlin, F. Hook, D. S. Sutherland, and M. Kall, Nano Lett. 5, 2335 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hopper, I. R.

I. R. Hopper and J. R. Sambles, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3017 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kall, M.

T. Rindzevicius, Y. Alaverdyan, A. Dahlin, F. Hook, D. S. Sutherland, and M. Kall, Nano Lett. 5, 2335 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kavanagh, K. L.

A. G. Brolo, R. Gordon, B. Leathem, and K. L. Kavanagh, Langmuir 20, 4813 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kong, S. K.

Koudela, I.

J. Homola, I. Koudela, and S. S. Yee, Sens. Actuators B 54, 16 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Law, W. C.

Leathem, B.

A. G. Brolo, R. Gordon, B. Leathem, and K. L. Kavanagh, Langmuir 20, 4813 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lezec, H. J.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, Nature 391, 667 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lienau, C.

R. Muller, V. Malyarchuk, and C. Lienau, Phys. Rev. B 68, 205415 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. L.

Lomakin, V.

V. Lomakin and E. Michielssen, Phys. Rev. B 71, 235117 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Malyarchuk, V.

R. Muller, V. Malyarchuk, and C. Lienau, Phys. Rev. B 68, 205415 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Michielssen, E.

V. Lomakin and E. Michielssen, Phys. Rev. B 71, 235117 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Miler, M.

J. Dostalek, J. Homola, and M. Miler, Sens. Actuators B 107, 154 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Muller, R.

R. Muller, V. Malyarchuk, and C. Lienau, Phys. Rev. B 68, 205415 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Murray, W. A.

W. L. Barnes, W. A. Murray, J. Dintinger, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 107401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nakagawa, W.

Nezhad, M.

K. A. Tetz, R. Rokitski, M. Nezhad, and Y. Fainman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 111110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pang, L.

Rindzevicius, T.

T. Rindzevicius, Y. Alaverdyan, A. Dahlin, F. Hook, D. S. Sutherland, and M. Kall, Nano Lett. 5, 2335 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rokitski, R.

K. A. Tetz, R. Rokitski, M. Nezhad, and Y. Fainman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 111110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sambles, J. R.

I. R. Hopper and J. R. Sambles, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3017 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Elston, G. P. Bryan-Brown, and J. R. Sambles, Phys. Rev. B 44, 6393 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sarrazin, M.

M. Sarrazin, J. P. Vigneron, and J. M. Vigoureux, Phys. Rev. B 67, 085415 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Smolyaninov, I. I.

Su, Y. D.

Sutherland, D. S.

T. Rindzevicius, Y. Alaverdyan, A. Dahlin, F. Hook, D. S. Sutherland, and M. Kall, Nano Lett. 5, 2335 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tetz, K. A.

K. A. Tetz, R. Rokitski, M. Nezhad, and Y. Fainman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 111110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Thio, T.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, Nature 391, 667 (1998).
[CrossRef]

van Exter, M. P.

C. Genet, M. P. van Exter, and J. P. Woerdman, Opt. Commun. 225, 331 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Vigneron, J. P.

M. Sarrazin, J. P. Vigneron, and J. M. Vigoureux, Phys. Rev. B 67, 085415 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Vigoureux, J. M.

M. Sarrazin, J. P. Vigneron, and J. M. Vigoureux, Phys. Rev. B 67, 085415 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Woerdman, J. P.

C. Genet, M. P. van Exter, and J. P. Woerdman, Opt. Commun. 225, 331 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wolff, P. A.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, Nature 391, 667 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S. Y.

Yee, S. S.

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, Sens. Actuators B 54, 3 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Homola, I. Koudela, and S. S. Yee, Sens. Actuators B 54, 16 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, T. L.

Zayats, A. V.

Zheludev, N. I.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

I. R. Hopper and J. R. Sambles, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3017 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Tetz, R. Rokitski, M. Nezhad, and Y. Fainman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 111110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Langmuir (1)

A. G. Brolo, R. Gordon, B. Leathem, and K. L. Kavanagh, Langmuir 20, 4813 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (1)

T. Rindzevicius, Y. Alaverdyan, A. Dahlin, F. Hook, D. S. Sutherland, and M. Kall, Nano Lett. 5, 2335 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature (1)

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, Nature 391, 667 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

C. Genet, M. P. van Exter, and J. P. Woerdman, Opt. Commun. 225, 331 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. B (4)

M. Sarrazin, J. P. Vigneron, and J. M. Vigoureux, Phys. Rev. B 67, 085415 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Muller, V. Malyarchuk, and C. Lienau, Phys. Rev. B 68, 205415 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. Lomakin and E. Michielssen, Phys. Rev. B 71, 235117 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Elston, G. P. Bryan-Brown, and J. R. Sambles, Phys. Rev. B 44, 6393 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

W. L. Barnes, W. A. Murray, J. Dintinger, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 107401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sens. Actuators B (3)

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, Sens. Actuators B 54, 3 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Dostalek, J. Homola, and M. Miler, Sens. Actuators B 107, 154 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Homola, I. Koudela, and S. S. Yee, Sens. Actuators B 54, 16 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Conceptual diagram of the 2D nanohole-array-based SPR sensor. The input and output polarization states of a tunable laser are controlled, providing variable spectral or angular Fano-type profiles. A microfludic channel is used to transport the analyte fluid to the surface of the sensing area and can be used to control the refractive index on the metal–dielectric interface to tune the SPP resonance frequency. Also shown is a scanning electron microscopy image of a representative sample.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Normalized transmission as a function of (a) energy (wavelength) and (b) parallel wave vector (angle). In each case the dotted curves correspond to the PP and the solid curves correspond to the OP polarization states (as illustrated in Fig. 1 and described in the text). The transmission in each case has been normalized to the maximum to clearly illustrate the respective line-shape functions. Inset in (b) are the same data plotted in a logarithmic scale to show the 15 20 dB background level reduction for the Lorentzian versus Fano-type resonances.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Resonance peak position shift versus refractive index change (i.e., salt concentration in water) in the fluidic overlayer. Black line, linear fit to the data. Shaded regions, approximate peak position (absolute refractive index) errors in the fitting procedure for the OP and PP conditions for both air and water broadened linewidths as well as estimated theoretical resolution limits.

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