Abstract

We experimentally investigated the reciprocity of scanning near-field optical microscopy between illumination and collection modes. Near-field transmission images of single gold spheres and nanorods observed by the two modes are found to be equivalent to each other in the region from visible to near infrared. This result shows that reciprocity holds for the near-field scattering problems. We found that the conventional optical selection rule for far-field excitations does not apply not only under illumination mode but also with collection-mode arrangements. The possible origin of this observation might be the near-field probe.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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2005 (3)

K. Imura, T. Nagahara, and H. Okamoto, J. Chem. Phys. 122, 154701 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Imura, T. Nagahara, and H. Okamoto, J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 13214 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Honenau, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, H. Ditlbacher, A. Leitner, F. R. Auussenegg, and W. L. Schaich, Europhys. Lett. 69, 538 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

K. Imura, T. Nagahara, and H. Okamoto, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 12730 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Imura, T. Nagahara, and H. Okamoto, Chem. Phys. Lett. 400, 500 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Taubner, R. Hillenbrand, and F. Keilmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5064 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

B. D. Busbee, S. O. Obare, and C. J. Murphy, Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 15, 414 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

1997 (1)

E. R. Méndez, J.-J. Greffet, and R. Carminati, Opt. Commun. 142, 7 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, and R. L. Kostelak, Science 251, 1468 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1984 (1)

D. W. Pohl, W. Denk, and M. Lanz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 651 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Auussenegg, F. R.

A. Honenau, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, H. Ditlbacher, A. Leitner, F. R. Auussenegg, and W. L. Schaich, Europhys. Lett. 69, 538 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Betzig, E.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, and R. L. Kostelak, Science 251, 1468 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge U. Press, 1999).

Bryant, G. W.

Busbee, B. D.

B. D. Busbee, S. O. Obare, and C. J. Murphy, Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 15, 414 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Carminati, R.

E. R. Méndez, J.-J. Greffet, and R. Carminati, Opt. Commun. 142, 7 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cavanagh, R. R.

Denk, W.

D. W. Pohl, W. Denk, and M. Lanz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 651 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Ditlbacher, H.

A. Honenau, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, H. Ditlbacher, A. Leitner, F. R. Auussenegg, and W. L. Schaich, Europhys. Lett. 69, 538 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Greffet, J.-J.

E. R. Méndez, J.-J. Greffet, and R. Carminati, Opt. Commun. 142, 7 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Harris, T. D.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, and R. L. Kostelak, Science 251, 1468 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hillenbrand, R.

T. Taubner, R. Hillenbrand, and F. Keilmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5064 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Honenau, A.

A. Honenau, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, H. Ditlbacher, A. Leitner, F. R. Auussenegg, and W. L. Schaich, Europhys. Lett. 69, 538 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Imura, K.

K. Imura, T. Nagahara, and H. Okamoto, J. Chem. Phys. 122, 154701 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Imura, T. Nagahara, and H. Okamoto, J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 13214 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Imura, T. Nagahara, and H. Okamoto, Chem. Phys. Lett. 400, 500 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Imura, T. Nagahara, and H. Okamoto, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 12730 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jordan, C. E.

Keating, C. D.

Keilmann, F.

T. Taubner, R. Hillenbrand, and F. Keilmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5064 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kostelak, R. L.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, and R. L. Kostelak, Science 251, 1468 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krenn, J. R.

A. Honenau, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, H. Ditlbacher, A. Leitner, F. R. Auussenegg, and W. L. Schaich, Europhys. Lett. 69, 538 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lanz, M.

D. W. Pohl, W. Denk, and M. Lanz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 651 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Leitner, A.

A. Honenau, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, H. Ditlbacher, A. Leitner, F. R. Auussenegg, and W. L. Schaich, Europhys. Lett. 69, 538 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liu, A.

Méndez, E. R.

E. R. Méndez, J.-J. Greffet, and R. Carminati, Opt. Commun. 142, 7 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Murphy, C. J.

B. D. Busbee, S. O. Obare, and C. J. Murphy, Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 15, 414 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nagahara, T.

K. Imura, T. Nagahara, and H. Okamoto, J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 13214 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Imura, T. Nagahara, and H. Okamoto, J. Chem. Phys. 122, 154701 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Imura, T. Nagahara, and H. Okamoto, Chem. Phys. Lett. 400, 500 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Imura, T. Nagahara, and H. Okamoto, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 12730 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Natan, M. J.

Obare, S. O.

B. D. Busbee, S. O. Obare, and C. J. Murphy, Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 15, 414 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Okamoto, H.

K. Imura, T. Nagahara, and H. Okamoto, J. Chem. Phys. 122, 154701 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Imura, T. Nagahara, and H. Okamoto, J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 13214 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Imura, T. Nagahara, and H. Okamoto, Chem. Phys. Lett. 400, 500 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Imura, T. Nagahara, and H. Okamoto, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 12730 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pohl, D. W.

D. W. Pohl, W. Denk, and M. Lanz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 651 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Richer, L. J.

Schaich, W. L.

A. Honenau, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, H. Ditlbacher, A. Leitner, F. R. Auussenegg, and W. L. Schaich, Europhys. Lett. 69, 538 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schider, G.

A. Honenau, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, H. Ditlbacher, A. Leitner, F. R. Auussenegg, and W. L. Schaich, Europhys. Lett. 69, 538 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Taubner, T.

T. Taubner, R. Hillenbrand, and F. Keilmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5064 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Trautman, J. K.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, and R. L. Kostelak, Science 251, 1468 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van Labeke, D.

A. Vial and D. Van Labeke, J. Microsc. 194, 240 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Vial, A.

A. Vial and D. Van Labeke, J. Microsc. 194, 240 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Weiner, J. S.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, and R. L. Kostelak, Science 251, 1468 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wolf, E.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge U. Press, 1999).

Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) (1)

B. D. Busbee, S. O. Obare, and C. J. Murphy, Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 15, 414 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

D. W. Pohl, W. Denk, and M. Lanz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 651 (1984).
[CrossRef]

T. Taubner, R. Hillenbrand, and F. Keilmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5064 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

K. Imura, T. Nagahara, and H. Okamoto, Chem. Phys. Lett. 400, 500 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Europhys. Lett. (1)

A. Honenau, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, H. Ditlbacher, A. Leitner, F. R. Auussenegg, and W. L. Schaich, Europhys. Lett. 69, 538 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

K. Imura, T. Nagahara, and H. Okamoto, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 12730 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

K. Imura, T. Nagahara, and H. Okamoto, J. Chem. Phys. 122, 154701 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Microsc. (1)

A. Vial and D. Van Labeke, J. Microsc. 194, 240 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

K. Imura, T. Nagahara, and H. Okamoto, J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 13214 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

E. R. Méndez, J.-J. Greffet, and R. Carminati, Opt. Commun. 142, 7 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, and R. L. Kostelak, Science 251, 1468 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge U. Press, 1999).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematics of I- and C-mode SNOM setups.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Constant-gap transmission SNOM images of single gold spheres ( 50 ± 5 nm in diameter) and a nanorod ( 29 ± 3 nm in diameter, 510 ± 40 nm in length): (a)–(c) I-mode, (d)–(f) C-mode. Observed spectral regions: (a), (d) 509 529 nm ( Δ I I = 0.4 + 0.1 ) ; (b), (e) 746 766 nm ( Δ I I = 0.7 + 0.6 ) ; (c), (f) 902 922 nm ( Δ I I = 0.9 + 0.4 ) . (g) Topography of the sample. The scan area is 4 μ m × 4 μ m . (h)–(i) Schematic drawings of constant-gap mode operation, constant-height mode operation, and displaced mode operation (see the text), respectively. The lines with arrows indicate the approximate path of the apex of the near-field probe.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Transmission SNOM images of a single gold nanorod ( 22 ± 3 nm in diameter, 510 ± 30 nm in length): (a)–(d) I-mode, (e)–(h) C-mode. The scan area is 1 μ m × 1 μ m . Observed spectral regions: (a), (e) 607 627 nm ; (b), (f) 647 666 nm ; (c), (g) 666 686 nm ; (d), (h) 705 725 nm . Arrows indicate z-motion artifacts. The dashed rectangles show the area of constant-height imaging of the nanorod (see the text).

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