Abstract

A regenerator for differential phase-shift keying data, consisting of two Mach–Zehnder interferometers and two amplitude regenerators, is examined theoretically. The result, which shows that the phase error is suppressed if phase-preserving amplitude regenerators are used, provides a theoretical description of an already experimentally implemented regenerator.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. H. Gnauck and P. J. Winzer, J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 115 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J.-K. Rhee, D. Chowdhury, K. S. Cheng, and U. Gliese, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1627 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Matsumoto, J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 1472 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. K. Croussore, C. Kim, and G. Li, Opt. Lett. 29, 2357 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. Matsumoto, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1055 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Striegler and B. Schmauss, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1083 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. G. Striegler, M. Meissner, K. Cvecek, K. Sponsel, G. Leuchs, and B. Schmauss, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 639 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  8. P. S. Devgan, M. Shin, V. S. Grigoryan, J. Lasri, and P. Kumar, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) 2005 (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper PDP34.
  9. V. S. Grigoryan, M. Shin, P. Devgan, and P. Kumar, Electron. Lett. 41, 1021 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  10. G. Bosco and P. Poggiolini, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 665 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  11. X. Wei, X. Liu, and C. Xu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1636 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  12. B. Charbonnier, N. El Dahdah, and M. Joindot, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 475 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  13. P. V. Mamyshev, in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) 1998 (IEEE, 1998), p. 475.
  14. P. Johannisson and M. Karlsson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2667 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  15. P. Öhlen and E. Berglind, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1011 (1997).
    [CrossRef]

2006 (1)

B. Charbonnier, N. El Dahdah, and M. Joindot, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 475 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (5)

P. Johannisson and M. Karlsson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2667 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Matsumoto, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1055 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Gnauck and P. J. Winzer, J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Striegler, M. Meissner, K. Cvecek, K. Sponsel, G. Leuchs, and B. Schmauss, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 639 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. S. Grigoryan, M. Shin, P. Devgan, and P. Kumar, Electron. Lett. 41, 1021 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (4)

G. Bosco and P. Poggiolini, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 665 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Matsumoto, J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 1472 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Croussore, C. Kim, and G. Li, Opt. Lett. 29, 2357 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Striegler and B. Schmauss, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1083 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

X. Wei, X. Liu, and C. Xu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1636 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

J.-K. Rhee, D. Chowdhury, K. S. Cheng, and U. Gliese, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1627 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

P. Öhlen and E. Berglind, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1011 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Berglind, E.

P. Öhlen and E. Berglind, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1011 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bosco, G.

G. Bosco and P. Poggiolini, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 665 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Charbonnier, B.

B. Charbonnier, N. El Dahdah, and M. Joindot, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 475 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, K. S.

J.-K. Rhee, D. Chowdhury, K. S. Cheng, and U. Gliese, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1627 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chowdhury, D.

J.-K. Rhee, D. Chowdhury, K. S. Cheng, and U. Gliese, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1627 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Croussore, K.

Cvecek, K.

A. G. Striegler, M. Meissner, K. Cvecek, K. Sponsel, G. Leuchs, and B. Schmauss, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 639 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Devgan, P.

V. S. Grigoryan, M. Shin, P. Devgan, and P. Kumar, Electron. Lett. 41, 1021 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Devgan, P. S.

P. S. Devgan, M. Shin, V. S. Grigoryan, J. Lasri, and P. Kumar, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) 2005 (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper PDP34.

El Dahdah, N.

B. Charbonnier, N. El Dahdah, and M. Joindot, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 475 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gliese, U.

J.-K. Rhee, D. Chowdhury, K. S. Cheng, and U. Gliese, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1627 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gnauck, A. H.

Grigoryan, V. S.

V. S. Grigoryan, M. Shin, P. Devgan, and P. Kumar, Electron. Lett. 41, 1021 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. S. Devgan, M. Shin, V. S. Grigoryan, J. Lasri, and P. Kumar, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) 2005 (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper PDP34.

Johannisson, P.

P. Johannisson and M. Karlsson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2667 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Joindot, M.

B. Charbonnier, N. El Dahdah, and M. Joindot, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 475 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Karlsson, M.

P. Johannisson and M. Karlsson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2667 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, C.

Kumar, P.

V. S. Grigoryan, M. Shin, P. Devgan, and P. Kumar, Electron. Lett. 41, 1021 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. S. Devgan, M. Shin, V. S. Grigoryan, J. Lasri, and P. Kumar, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) 2005 (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper PDP34.

Lasri, J.

P. S. Devgan, M. Shin, V. S. Grigoryan, J. Lasri, and P. Kumar, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) 2005 (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper PDP34.

Leuchs, G.

A. G. Striegler, M. Meissner, K. Cvecek, K. Sponsel, G. Leuchs, and B. Schmauss, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 639 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Li, G.

Liu, X.

X. Wei, X. Liu, and C. Xu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1636 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mamyshev, P. V.

P. V. Mamyshev, in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) 1998 (IEEE, 1998), p. 475.

Matsumoto, M.

M. Matsumoto, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1055 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Matsumoto, J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 1472 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Meissner, M.

A. G. Striegler, M. Meissner, K. Cvecek, K. Sponsel, G. Leuchs, and B. Schmauss, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 639 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Öhlen, P.

P. Öhlen and E. Berglind, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1011 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Poggiolini, P.

G. Bosco and P. Poggiolini, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 665 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rhee, J.-K.

J.-K. Rhee, D. Chowdhury, K. S. Cheng, and U. Gliese, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1627 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schmauss, B.

A. G. Striegler, M. Meissner, K. Cvecek, K. Sponsel, G. Leuchs, and B. Schmauss, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 639 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Striegler and B. Schmauss, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1083 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shin, M.

V. S. Grigoryan, M. Shin, P. Devgan, and P. Kumar, Electron. Lett. 41, 1021 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. S. Devgan, M. Shin, V. S. Grigoryan, J. Lasri, and P. Kumar, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) 2005 (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper PDP34.

Sponsel, K.

A. G. Striegler, M. Meissner, K. Cvecek, K. Sponsel, G. Leuchs, and B. Schmauss, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 639 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Striegler, A.

A. Striegler and B. Schmauss, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1083 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Striegler, A. G.

A. G. Striegler, M. Meissner, K. Cvecek, K. Sponsel, G. Leuchs, and B. Schmauss, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 639 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wei, X.

X. Wei, X. Liu, and C. Xu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1636 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Winzer, P. J.

Xu, C.

X. Wei, X. Liu, and C. Xu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1636 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

V. S. Grigoryan, M. Shin, P. Devgan, and P. Kumar, Electron. Lett. 41, 1021 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (9)

G. Bosco and P. Poggiolini, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 665 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. Wei, X. Liu, and C. Xu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1636 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. Charbonnier, N. El Dahdah, and M. Joindot, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 475 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Matsumoto, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1055 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Striegler and B. Schmauss, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1083 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Striegler, M. Meissner, K. Cvecek, K. Sponsel, G. Leuchs, and B. Schmauss, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 639 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Johannisson and M. Karlsson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2667 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Öhlen and E. Berglind, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1011 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J.-K. Rhee, D. Chowdhury, K. S. Cheng, and U. Gliese, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1627 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (2)

P. S. Devgan, M. Shin, V. S. Grigoryan, J. Lasri, and P. Kumar, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) 2005 (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper PDP34.

P. V. Mamyshev, in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) 1998 (IEEE, 1998), p. 475.

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The regenerator consists of a DPSK receiver, two amplitude regenerators (marked 2R), and a coupler, which converts the data back into the DPSK modulation format. The optional part after the dashed line will eliminate power loss and improve phase regeneration.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Input and output standard deviations of the phase error in the middle of the bit slot when an ideal amplitude regenerator is used. The curves are σ out = σ in (solid), σ out = σ in 2 (dashed), and σ out = 3 8 σ in (dashed–dotted).

Equations (4)

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φ k , 1 = arctan ( A + a k ) sin φ k + ( A + a k + 1 ) sin φ k + 1 ( A + a k ) cos φ k + ( A + a k + 1 ) cos φ k + 1 .
φ k , 1 ( A + a k ) φ k + ( A + a k + 1 ) φ k + 1 ( A + a k ) + ( A + a k + 1 ) φ k + φ k + 1 2 ,
φ k , n = 1 2 n l = 0 n ( n l ) φ k + l , 0 .
σ n 2 φ k , n 2 = φ k 2 1 2 2 n l = 0 n ( n l ) 2 = σ in 2 1 2 2 n ( 2 n ) ! ( n ! ) 2 ,

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