Abstract

A cross-linked azopolymer with high optical and thermal stability was prepared. A pure polarization grating without surface topology was fabricated from cross-linked azopolymer by polarization holography by use of orthogonal linearly polarized beams from a HeCd laser with a power density of 60mWcm2. The surface relief structure was investigated by atomic-force microscopy, and the polarization grating was observed by polarization optical microscopy. The grating spacing is 1.5μm. The grating is stable at room temperature and can endure repeated writing–erasing.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2003

N. Kawatsuki, T. Hasegawa, H. Ono, and T. Tamoto, Adv. Mater. 15, 991 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

H. Nalano, T. Takahashi, T. Kadota, and Y. Shirota, Adv. Mater. 14, 1157 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

O. Baldus and S. J. Zilker, Appl. Phys. B 72, 425 (2001).

2000

J. A. Delaire and K. Nakatani, Chem. Rev. 100, 1817 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

J. Eickmans, T. Bieringer, S. Kostromine, H. Berneth, and R. Thoma, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 38, 1835 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. S. Ramanujam, M. Pederson, and S. Hvilsted, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3227 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

T. G. Pedersen, P. M. Johansen, N. C. R. Holme, and P. S. Ramanujam, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 89 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Bian, L. Li, J. Kumar, D. Y. Lim, J. Williams, and S. K. Tripathy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1817 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996

P. S. Ramanujam, N. C. R. Holme, and S. Hvilsted, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1329 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Barrett, A. L. Natansohn, and P. L. Rochon, J. Phys. Chem. 100, 8836 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

D. Y. Kim, L. Li, X. L. Jiang, V. Shivshankar, J. Kumar, and S. K. Tripathy, Macromolecules 28, 8835 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Rochon, E. Batalla, and A. Natansohn, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 136 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Kim, S. K. Tripathy, L. Li, and J. Kumar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1166 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Baldus, O.

O. Baldus and S. J. Zilker, Appl. Phys. B 72, 425 (2001).

Barrett, C. J.

C. J. Barrett, A. L. Natansohn, and P. L. Rochon, J. Phys. Chem. 100, 8836 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Batalla, E.

P. Rochon, E. Batalla, and A. Natansohn, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 136 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Berneth, H.

J. Eickmans, T. Bieringer, S. Kostromine, H. Berneth, and R. Thoma, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 38, 1835 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bian, S.

S. Bian, L. Li, J. Kumar, D. Y. Lim, J. Williams, and S. K. Tripathy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1817 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bieringer, T.

J. Eickmans, T. Bieringer, S. Kostromine, H. Berneth, and R. Thoma, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 38, 1835 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Delaire, J. A.

J. A. Delaire and K. Nakatani, Chem. Rev. 100, 1817 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Eickmans, J.

J. Eickmans, T. Bieringer, S. Kostromine, H. Berneth, and R. Thoma, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 38, 1835 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hasegawa, T.

N. Kawatsuki, T. Hasegawa, H. Ono, and T. Tamoto, Adv. Mater. 15, 991 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Holme, N. C. R.

T. G. Pedersen, P. M. Johansen, N. C. R. Holme, and P. S. Ramanujam, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 89 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. S. Ramanujam, N. C. R. Holme, and S. Hvilsted, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1329 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hvilsted, S.

P. S. Ramanujam, M. Pederson, and S. Hvilsted, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3227 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. S. Ramanujam, N. C. R. Holme, and S. Hvilsted, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1329 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, X. L.

D. Y. Kim, L. Li, X. L. Jiang, V. Shivshankar, J. Kumar, and S. K. Tripathy, Macromolecules 28, 8835 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Johansen, P. M.

T. G. Pedersen, P. M. Johansen, N. C. R. Holme, and P. S. Ramanujam, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 89 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kadota, T.

H. Nalano, T. Takahashi, T. Kadota, and Y. Shirota, Adv. Mater. 14, 1157 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kawatsuki, N.

N. Kawatsuki, T. Hasegawa, H. Ono, and T. Tamoto, Adv. Mater. 15, 991 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D. Y.

D. Y. Kim, L. Li, X. L. Jiang, V. Shivshankar, J. Kumar, and S. K. Tripathy, Macromolecules 28, 8835 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Kim, S. K. Tripathy, L. Li, and J. Kumar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1166 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kostromine, S.

J. Eickmans, T. Bieringer, S. Kostromine, H. Berneth, and R. Thoma, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 38, 1835 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, J.

S. Bian, L. Li, J. Kumar, D. Y. Lim, J. Williams, and S. K. Tripathy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1817 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Kim, L. Li, X. L. Jiang, V. Shivshankar, J. Kumar, and S. K. Tripathy, Macromolecules 28, 8835 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Kim, S. K. Tripathy, L. Li, and J. Kumar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1166 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Li, L.

S. Bian, L. Li, J. Kumar, D. Y. Lim, J. Williams, and S. K. Tripathy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1817 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Kim, S. K. Tripathy, L. Li, and J. Kumar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1166 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Kim, L. Li, X. L. Jiang, V. Shivshankar, J. Kumar, and S. K. Tripathy, Macromolecules 28, 8835 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lim, D. Y.

S. Bian, L. Li, J. Kumar, D. Y. Lim, J. Williams, and S. K. Tripathy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1817 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nakatani, K.

J. A. Delaire and K. Nakatani, Chem. Rev. 100, 1817 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nalano, H.

H. Nalano, T. Takahashi, T. Kadota, and Y. Shirota, Adv. Mater. 14, 1157 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Natansohn, A.

P. Rochon, E. Batalla, and A. Natansohn, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 136 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Natansohn, A. L.

C. J. Barrett, A. L. Natansohn, and P. L. Rochon, J. Phys. Chem. 100, 8836 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ono, H.

N. Kawatsuki, T. Hasegawa, H. Ono, and T. Tamoto, Adv. Mater. 15, 991 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pedersen, T. G.

T. G. Pedersen, P. M. Johansen, N. C. R. Holme, and P. S. Ramanujam, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 89 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pederson, M.

P. S. Ramanujam, M. Pederson, and S. Hvilsted, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3227 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ramanujam, P. S.

P. S. Ramanujam, M. Pederson, and S. Hvilsted, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3227 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. G. Pedersen, P. M. Johansen, N. C. R. Holme, and P. S. Ramanujam, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 89 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. S. Ramanujam, N. C. R. Holme, and S. Hvilsted, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1329 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rochon, P.

P. Rochon, E. Batalla, and A. Natansohn, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 136 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rochon, P. L.

C. J. Barrett, A. L. Natansohn, and P. L. Rochon, J. Phys. Chem. 100, 8836 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Shirota, Y.

H. Nalano, T. Takahashi, T. Kadota, and Y. Shirota, Adv. Mater. 14, 1157 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shivshankar, V.

D. Y. Kim, L. Li, X. L. Jiang, V. Shivshankar, J. Kumar, and S. K. Tripathy, Macromolecules 28, 8835 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, T.

H. Nalano, T. Takahashi, T. Kadota, and Y. Shirota, Adv. Mater. 14, 1157 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tamoto, T.

N. Kawatsuki, T. Hasegawa, H. Ono, and T. Tamoto, Adv. Mater. 15, 991 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Thoma, R.

J. Eickmans, T. Bieringer, S. Kostromine, H. Berneth, and R. Thoma, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 38, 1835 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tripathy, S. K.

S. Bian, L. Li, J. Kumar, D. Y. Lim, J. Williams, and S. K. Tripathy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1817 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Kim, L. Li, X. L. Jiang, V. Shivshankar, J. Kumar, and S. K. Tripathy, Macromolecules 28, 8835 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Kim, S. K. Tripathy, L. Li, and J. Kumar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1166 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Williams, J.

S. Bian, L. Li, J. Kumar, D. Y. Lim, J. Williams, and S. K. Tripathy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1817 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zilker, S. J.

O. Baldus and S. J. Zilker, Appl. Phys. B 72, 425 (2001).

Adv. Mater.

H. Nalano, T. Takahashi, T. Kadota, and Y. Shirota, Adv. Mater. 14, 1157 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. Kawatsuki, T. Hasegawa, H. Ono, and T. Tamoto, Adv. Mater. 15, 991 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B

O. Baldus and S. J. Zilker, Appl. Phys. B 72, 425 (2001).

Appl. Phys. Lett.

S. Bian, L. Li, J. Kumar, D. Y. Lim, J. Williams, and S. K. Tripathy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1817 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. S. Ramanujam, M. Pederson, and S. Hvilsted, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3227 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Rochon, E. Batalla, and A. Natansohn, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 136 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Kim, S. K. Tripathy, L. Li, and J. Kumar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1166 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. S. Ramanujam, N. C. R. Holme, and S. Hvilsted, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1329 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Rev.

J. A. Delaire and K. Nakatani, Chem. Rev. 100, 1817 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem.

C. J. Barrett, A. L. Natansohn, and P. L. Rochon, J. Phys. Chem. 100, 8836 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1

J. Eickmans, T. Bieringer, S. Kostromine, H. Berneth, and R. Thoma, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 38, 1835 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Macromolecules

D. Y. Kim, L. Li, X. L. Jiang, V. Shivshankar, J. Kumar, and S. K. Tripathy, Macromolecules 28, 8835 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

T. G. Pedersen, P. M. Johansen, N. C. R. Holme, and P. S. Ramanujam, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 89 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Chemical structure of the cross-linkable azo-containing copolymer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic illustration of the polarization modulation of the interference light with parallel linear and orthogonally linear (at + 45 ° and 45 ° , respectively) polarized beams.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

AFM images and profiler scans of gratings fabricated on cross-linked azopolymer films written with PL mode (A,a) and OL mode (B,b) non-cross-linking azopolymer film written with the OL mode. (C,c) POM photographs of the polarization grating written with the OL mode, D, and E, after erasure on a cross-linked azopolymer film. The exposure time was 20 s .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Diffraction efficiency curves of writing (OL mode) during 10, 20, 40, 60, and 180 s and erasure (one circular polarized beam) for 60 s on a cross-linked azopolymer film.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

AFM image and profiler scan of a grating upon a cross-linked azopolymer film written with the OL mode during 180 s .

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