Abstract

Optical and electrical measurements have been made on a new codoped potassium niobate crystal (KNbO3:Fe,Ag) that yields a significant enhancement of the photorefractive and photovoltaic effects when compared with the published results for singly doped potassium niobate crystals. The codoped Ag impurity enters the K site, rather than the typical Nb site, thus changing the local field in the lattice. It is believed that Fe perturbed by the Ag in the K site is responsible for an enhancement of the linear absorption and photocurrent, as well as a probable increase in the effective trap density. An enhanced trap density is likely the cause of the increased photorefractive counterpropagating two-beam coupling efficiency.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. P. Günter and J.-P. Huignard, Photorefractive Materials and Their Application I (Springer-Verlag, 1988).
  2. R. J. Reeves, M. G. Jani, B. Jassemnejad, R. C. Powell, G. J. Mizell, and W. Fay, Phys. Rev. B 43, 71 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  3. C. Medrano, M. Zgonik, I. Liakatas, and P. Günter, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 2657 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  4. P. Amrhein and P. Günter, in Photorefractive Materials, Effects, and Devices, , Vol. 14 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1991), paper AD-A253 001, p. 166.
  5. M. A. Gaffar, V. A. Koptsik, and V. K. Yanovskii, Sov. Phys. Crystallogr. 21, 353 (1976).
  6. G. J. Mizell, W. R. Fay, and Y. Shimoji, in Proc. SPIE 968, 88 (1988).
  7. M. Zgonik, C. Medrano, M. Ewart, H. Wüest, and P. Günter, Opt. Eng. 34, 1930 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  8. E. Siegel, W. Urban, K. A. Müller, and E. Wiesendanger, Phys. Lett. A 53, 415 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  9. B. Zysset, I. Biaggio, and P. Günter, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 380 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  10. K. G. Deshmukh and S. G. Ingle, J. Phys. D 4, 124 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  11. P. Günter and F. Micheron, Ferroelectrics 18, 27 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. Krumins and P. Günter, Phys. Status Solidi A 55, K185 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  13. G. Cook, J. P. Duignan, and D. C. Jones, Opt. Commun. 192, 393 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  14. D. R. Evans, S. A. Basun, M. A. Saleh, T. P. Pottenger, G. Cook, T. J. Bunning, and S. Guha, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1661 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  15. D. R. Evans, J. L. Carns, S. A. Basun, M. A. Saleh, and G. Cook, Opt. Mater. 27, 1730 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2005 (1)

D. R. Evans, J. L. Carns, S. A. Basun, M. A. Saleh, and G. Cook, Opt. Mater. 27, 1730 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

D. R. Evans, S. A. Basun, M. A. Saleh, T. P. Pottenger, G. Cook, T. J. Bunning, and S. Guha, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1661 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

G. Cook, J. P. Duignan, and D. C. Jones, Opt. Commun. 192, 393 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1995 (1)

M. Zgonik, C. Medrano, M. Ewart, H. Wüest, and P. Günter, Opt. Eng. 34, 1930 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

1991 (1)

R. J. Reeves, M. G. Jani, B. Jassemnejad, R. C. Powell, G. J. Mizell, and W. Fay, Phys. Rev. B 43, 71 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

G. J. Mizell, W. R. Fay, and Y. Shimoji, in Proc. SPIE 968, 88 (1988).

1979 (1)

A. Krumins and P. Günter, Phys. Status Solidi A 55, K185 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

P. Günter and F. Micheron, Ferroelectrics 18, 27 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

M. A. Gaffar, V. A. Koptsik, and V. K. Yanovskii, Sov. Phys. Crystallogr. 21, 353 (1976).

1975 (1)

E. Siegel, W. Urban, K. A. Müller, and E. Wiesendanger, Phys. Lett. A 53, 415 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

K. G. Deshmukh and S. G. Ingle, J. Phys. D 4, 124 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Amrhein, P.

P. Amrhein and P. Günter, in Photorefractive Materials, Effects, and Devices, , Vol. 14 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1991), paper AD-A253 001, p. 166.

Basun, S. A.

D. R. Evans, J. L. Carns, S. A. Basun, M. A. Saleh, and G. Cook, Opt. Mater. 27, 1730 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Evans, S. A. Basun, M. A. Saleh, T. P. Pottenger, G. Cook, T. J. Bunning, and S. Guha, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1661 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Biaggio, I.

Bunning, T. J.

D. R. Evans, S. A. Basun, M. A. Saleh, T. P. Pottenger, G. Cook, T. J. Bunning, and S. Guha, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1661 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Carns, J. L.

D. R. Evans, J. L. Carns, S. A. Basun, M. A. Saleh, and G. Cook, Opt. Mater. 27, 1730 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cook, G.

D. R. Evans, J. L. Carns, S. A. Basun, M. A. Saleh, and G. Cook, Opt. Mater. 27, 1730 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Evans, S. A. Basun, M. A. Saleh, T. P. Pottenger, G. Cook, T. J. Bunning, and S. Guha, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1661 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Cook, J. P. Duignan, and D. C. Jones, Opt. Commun. 192, 393 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Deshmukh, K. G.

K. G. Deshmukh and S. G. Ingle, J. Phys. D 4, 124 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Duignan, J. P.

G. Cook, J. P. Duignan, and D. C. Jones, Opt. Commun. 192, 393 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Evans, D. R.

D. R. Evans, J. L. Carns, S. A. Basun, M. A. Saleh, and G. Cook, Opt. Mater. 27, 1730 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Evans, S. A. Basun, M. A. Saleh, T. P. Pottenger, G. Cook, T. J. Bunning, and S. Guha, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1661 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ewart, M.

M. Zgonik, C. Medrano, M. Ewart, H. Wüest, and P. Günter, Opt. Eng. 34, 1930 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fay, W.

R. J. Reeves, M. G. Jani, B. Jassemnejad, R. C. Powell, G. J. Mizell, and W. Fay, Phys. Rev. B 43, 71 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Fay, W. R.

G. J. Mizell, W. R. Fay, and Y. Shimoji, in Proc. SPIE 968, 88 (1988).

Gaffar, M. A.

M. A. Gaffar, V. A. Koptsik, and V. K. Yanovskii, Sov. Phys. Crystallogr. 21, 353 (1976).

Guha, S.

D. R. Evans, S. A. Basun, M. A. Saleh, T. P. Pottenger, G. Cook, T. J. Bunning, and S. Guha, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1661 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Günter, P.

C. Medrano, M. Zgonik, I. Liakatas, and P. Günter, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 2657 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Zgonik, C. Medrano, M. Ewart, H. Wüest, and P. Günter, Opt. Eng. 34, 1930 (1995).
[CrossRef]

B. Zysset, I. Biaggio, and P. Günter, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 380 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Krumins and P. Günter, Phys. Status Solidi A 55, K185 (1979).
[CrossRef]

P. Günter and F. Micheron, Ferroelectrics 18, 27 (1978).
[CrossRef]

P. Amrhein and P. Günter, in Photorefractive Materials, Effects, and Devices, , Vol. 14 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1991), paper AD-A253 001, p. 166.

P. Günter and J.-P. Huignard, Photorefractive Materials and Their Application I (Springer-Verlag, 1988).

Huignard, J.-P.

P. Günter and J.-P. Huignard, Photorefractive Materials and Their Application I (Springer-Verlag, 1988).

Ingle, S. G.

K. G. Deshmukh and S. G. Ingle, J. Phys. D 4, 124 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Jani, M. G.

R. J. Reeves, M. G. Jani, B. Jassemnejad, R. C. Powell, G. J. Mizell, and W. Fay, Phys. Rev. B 43, 71 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Jassemnejad, B.

R. J. Reeves, M. G. Jani, B. Jassemnejad, R. C. Powell, G. J. Mizell, and W. Fay, Phys. Rev. B 43, 71 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Jones, D. C.

G. Cook, J. P. Duignan, and D. C. Jones, Opt. Commun. 192, 393 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Koptsik, V. A.

M. A. Gaffar, V. A. Koptsik, and V. K. Yanovskii, Sov. Phys. Crystallogr. 21, 353 (1976).

Krumins, A.

A. Krumins and P. Günter, Phys. Status Solidi A 55, K185 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Liakatas, I.

Medrano, C.

C. Medrano, M. Zgonik, I. Liakatas, and P. Günter, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 2657 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Zgonik, C. Medrano, M. Ewart, H. Wüest, and P. Günter, Opt. Eng. 34, 1930 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Micheron, F.

P. Günter and F. Micheron, Ferroelectrics 18, 27 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Mizell, G. J.

R. J. Reeves, M. G. Jani, B. Jassemnejad, R. C. Powell, G. J. Mizell, and W. Fay, Phys. Rev. B 43, 71 (1991).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Mizell, W. R. Fay, and Y. Shimoji, in Proc. SPIE 968, 88 (1988).

Müller, K. A.

E. Siegel, W. Urban, K. A. Müller, and E. Wiesendanger, Phys. Lett. A 53, 415 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Pottenger, T. P.

D. R. Evans, S. A. Basun, M. A. Saleh, T. P. Pottenger, G. Cook, T. J. Bunning, and S. Guha, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1661 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Powell, R. C.

R. J. Reeves, M. G. Jani, B. Jassemnejad, R. C. Powell, G. J. Mizell, and W. Fay, Phys. Rev. B 43, 71 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Reeves, R. J.

R. J. Reeves, M. G. Jani, B. Jassemnejad, R. C. Powell, G. J. Mizell, and W. Fay, Phys. Rev. B 43, 71 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Saleh, M. A.

D. R. Evans, J. L. Carns, S. A. Basun, M. A. Saleh, and G. Cook, Opt. Mater. 27, 1730 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Evans, S. A. Basun, M. A. Saleh, T. P. Pottenger, G. Cook, T. J. Bunning, and S. Guha, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1661 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shimoji, Y.

G. J. Mizell, W. R. Fay, and Y. Shimoji, in Proc. SPIE 968, 88 (1988).

Siegel, E.

E. Siegel, W. Urban, K. A. Müller, and E. Wiesendanger, Phys. Lett. A 53, 415 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Urban, W.

E. Siegel, W. Urban, K. A. Müller, and E. Wiesendanger, Phys. Lett. A 53, 415 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Wiesendanger, E.

E. Siegel, W. Urban, K. A. Müller, and E. Wiesendanger, Phys. Lett. A 53, 415 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Wüest, H.

M. Zgonik, C. Medrano, M. Ewart, H. Wüest, and P. Günter, Opt. Eng. 34, 1930 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Yanovskii, V. K.

M. A. Gaffar, V. A. Koptsik, and V. K. Yanovskii, Sov. Phys. Crystallogr. 21, 353 (1976).

Zgonik, M.

C. Medrano, M. Zgonik, I. Liakatas, and P. Günter, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 2657 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Zgonik, C. Medrano, M. Ewart, H. Wüest, and P. Günter, Opt. Eng. 34, 1930 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zysset, B.

Ferroelectrics (1)

P. Günter and F. Micheron, Ferroelectrics 18, 27 (1978).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

D. R. Evans, S. A. Basun, M. A. Saleh, T. P. Pottenger, G. Cook, T. J. Bunning, and S. Guha, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1661 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

J. Phys. D (1)

K. G. Deshmukh and S. G. Ingle, J. Phys. D 4, 124 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

G. Cook, J. P. Duignan, and D. C. Jones, Opt. Commun. 192, 393 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

M. Zgonik, C. Medrano, M. Ewart, H. Wüest, and P. Günter, Opt. Eng. 34, 1930 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Mater. (1)

D. R. Evans, J. L. Carns, S. A. Basun, M. A. Saleh, and G. Cook, Opt. Mater. 27, 1730 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Lett. (1)

E. Siegel, W. Urban, K. A. Müller, and E. Wiesendanger, Phys. Lett. A 53, 415 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

R. J. Reeves, M. G. Jani, B. Jassemnejad, R. C. Powell, G. J. Mizell, and W. Fay, Phys. Rev. B 43, 71 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi A (1)

A. Krumins and P. Günter, Phys. Status Solidi A 55, K185 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

G. J. Mizell, W. R. Fay, and Y. Shimoji, in Proc. SPIE 968, 88 (1988).

Sov. Phys. Crystallogr. (1)

M. A. Gaffar, V. A. Koptsik, and V. K. Yanovskii, Sov. Phys. Crystallogr. 21, 353 (1976).

Other (2)

P. Günter and J.-P. Huignard, Photorefractive Materials and Their Application I (Springer-Verlag, 1988).

P. Amrhein and P. Günter, in Photorefractive Materials, Effects, and Devices, , Vol. 14 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1991), paper AD-A253 001, p. 166.

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Absorption spectra (c-axis propagation, E a ) of (circles) Fe near Ag, (triangles) Fe near K in K Nb O 3 :Fe,Ag, (squares) singly doped K Nb O 3 :Ag. Inset, location of the Fe and Ag ions in the K Nb O 3 lattice. The ions are depicted by (large filled circles) K, (large open circles) O, (small filled circles) Nb. The ×’s denote the sites where Ag K (large ×) and Fe Nb (small ×) enter the lattice.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Currents associated with the pyroelectric and photovoltaic effects: (solid curve) unperturbed Fe region and (dotted curve) perturbed Fe region. Inset, A, examples of currents associated with the pyroelectric (dotted curve) and photovoltaic (solid curve) effects separately; B, combination of the pyroelectric and photovoltaic currents (solid curve, actual data) and the change in temperature as a function of time (dotted curve).

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