Abstract

We demonstrate the operation of a monomode semiconductor laser with a relative intensity noise limited by the shot-noise floor, 156dBHz for a typical detected photocurrent of 1mA, over a large frequency range from 50MHzto18GHz. We achieve direct control of photon lifetime to turn an initially class-B laser into a relaxation-oscillation-free class-A one while preserving strict single-mode operation. Finally, we confirm experimentally that the laser operation in the desired class-A regime allows a dramatic filtering out of the relative intensity noise.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. H. Lefèvre, The Fiber-Optic Gyroscope (Artech House, 1993).
  2. See, for example, P. Burdack, M. Tröbs, M. Hunnekuhl, C. Fallnich, and I. Freitag, Opt. Express 12, 644 (2004).
    [PubMed]
  3. S. Knappe, V. Shah, P. D. D. Schwindt, L. Hollberg, J. Kitching, L.-A. Liew, and J. Moreland, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1460 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. A. Tulchinsky, S. J. Strutz, and K. J. Williams, in 2001 International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (IEEE/LEOS, 2002), p. 231.
  5. T. Merlet, S. Formont, D. Dolfi, S. Tonda-Goldstein, N. Vodjdani, G. Auvray, S. Blanc, C. Fourdin, Y. Canal, and J. Chazelas, in 2004 International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (IEEE/LEOS, 2004), p. 305.
  6. K. Petermann, Laser Diode Modulation and Noise (Academic, 1988).
    [CrossRef]
  7. W. K. Marshall, J. Paslaski, and A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2496 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. McAdams, D. Provenzano, E. Peral, W. K. Marshall, and A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3341 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. Nagarajan, S. Levy, A. Mar, and J. E. Bowers, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 4 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. D. McCoy, L. B. Fu, M. Ibsen, B. C. Thomsen, and D. J. Richardson, Electron. Lett. 40, 107 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  11. See, for example, the noise eater of the Mephisto Laser (InnoLight GmbH, Hannover, Germany) data sheet (http://www.innolight.de/products/mephisto/technical-details.htm).
  12. H. Bachor, A Guide to Experiments in Quantum Optics (Wiley-VCH, 1998), pp. 186.
  13. S. Taccheo, P. Laporta, O. Svelto, and G. de Geronimo, Opt. Lett. 21, 1747 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. S. Machida and Y. Yamamoto, Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 792 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. C. C. Harb, T. C. Ralph, E. H. Huntington, I. Freitag, D. E. McClelland, and H.-A. Bachor, Phys. Rev. A 54, 4370 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. J. R. Tredicce, F. T. Arecchi, G. L. Lippi, and G. P. Puccioni, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 173 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  17. R. Loudon and M. Harris, Phys. Rev. A 48, 681 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. A. Godefroy, A. Le Corre, F. Clérot, S. Salaün, S. Loualiche, J. C. Simon, L. Henry, C. Vaudry, J. C. Kéromnès, G. Joulié, and P. Lamouler, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 473 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  19. L. Xu, I. Glesk, D. Rand, V. Baby, and P. R. Prucnal, Opt. Lett. 28, 780 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. Micron Optics, Inc., Atlanta, Ga.

2004 (3)

See, for example, P. Burdack, M. Tröbs, M. Hunnekuhl, C. Fallnich, and I. Freitag, Opt. Express 12, 644 (2004).
[PubMed]

S. Knappe, V. Shah, P. D. D. Schwindt, L. Hollberg, J. Kitching, L.-A. Liew, and J. Moreland, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1460 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. D. McCoy, L. B. Fu, M. Ibsen, B. C. Thomsen, and D. J. Richardson, Electron. Lett. 40, 107 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

1997 (1)

M. McAdams, D. Provenzano, E. Peral, W. K. Marshall, and A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3341 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (3)

W. K. Marshall, J. Paslaski, and A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2496 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Taccheo, P. Laporta, O. Svelto, and G. de Geronimo, Opt. Lett. 21, 1747 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. C. Harb, T. C. Ralph, E. H. Huntington, I. Freitag, D. E. McClelland, and H.-A. Bachor, Phys. Rev. A 54, 4370 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

A. Godefroy, A. Le Corre, F. Clérot, S. Salaün, S. Loualiche, J. C. Simon, L. Henry, C. Vaudry, J. C. Kéromnès, G. Joulié, and P. Lamouler, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 473 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

R. Loudon and M. Harris, Phys. Rev. A 48, 681 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Nagarajan, S. Levy, A. Mar, and J. E. Bowers, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 4 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

S. Machida and Y. Yamamoto, Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 792 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985 (1)

Arecchi, F. T.

Auvray, G.

T. Merlet, S. Formont, D. Dolfi, S. Tonda-Goldstein, N. Vodjdani, G. Auvray, S. Blanc, C. Fourdin, Y. Canal, and J. Chazelas, in 2004 International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (IEEE/LEOS, 2004), p. 305.

Baby, V.

Bachor, H.

H. Bachor, A Guide to Experiments in Quantum Optics (Wiley-VCH, 1998), pp. 186.

Bachor, H.-A.

C. C. Harb, T. C. Ralph, E. H. Huntington, I. Freitag, D. E. McClelland, and H.-A. Bachor, Phys. Rev. A 54, 4370 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blanc, S.

T. Merlet, S. Formont, D. Dolfi, S. Tonda-Goldstein, N. Vodjdani, G. Auvray, S. Blanc, C. Fourdin, Y. Canal, and J. Chazelas, in 2004 International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (IEEE/LEOS, 2004), p. 305.

Bowers, J. E.

R. Nagarajan, S. Levy, A. Mar, and J. E. Bowers, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 4 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Burdack, P.

Canal, Y.

T. Merlet, S. Formont, D. Dolfi, S. Tonda-Goldstein, N. Vodjdani, G. Auvray, S. Blanc, C. Fourdin, Y. Canal, and J. Chazelas, in 2004 International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (IEEE/LEOS, 2004), p. 305.

Chazelas, J.

T. Merlet, S. Formont, D. Dolfi, S. Tonda-Goldstein, N. Vodjdani, G. Auvray, S. Blanc, C. Fourdin, Y. Canal, and J. Chazelas, in 2004 International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (IEEE/LEOS, 2004), p. 305.

Clérot, F.

A. Godefroy, A. Le Corre, F. Clérot, S. Salaün, S. Loualiche, J. C. Simon, L. Henry, C. Vaudry, J. C. Kéromnès, G. Joulié, and P. Lamouler, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 473 (1995).
[CrossRef]

de Geronimo, G.

Dolfi, D.

T. Merlet, S. Formont, D. Dolfi, S. Tonda-Goldstein, N. Vodjdani, G. Auvray, S. Blanc, C. Fourdin, Y. Canal, and J. Chazelas, in 2004 International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (IEEE/LEOS, 2004), p. 305.

Fallnich, C.

Formont, S.

T. Merlet, S. Formont, D. Dolfi, S. Tonda-Goldstein, N. Vodjdani, G. Auvray, S. Blanc, C. Fourdin, Y. Canal, and J. Chazelas, in 2004 International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (IEEE/LEOS, 2004), p. 305.

Fourdin, C.

T. Merlet, S. Formont, D. Dolfi, S. Tonda-Goldstein, N. Vodjdani, G. Auvray, S. Blanc, C. Fourdin, Y. Canal, and J. Chazelas, in 2004 International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (IEEE/LEOS, 2004), p. 305.

Freitag, I.

See, for example, P. Burdack, M. Tröbs, M. Hunnekuhl, C. Fallnich, and I. Freitag, Opt. Express 12, 644 (2004).
[PubMed]

C. C. Harb, T. C. Ralph, E. H. Huntington, I. Freitag, D. E. McClelland, and H.-A. Bachor, Phys. Rev. A 54, 4370 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fu, L. B.

A. D. McCoy, L. B. Fu, M. Ibsen, B. C. Thomsen, and D. J. Richardson, Electron. Lett. 40, 107 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Glesk, I.

Godefroy, A.

A. Godefroy, A. Le Corre, F. Clérot, S. Salaün, S. Loualiche, J. C. Simon, L. Henry, C. Vaudry, J. C. Kéromnès, G. Joulié, and P. Lamouler, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 473 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Harb, C. C.

C. C. Harb, T. C. Ralph, E. H. Huntington, I. Freitag, D. E. McClelland, and H.-A. Bachor, Phys. Rev. A 54, 4370 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harris, M.

R. Loudon and M. Harris, Phys. Rev. A 48, 681 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Henry, L.

A. Godefroy, A. Le Corre, F. Clérot, S. Salaün, S. Loualiche, J. C. Simon, L. Henry, C. Vaudry, J. C. Kéromnès, G. Joulié, and P. Lamouler, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 473 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hollberg, L.

S. Knappe, V. Shah, P. D. D. Schwindt, L. Hollberg, J. Kitching, L.-A. Liew, and J. Moreland, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1460 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hunnekuhl, M.

Huntington, E. H.

C. C. Harb, T. C. Ralph, E. H. Huntington, I. Freitag, D. E. McClelland, and H.-A. Bachor, Phys. Rev. A 54, 4370 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ibsen, M.

A. D. McCoy, L. B. Fu, M. Ibsen, B. C. Thomsen, and D. J. Richardson, Electron. Lett. 40, 107 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Joulié, G.

A. Godefroy, A. Le Corre, F. Clérot, S. Salaün, S. Loualiche, J. C. Simon, L. Henry, C. Vaudry, J. C. Kéromnès, G. Joulié, and P. Lamouler, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 473 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kéromnès, J. C.

A. Godefroy, A. Le Corre, F. Clérot, S. Salaün, S. Loualiche, J. C. Simon, L. Henry, C. Vaudry, J. C. Kéromnès, G. Joulié, and P. Lamouler, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 473 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kitching, J.

S. Knappe, V. Shah, P. D. D. Schwindt, L. Hollberg, J. Kitching, L.-A. Liew, and J. Moreland, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1460 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Knappe, S.

S. Knappe, V. Shah, P. D. D. Schwindt, L. Hollberg, J. Kitching, L.-A. Liew, and J. Moreland, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1460 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lamouler, P.

A. Godefroy, A. Le Corre, F. Clérot, S. Salaün, S. Loualiche, J. C. Simon, L. Henry, C. Vaudry, J. C. Kéromnès, G. Joulié, and P. Lamouler, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 473 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Laporta, P.

Le Corre, A.

A. Godefroy, A. Le Corre, F. Clérot, S. Salaün, S. Loualiche, J. C. Simon, L. Henry, C. Vaudry, J. C. Kéromnès, G. Joulié, and P. Lamouler, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 473 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lefèvre, H.

H. Lefèvre, The Fiber-Optic Gyroscope (Artech House, 1993).

Levy, S.

R. Nagarajan, S. Levy, A. Mar, and J. E. Bowers, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 4 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Liew, L.-A.

S. Knappe, V. Shah, P. D. D. Schwindt, L. Hollberg, J. Kitching, L.-A. Liew, and J. Moreland, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1460 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lippi, G. L.

Loualiche, S.

A. Godefroy, A. Le Corre, F. Clérot, S. Salaün, S. Loualiche, J. C. Simon, L. Henry, C. Vaudry, J. C. Kéromnès, G. Joulié, and P. Lamouler, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 473 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Loudon, R.

R. Loudon and M. Harris, Phys. Rev. A 48, 681 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Machida, S.

S. Machida and Y. Yamamoto, Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 792 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mar, A.

R. Nagarajan, S. Levy, A. Mar, and J. E. Bowers, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 4 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Marshall, W. K.

M. McAdams, D. Provenzano, E. Peral, W. K. Marshall, and A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3341 (1997).
[CrossRef]

W. K. Marshall, J. Paslaski, and A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2496 (1996).
[CrossRef]

McAdams, M.

M. McAdams, D. Provenzano, E. Peral, W. K. Marshall, and A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3341 (1997).
[CrossRef]

McClelland, D. E.

C. C. Harb, T. C. Ralph, E. H. Huntington, I. Freitag, D. E. McClelland, and H.-A. Bachor, Phys. Rev. A 54, 4370 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McCoy, A. D.

A. D. McCoy, L. B. Fu, M. Ibsen, B. C. Thomsen, and D. J. Richardson, Electron. Lett. 40, 107 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Merlet, T.

T. Merlet, S. Formont, D. Dolfi, S. Tonda-Goldstein, N. Vodjdani, G. Auvray, S. Blanc, C. Fourdin, Y. Canal, and J. Chazelas, in 2004 International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (IEEE/LEOS, 2004), p. 305.

Moreland, J.

S. Knappe, V. Shah, P. D. D. Schwindt, L. Hollberg, J. Kitching, L.-A. Liew, and J. Moreland, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1460 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nagarajan, R.

R. Nagarajan, S. Levy, A. Mar, and J. E. Bowers, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 4 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Paslaski, J.

W. K. Marshall, J. Paslaski, and A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2496 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Peral, E.

M. McAdams, D. Provenzano, E. Peral, W. K. Marshall, and A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3341 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Petermann, K.

K. Petermann, Laser Diode Modulation and Noise (Academic, 1988).
[CrossRef]

Provenzano, D.

M. McAdams, D. Provenzano, E. Peral, W. K. Marshall, and A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3341 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Prucnal, P. R.

Puccioni, G. P.

Ralph, T. C.

C. C. Harb, T. C. Ralph, E. H. Huntington, I. Freitag, D. E. McClelland, and H.-A. Bachor, Phys. Rev. A 54, 4370 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rand, D.

Richardson, D. J.

A. D. McCoy, L. B. Fu, M. Ibsen, B. C. Thomsen, and D. J. Richardson, Electron. Lett. 40, 107 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Salaün, S.

A. Godefroy, A. Le Corre, F. Clérot, S. Salaün, S. Loualiche, J. C. Simon, L. Henry, C. Vaudry, J. C. Kéromnès, G. Joulié, and P. Lamouler, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 473 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Schwindt, P. D. D.

S. Knappe, V. Shah, P. D. D. Schwindt, L. Hollberg, J. Kitching, L.-A. Liew, and J. Moreland, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1460 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shah, V.

S. Knappe, V. Shah, P. D. D. Schwindt, L. Hollberg, J. Kitching, L.-A. Liew, and J. Moreland, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1460 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Simon, J. C.

A. Godefroy, A. Le Corre, F. Clérot, S. Salaün, S. Loualiche, J. C. Simon, L. Henry, C. Vaudry, J. C. Kéromnès, G. Joulié, and P. Lamouler, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 473 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Strutz, S. J.

D. A. Tulchinsky, S. J. Strutz, and K. J. Williams, in 2001 International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (IEEE/LEOS, 2002), p. 231.

Svelto, O.

Taccheo, S.

Thomsen, B. C.

A. D. McCoy, L. B. Fu, M. Ibsen, B. C. Thomsen, and D. J. Richardson, Electron. Lett. 40, 107 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tonda-Goldstein, S.

T. Merlet, S. Formont, D. Dolfi, S. Tonda-Goldstein, N. Vodjdani, G. Auvray, S. Blanc, C. Fourdin, Y. Canal, and J. Chazelas, in 2004 International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (IEEE/LEOS, 2004), p. 305.

Tredicce, J. R.

Tröbs, M.

Tulchinsky, D. A.

D. A. Tulchinsky, S. J. Strutz, and K. J. Williams, in 2001 International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (IEEE/LEOS, 2002), p. 231.

Vaudry, C.

A. Godefroy, A. Le Corre, F. Clérot, S. Salaün, S. Loualiche, J. C. Simon, L. Henry, C. Vaudry, J. C. Kéromnès, G. Joulié, and P. Lamouler, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 473 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Vodjdani, N.

T. Merlet, S. Formont, D. Dolfi, S. Tonda-Goldstein, N. Vodjdani, G. Auvray, S. Blanc, C. Fourdin, Y. Canal, and J. Chazelas, in 2004 International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (IEEE/LEOS, 2004), p. 305.

Williams, K. J.

D. A. Tulchinsky, S. J. Strutz, and K. J. Williams, in 2001 International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (IEEE/LEOS, 2002), p. 231.

Xu, L.

Yamamoto, Y.

S. Machida and Y. Yamamoto, Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 792 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yariv, A.

M. McAdams, D. Provenzano, E. Peral, W. K. Marshall, and A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3341 (1997).
[CrossRef]

W. K. Marshall, J. Paslaski, and A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2496 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

S. Knappe, V. Shah, P. D. D. Schwindt, L. Hollberg, J. Kitching, L.-A. Liew, and J. Moreland, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1460 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. K. Marshall, J. Paslaski, and A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2496 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. McAdams, D. Provenzano, E. Peral, W. K. Marshall, and A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3341 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

A. D. McCoy, L. B. Fu, M. Ibsen, B. C. Thomsen, and D. J. Richardson, Electron. Lett. 40, 107 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

A. Godefroy, A. Le Corre, F. Clérot, S. Salaün, S. Loualiche, J. C. Simon, L. Henry, C. Vaudry, J. C. Kéromnès, G. Joulié, and P. Lamouler, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 473 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. Nagarajan, S. Levy, A. Mar, and J. E. Bowers, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 4 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. A (2)

R. Loudon and M. Harris, Phys. Rev. A 48, 681 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. C. Harb, T. C. Ralph, E. H. Huntington, I. Freitag, D. E. McClelland, and H.-A. Bachor, Phys. Rev. A 54, 4370 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

S. Machida and Y. Yamamoto, Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 792 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (7)

See, for example, the noise eater of the Mephisto Laser (InnoLight GmbH, Hannover, Germany) data sheet (http://www.innolight.de/products/mephisto/technical-details.htm).

H. Bachor, A Guide to Experiments in Quantum Optics (Wiley-VCH, 1998), pp. 186.

Micron Optics, Inc., Atlanta, Ga.

H. Lefèvre, The Fiber-Optic Gyroscope (Artech House, 1993).

D. A. Tulchinsky, S. J. Strutz, and K. J. Williams, in 2001 International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (IEEE/LEOS, 2002), p. 231.

T. Merlet, S. Formont, D. Dolfi, S. Tonda-Goldstein, N. Vodjdani, G. Auvray, S. Blanc, C. Fourdin, Y. Canal, and J. Chazelas, in 2004 International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (IEEE/LEOS, 2004), p. 305.

K. Petermann, Laser Diode Modulation and Noise (Academic, 1988).
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup: laser cavity [SOA: semiconductor optical amplifier; PC: polarization controller; FFP: fiber Fabry–Perot; FBG: fiber Bragg grating (28% peak reflectivity)] and control loop (modulation signal at 200 Hz ). Inset: laser optical power spectrum ( RBW = 0.01 nm ) for a 1.8 mW total output power. Cavity optical length, 7.5 m .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Experimental (crosses) modulation transfer function of the laser versus injection current modulation frequency. Solid curve, full FFP transmission. (b) Zoom over 100 MHz for 3 dB (open circles) and 7 dB (filled diamonds) added intracavity optical losses. Cavity optical length: 9 m .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Power spectral density of the amplified photocurrent obtained from a rf spectrum analyzer. Dashed line, amplified shot-noise level for a 1.3 mA photocurrent, the rf amplifier gain 56 dB and RBW = 1 MHz . Inset, Experimental RIN measurement over the whole 18 GHz bandwidth (sensitivity limited to shot noise, 1 mA photocurrent). Cavity optical length, 7.5 m .

Metrics