Abstract

By integrating soft-lithography-based nanofluidics with silicon nanophotonics, we demonstrate dynamic, liquid-based addressing and high Δnn(0.1) refractive index modulation of individual features within photonic structures at subwavelength length scales. We show ultracompact tunable spectral filtering through nanofluidic targeting of a single row of holes within a planar photonic crystal. We accomplished this with an optofluidic integration architecture comprising a nanophotonic layer, a nanofluidic delivery structure, and a microfluidic control engine. Variants of this technique could enable dynamic reconfiguration of photonic circuits, selective introduction of optical nonlinearities, or delivery of single molecules into resonant cavities for biodetection.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. D.Lide, ed., Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 79th ed. (CRC Press, 1999).

2004

P. Domachuck, H. C. Nguyen, B. J. Eggleton, M. Straub, and M. Gu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1838 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Maune, M. Loncar, J. Witzens, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, D. Psaltis, A. Scherer, and Y. Qiu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 360 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. Almeida, C. Barrios, R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, Nature 431, 1081 (2004)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kuiper and B. Hendriks, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1128 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Wolfe, R. Conroy, P. Garstecki, B. Mayers, M. Fischback, K. Paul, M. Prentiss, and G. Whitesides, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101, 12434 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

J. Lee, C. Park, and G. Whitesides, Anal. Chem. 75, 6544 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

P. Mach, M. Dolinski, K. Baldwin, J. Rogers, C. Kerbage, R. Windeler, and B. Eggleton, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4294 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

M. Unger, H. Chou, T. Thorsen, A. Scherer, and S. Quake, Science 288, 113 (2000)
[CrossRef]

M. Loncar, D. Nedeljkovic, T. Doll, J. Vuckovic, A. Scherer, and T. Pearsall, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1937 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1991

B. Gibson, J. R. Astron. Soc. Can. 85, 158 (1991).

Almeida, V.

V. Almeida, C. Barrios, R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, Nature 431, 1081 (2004)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baehr-Jones, T.

B. Maune, M. Loncar, J. Witzens, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, D. Psaltis, A. Scherer, and Y. Qiu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 360 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Baldwin, K.

P. Mach, M. Dolinski, K. Baldwin, J. Rogers, C. Kerbage, R. Windeler, and B. Eggleton, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4294 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Barrios, C.

V. Almeida, C. Barrios, R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, Nature 431, 1081 (2004)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chou, H.

M. Unger, H. Chou, T. Thorsen, A. Scherer, and S. Quake, Science 288, 113 (2000)
[CrossRef]

Conroy, R.

D. Wolfe, R. Conroy, P. Garstecki, B. Mayers, M. Fischback, K. Paul, M. Prentiss, and G. Whitesides, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101, 12434 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dolinski, M.

P. Mach, M. Dolinski, K. Baldwin, J. Rogers, C. Kerbage, R. Windeler, and B. Eggleton, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4294 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Doll, T.

M. Loncar, D. Nedeljkovic, T. Doll, J. Vuckovic, A. Scherer, and T. Pearsall, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1937 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Domachuck, P.

P. Domachuck, H. C. Nguyen, B. J. Eggleton, M. Straub, and M. Gu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1838 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Eggleton, B.

P. Mach, M. Dolinski, K. Baldwin, J. Rogers, C. Kerbage, R. Windeler, and B. Eggleton, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4294 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Eggleton, B. J.

P. Domachuck, H. C. Nguyen, B. J. Eggleton, M. Straub, and M. Gu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1838 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fischback, M.

D. Wolfe, R. Conroy, P. Garstecki, B. Mayers, M. Fischback, K. Paul, M. Prentiss, and G. Whitesides, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101, 12434 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garstecki, P.

D. Wolfe, R. Conroy, P. Garstecki, B. Mayers, M. Fischback, K. Paul, M. Prentiss, and G. Whitesides, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101, 12434 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gibson, B.

B. Gibson, J. R. Astron. Soc. Can. 85, 158 (1991).

Gu, M.

P. Domachuck, H. C. Nguyen, B. J. Eggleton, M. Straub, and M. Gu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1838 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hendriks, B.

S. Kuiper and B. Hendriks, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1128 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hochberg, M.

B. Maune, M. Loncar, J. Witzens, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, D. Psaltis, A. Scherer, and Y. Qiu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 360 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Joannopoulos, J.

J. Joannopoulos, R. Meade, and J. Winn, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light (Princeton U. Press, 1995).

Kerbage, C.

P. Mach, M. Dolinski, K. Baldwin, J. Rogers, C. Kerbage, R. Windeler, and B. Eggleton, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4294 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kuiper, S.

S. Kuiper and B. Hendriks, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1128 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J.

J. Lee, C. Park, and G. Whitesides, Anal. Chem. 75, 6544 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lipson, M.

V. Almeida, C. Barrios, R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, Nature 431, 1081 (2004)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Loncar, M.

B. Maune, M. Loncar, J. Witzens, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, D. Psaltis, A. Scherer, and Y. Qiu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 360 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Loncar, D. Nedeljkovic, T. Doll, J. Vuckovic, A. Scherer, and T. Pearsall, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1937 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mach, P.

P. Mach, M. Dolinski, K. Baldwin, J. Rogers, C. Kerbage, R. Windeler, and B. Eggleton, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4294 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Maune, B.

B. Maune, M. Loncar, J. Witzens, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, D. Psaltis, A. Scherer, and Y. Qiu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 360 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mayers, B.

D. Wolfe, R. Conroy, P. Garstecki, B. Mayers, M. Fischback, K. Paul, M. Prentiss, and G. Whitesides, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101, 12434 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meade, R.

J. Joannopoulos, R. Meade, and J. Winn, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light (Princeton U. Press, 1995).

Nedeljkovic, D.

M. Loncar, D. Nedeljkovic, T. Doll, J. Vuckovic, A. Scherer, and T. Pearsall, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1937 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, H. C.

P. Domachuck, H. C. Nguyen, B. J. Eggleton, M. Straub, and M. Gu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1838 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Panepucci, R.

V. Almeida, C. Barrios, R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, Nature 431, 1081 (2004)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, C.

J. Lee, C. Park, and G. Whitesides, Anal. Chem. 75, 6544 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paul, K.

D. Wolfe, R. Conroy, P. Garstecki, B. Mayers, M. Fischback, K. Paul, M. Prentiss, and G. Whitesides, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101, 12434 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pearsall, T.

M. Loncar, D. Nedeljkovic, T. Doll, J. Vuckovic, A. Scherer, and T. Pearsall, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1937 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Prentiss, M.

D. Wolfe, R. Conroy, P. Garstecki, B. Mayers, M. Fischback, K. Paul, M. Prentiss, and G. Whitesides, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101, 12434 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Psaltis, D.

B. Maune, M. Loncar, J. Witzens, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, D. Psaltis, A. Scherer, and Y. Qiu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 360 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, Y.

B. Maune, M. Loncar, J. Witzens, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, D. Psaltis, A. Scherer, and Y. Qiu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 360 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Quake, S.

M. Unger, H. Chou, T. Thorsen, A. Scherer, and S. Quake, Science 288, 113 (2000)
[CrossRef]

Rogers, J.

P. Mach, M. Dolinski, K. Baldwin, J. Rogers, C. Kerbage, R. Windeler, and B. Eggleton, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4294 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Scherer, A.

B. Maune, M. Loncar, J. Witzens, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, D. Psaltis, A. Scherer, and Y. Qiu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 360 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Loncar, D. Nedeljkovic, T. Doll, J. Vuckovic, A. Scherer, and T. Pearsall, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1937 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Unger, H. Chou, T. Thorsen, A. Scherer, and S. Quake, Science 288, 113 (2000)
[CrossRef]

Straub, M.

P. Domachuck, H. C. Nguyen, B. J. Eggleton, M. Straub, and M. Gu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1838 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Thorsen, T.

M. Unger, H. Chou, T. Thorsen, A. Scherer, and S. Quake, Science 288, 113 (2000)
[CrossRef]

Unger, M.

M. Unger, H. Chou, T. Thorsen, A. Scherer, and S. Quake, Science 288, 113 (2000)
[CrossRef]

Vuckovic, J.

M. Loncar, D. Nedeljkovic, T. Doll, J. Vuckovic, A. Scherer, and T. Pearsall, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1937 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Whitesides, G.

D. Wolfe, R. Conroy, P. Garstecki, B. Mayers, M. Fischback, K. Paul, M. Prentiss, and G. Whitesides, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101, 12434 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Lee, C. Park, and G. Whitesides, Anal. Chem. 75, 6544 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Windeler, R.

P. Mach, M. Dolinski, K. Baldwin, J. Rogers, C. Kerbage, R. Windeler, and B. Eggleton, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4294 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Winn, J.

J. Joannopoulos, R. Meade, and J. Winn, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light (Princeton U. Press, 1995).

Witzens, J.

B. Maune, M. Loncar, J. Witzens, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, D. Psaltis, A. Scherer, and Y. Qiu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 360 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wolfe, D.

D. Wolfe, R. Conroy, P. Garstecki, B. Mayers, M. Fischback, K. Paul, M. Prentiss, and G. Whitesides, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101, 12434 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anal. Chem.

J. Lee, C. Park, and G. Whitesides, Anal. Chem. 75, 6544 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

P. Mach, M. Dolinski, K. Baldwin, J. Rogers, C. Kerbage, R. Windeler, and B. Eggleton, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4294 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. Domachuck, H. C. Nguyen, B. J. Eggleton, M. Straub, and M. Gu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1838 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Maune, M. Loncar, J. Witzens, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, D. Psaltis, A. Scherer, and Y. Qiu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 360 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Kuiper and B. Hendriks, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1128 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Loncar, D. Nedeljkovic, T. Doll, J. Vuckovic, A. Scherer, and T. Pearsall, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1937 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Astron. Soc. Can.

B. Gibson, J. R. Astron. Soc. Can. 85, 158 (1991).

Nature

V. Almeida, C. Barrios, R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, Nature 431, 1081 (2004)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.

D. Wolfe, R. Conroy, P. Garstecki, B. Mayers, M. Fischback, K. Paul, M. Prentiss, and G. Whitesides, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101, 12434 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science

M. Unger, H. Chou, T. Thorsen, A. Scherer, and S. Quake, Science 288, 113 (2000)
[CrossRef]

Other

J. Joannopoulos, R. Meade, and J. Winn, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light (Princeton U. Press, 1995).

D.Lide, ed., Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 79th ed. (CRC Press, 1999).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Nanofluidically tunable photonic structures. (a) Exploded view of the opto-fluidic assembly showing the photonic layer on bottom, fluidic layer in the middle, and control layer on top. (b) Overview of device operation. The microfluidic control engine mixes and dispenses liquid plugs to the nanofluidic array. The nanofluidic structure serves to deliver liquids directly into a targeted row of holes in the photonic crystal enabling localized, high Δ n n refractive index tuning. (c) Photograph of an assembled chip. (d) Optical image showing overlay of nanochannels with photonic crystal.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

SEM images showing the photonic crystal (a) prior to integration with nanofluidics and (b) after removal of the fluidics. The darkened regions show deposited CTAB after allowing the solvent to evaporate within the nanochannels, illustrating precise nanofluidic confinement within the targeted region of the photonic crystal.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

TE-like transmission through a photonic crystal with an aligned nanochannel. (a) Shift in transmitted power spectrum when the aligned nanochannel filled with H 2 O ( n = 1.33 ) and 5 M CaCl 2 ( n = 1.44 ) . (b) Dynamic switching at a λ = 0.291 .

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