Abstract

Using femtosecond microscopy, we observe subpicosecond transport of thermal energy radially outward from a micrometer-sized spot of an aluminum target following P-polarized excitation at >1018Wcm2 with a 24fs pulse. The rapid expansion coincides with the onset of nonlocal energy transport dominated by radiation and hot electrons.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. C. Downer, R. L. Fork, and C. V. Shank, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 595 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  2. K. Sokolowski-Tinten, J. Bialkowski, A. Cavalleri, D. von der Linde, A. Oparin, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, and S. I. Anisimov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 224 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. W. Rozmus, V. T. Tikhonchuk, and R. Cauble, Phys. Plasmas 3, 360 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  5. F. Brunel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 52 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  7. T. Nakamura, S. Kato, H. Nagatomo, and K. Mima, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 265002 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Tabak, J. Hammer, M. E. Glinsky, W. L. Kruer, S. C. Wilks, J. Woodworth, E. M. Campbell, M. D. Perry, and R. J. Mason, Phys. Plasmas 1, 1626 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. Guo, Ch. Spielmann, B. C. Walker, and C. P. J. Barty, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 41 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. J. Mackinnon, M. Borghesi, S. Hatchett, M. H. Key, P. K. Patel, H. Campbell, A. Schiavi, R. Snavely, S. C. Wilks, and O. Willi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1769 (2001).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. P. Mora, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 185002 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. Y. Zel'dovich and Y. Raizer, Physics of Shock Waves and High-Temperature Hydrodynamic Phenomena (Dover, 2002).
  19. M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge U. Press, 1999), Sec. 8.6.3.

2004

T. Nakamura, S. Kato, H. Nagatomo, and K. Mima, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 265002 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Hou, J. Nees, W. Theobald, G. A. Mourou, L. M. Chen, J.-C. Kieffer, A. Krol, and C. C. Chamberlain, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2259 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

P. Mora, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 185002 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

T. Guo, Ch. Spielmann, B. C. Walker, and C. P. J. Barty, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 41 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Mackinnon, M. Borghesi, S. Hatchett, M. H. Key, P. K. Patel, H. Campbell, A. Schiavi, R. Snavely, S. C. Wilks, and O. Willi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1769 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

1999

B. A. Remington, D. Arnett, R. P. Drake, and H. Takabe, Science 284, 1488 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

K. Sokolowski-Tinten, J. Bialkowski, A. Cavalleri, D. von der Linde, A. Oparin, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, and S. I. Anisimov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 224 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

S. C. Wilks and W. L. Kruer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1954 (1997), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

1996

T. Ditmire, E. T. Gumbrell, R. A. Smith, L. Mountford, and M. H. R. Hutchinson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 498 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Rozmus, V. T. Tikhonchuk, and R. Cauble, Phys. Plasmas 3, 360 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994

M. Tabak, J. Hammer, M. E. Glinsky, W. L. Kruer, S. C. Wilks, J. Woodworth, E. M. Campbell, M. D. Perry, and R. J. Mason, Phys. Plasmas 1, 1626 (1994).
[CrossRef]

B.-T. V. Vu, A. Szoke, and O. L. Landen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 3823 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992

1987

F. Brunel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 52 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985

Albert, O.

Anisimov, S. I.

K. Sokolowski-Tinten, J. Bialkowski, A. Cavalleri, D. von der Linde, A. Oparin, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, and S. I. Anisimov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 224 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Arnett, D.

B. A. Remington, D. Arnett, R. P. Drake, and H. Takabe, Science 284, 1488 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Barty, C. P. J.

T. Guo, Ch. Spielmann, B. C. Walker, and C. P. J. Barty, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 41 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bialkowski, J.

K. Sokolowski-Tinten, J. Bialkowski, A. Cavalleri, D. von der Linde, A. Oparin, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, and S. I. Anisimov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 224 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Borghesi, M.

A. J. Mackinnon, M. Borghesi, S. Hatchett, M. H. Key, P. K. Patel, H. Campbell, A. Schiavi, R. Snavely, S. C. Wilks, and O. Willi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1769 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge U. Press, 1999), Sec. 8.6.3.

Brunel, F.

F. Brunel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 52 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Campbell, E. M.

M. Tabak, J. Hammer, M. E. Glinsky, W. L. Kruer, S. C. Wilks, J. Woodworth, E. M. Campbell, M. D. Perry, and R. J. Mason, Phys. Plasmas 1, 1626 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, H.

A. J. Mackinnon, M. Borghesi, S. Hatchett, M. H. Key, P. K. Patel, H. Campbell, A. Schiavi, R. Snavely, S. C. Wilks, and O. Willi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1769 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cauble, R.

W. Rozmus, V. T. Tikhonchuk, and R. Cauble, Phys. Plasmas 3, 360 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Cavalleri, A.

K. Sokolowski-Tinten, J. Bialkowski, A. Cavalleri, D. von der Linde, A. Oparin, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, and S. I. Anisimov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 224 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chamberlain, C. C.

B. Hou, J. Nees, W. Theobald, G. A. Mourou, L. M. Chen, J.-C. Kieffer, A. Krol, and C. C. Chamberlain, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2259 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chang, Z.

Chen, L. M.

B. Hou, J. Nees, W. Theobald, G. A. Mourou, L. M. Chen, J.-C. Kieffer, A. Krol, and C. C. Chamberlain, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2259 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ditmire, T.

T. Ditmire, E. T. Gumbrell, R. A. Smith, L. Mountford, and M. H. R. Hutchinson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 498 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Downer, M. C.

Drake, R. P.

B. A. Remington, D. Arnett, R. P. Drake, and H. Takabe, Science 284, 1488 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fork, R. L.

Glinsky, M. E.

M. Tabak, J. Hammer, M. E. Glinsky, W. L. Kruer, S. C. Wilks, J. Woodworth, E. M. Campbell, M. D. Perry, and R. J. Mason, Phys. Plasmas 1, 1626 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gumbrell, E. T.

T. Ditmire, E. T. Gumbrell, R. A. Smith, L. Mountford, and M. H. R. Hutchinson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 498 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guo, T.

T. Guo, Ch. Spielmann, B. C. Walker, and C. P. J. Barty, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 41 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hammer, J.

M. Tabak, J. Hammer, M. E. Glinsky, W. L. Kruer, S. C. Wilks, J. Woodworth, E. M. Campbell, M. D. Perry, and R. J. Mason, Phys. Plasmas 1, 1626 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hatchett, S.

A. J. Mackinnon, M. Borghesi, S. Hatchett, M. H. Key, P. K. Patel, H. Campbell, A. Schiavi, R. Snavely, S. C. Wilks, and O. Willi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1769 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hou, B.

B. Hou, J. Nees, W. Theobald, G. A. Mourou, L. M. Chen, J.-C. Kieffer, A. Krol, and C. C. Chamberlain, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2259 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hutchinson, M. H. R.

T. Ditmire, E. T. Gumbrell, R. A. Smith, L. Mountford, and M. H. R. Hutchinson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 498 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kato, S.

T. Nakamura, S. Kato, H. Nagatomo, and K. Mima, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 265002 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Key, M. H.

A. J. Mackinnon, M. Borghesi, S. Hatchett, M. H. Key, P. K. Patel, H. Campbell, A. Schiavi, R. Snavely, S. C. Wilks, and O. Willi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1769 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kieffer, J.-C.

B. Hou, J. Nees, W. Theobald, G. A. Mourou, L. M. Chen, J.-C. Kieffer, A. Krol, and C. C. Chamberlain, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2259 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Krol, A.

B. Hou, J. Nees, W. Theobald, G. A. Mourou, L. M. Chen, J.-C. Kieffer, A. Krol, and C. C. Chamberlain, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2259 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kruer, W. L.

S. C. Wilks and W. L. Kruer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1954 (1997), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

M. Tabak, J. Hammer, M. E. Glinsky, W. L. Kruer, S. C. Wilks, J. Woodworth, E. M. Campbell, M. D. Perry, and R. J. Mason, Phys. Plasmas 1, 1626 (1994).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Kruer, The Physics of Laser Plasma Interactions, Vol. 73 of Frontiers in Physics (Addison-Wesley, 1988).

Landen, O. L.

B.-T. V. Vu, A. Szoke, and O. L. Landen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 3823 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, D.

Mackinnon, A. J.

A. J. Mackinnon, M. Borghesi, S. Hatchett, M. H. Key, P. K. Patel, H. Campbell, A. Schiavi, R. Snavely, S. C. Wilks, and O. Willi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1769 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mason, R. J.

M. Tabak, J. Hammer, M. E. Glinsky, W. L. Kruer, S. C. Wilks, J. Woodworth, E. M. Campbell, M. D. Perry, and R. J. Mason, Phys. Plasmas 1, 1626 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Meyer-ter-Vehn, J.

K. Sokolowski-Tinten, J. Bialkowski, A. Cavalleri, D. von der Linde, A. Oparin, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, and S. I. Anisimov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 224 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mima, K.

T. Nakamura, S. Kato, H. Nagatomo, and K. Mima, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 265002 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mora, P.

P. Mora, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 185002 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mountford, L.

T. Ditmire, E. T. Gumbrell, R. A. Smith, L. Mountford, and M. H. R. Hutchinson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 498 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mourou, G.

Mourou, G. A.

B. Hou, J. Nees, W. Theobald, G. A. Mourou, L. M. Chen, J.-C. Kieffer, A. Krol, and C. C. Chamberlain, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2259 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nagatomo, H.

T. Nakamura, S. Kato, H. Nagatomo, and K. Mima, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 265002 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, T.

T. Nakamura, S. Kato, H. Nagatomo, and K. Mima, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 265002 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nees, J.

B. Hou, J. Nees, W. Theobald, G. A. Mourou, L. M. Chen, J.-C. Kieffer, A. Krol, and C. C. Chamberlain, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2259 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Oparin, A.

K. Sokolowski-Tinten, J. Bialkowski, A. Cavalleri, D. von der Linde, A. Oparin, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, and S. I. Anisimov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 224 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Patel, P. K.

A. J. Mackinnon, M. Borghesi, S. Hatchett, M. H. Key, P. K. Patel, H. Campbell, A. Schiavi, R. Snavely, S. C. Wilks, and O. Willi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1769 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perry, M. D.

M. Tabak, J. Hammer, M. E. Glinsky, W. L. Kruer, S. C. Wilks, J. Woodworth, E. M. Campbell, M. D. Perry, and R. J. Mason, Phys. Plasmas 1, 1626 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Raizer, Y.

Y. Zel'dovich and Y. Raizer, Physics of Shock Waves and High-Temperature Hydrodynamic Phenomena (Dover, 2002).

Remington, B. A.

B. A. Remington, D. Arnett, R. P. Drake, and H. Takabe, Science 284, 1488 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rozmus, W.

W. Rozmus, V. T. Tikhonchuk, and R. Cauble, Phys. Plasmas 3, 360 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Schiavi, A.

A. J. Mackinnon, M. Borghesi, S. Hatchett, M. H. Key, P. K. Patel, H. Campbell, A. Schiavi, R. Snavely, S. C. Wilks, and O. Willi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1769 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shank, C. V.

Smith, R. A.

T. Ditmire, E. T. Gumbrell, R. A. Smith, L. Mountford, and M. H. R. Hutchinson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 498 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Snavely, R.

A. J. Mackinnon, M. Borghesi, S. Hatchett, M. H. Key, P. K. Patel, H. Campbell, A. Schiavi, R. Snavely, S. C. Wilks, and O. Willi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1769 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sokolowski-Tinten, K.

K. Sokolowski-Tinten, J. Bialkowski, A. Cavalleri, D. von der Linde, A. Oparin, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, and S. I. Anisimov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 224 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Spielmann, Ch.

T. Guo, Ch. Spielmann, B. C. Walker, and C. P. J. Barty, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 41 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Szoke, A.

B.-T. V. Vu, A. Szoke, and O. L. Landen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 3823 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tabak, M.

M. Tabak, J. Hammer, M. E. Glinsky, W. L. Kruer, S. C. Wilks, J. Woodworth, E. M. Campbell, M. D. Perry, and R. J. Mason, Phys. Plasmas 1, 1626 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Takabe, H.

B. A. Remington, D. Arnett, R. P. Drake, and H. Takabe, Science 284, 1488 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Theobald, W.

B. Hou, J. Nees, W. Theobald, G. A. Mourou, L. M. Chen, J.-C. Kieffer, A. Krol, and C. C. Chamberlain, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2259 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tikhonchuk, V. T.

W. Rozmus, V. T. Tikhonchuk, and R. Cauble, Phys. Plasmas 3, 360 (1996).
[CrossRef]

von der Linde, D.

K. Sokolowski-Tinten, J. Bialkowski, A. Cavalleri, D. von der Linde, A. Oparin, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, and S. I. Anisimov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 224 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Vu, B.-T. V.

B.-T. V. Vu, A. Szoke, and O. L. Landen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 3823 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walker, B. C.

T. Guo, Ch. Spielmann, B. C. Walker, and C. P. J. Barty, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 41 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H.

Wang, X. Y.

Wilks, S. C.

A. J. Mackinnon, M. Borghesi, S. Hatchett, M. H. Key, P. K. Patel, H. Campbell, A. Schiavi, R. Snavely, S. C. Wilks, and O. Willi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1769 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. C. Wilks and W. L. Kruer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1954 (1997), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

M. Tabak, J. Hammer, M. E. Glinsky, W. L. Kruer, S. C. Wilks, J. Woodworth, E. M. Campbell, M. D. Perry, and R. J. Mason, Phys. Plasmas 1, 1626 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Willi, O.

A. J. Mackinnon, M. Borghesi, S. Hatchett, M. H. Key, P. K. Patel, H. Campbell, A. Schiavi, R. Snavely, S. C. Wilks, and O. Willi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1769 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wolf, E.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge U. Press, 1999), Sec. 8.6.3.

Woodworth, J.

M. Tabak, J. Hammer, M. E. Glinsky, W. L. Kruer, S. C. Wilks, J. Woodworth, E. M. Campbell, M. D. Perry, and R. J. Mason, Phys. Plasmas 1, 1626 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Zel'dovich, Y.

Y. Zel'dovich and Y. Raizer, Physics of Shock Waves and High-Temperature Hydrodynamic Phenomena (Dover, 2002).

Appl. Phys. Lett.

B. Hou, J. Nees, W. Theobald, G. A. Mourou, L. M. Chen, J.-C. Kieffer, A. Krol, and C. C. Chamberlain, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2259 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

S. C. Wilks and W. L. Kruer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1954 (1997), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Plasmas

W. Rozmus, V. T. Tikhonchuk, and R. Cauble, Phys. Plasmas 3, 360 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Tabak, J. Hammer, M. E. Glinsky, W. L. Kruer, S. C. Wilks, J. Woodworth, E. M. Campbell, M. D. Perry, and R. J. Mason, Phys. Plasmas 1, 1626 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

T. Nakamura, S. Kato, H. Nagatomo, and K. Mima, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 265002 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Brunel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 52 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Sokolowski-Tinten, J. Bialkowski, A. Cavalleri, D. von der Linde, A. Oparin, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, and S. I. Anisimov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 224 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Ditmire, E. T. Gumbrell, R. A. Smith, L. Mountford, and M. H. R. Hutchinson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 498 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Mora, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 185002 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B.-T. V. Vu, A. Szoke, and O. L. Landen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 3823 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Mackinnon, M. Borghesi, S. Hatchett, M. H. Key, P. K. Patel, H. Campbell, A. Schiavi, R. Snavely, S. C. Wilks, and O. Willi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1769 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

T. Guo, Ch. Spielmann, B. C. Walker, and C. P. J. Barty, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 41 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Science

B. A. Remington, D. Arnett, R. P. Drake, and H. Takabe, Science 284, 1488 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other

W. L. Kruer, The Physics of Laser Plasma Interactions, Vol. 73 of Frontiers in Physics (Addison-Wesley, 1988).

Y. Zel'dovich and Y. Raizer, Physics of Shock Waves and High-Temperature Hydrodynamic Phenomena (Dover, 2002).

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge U. Press, 1999), Sec. 8.6.3.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for fs microscopy. Time-integrated x ray spectra (top inset) and selected images of the heated plasma region obtained using a P-polarized probe (bottom) are shown for the Al target excited at 2 × 10 18 W cm 2 . Image contrast has been enhanced to highlight the darkened heated region. See Fig. 2 for actual probe profiles.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Lineouts from probe images at two different pump laser intensities. Background noise was subtracted from each image. The radial expansion of the laser-excited region is evident at the highest pump intensity (left) but nearly absent at the fivefold lower pump intensity (right).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Normalized S- and P-polarized probe beam reflectivity Δ R probe S , P R 0 at the center of the pump-excited spot for I pu = 1.8 × 10 18 W cm 2 . Dashed curve: fit of Δ R probe P ( Δ t 0.5 ps ) data to a 1D resonance absorption (RA) model (Ref. [14]) assuming constant vertical expansion velocity v z = 2 × 10 7 cm s . At longer Δ t , 3D effects and time dependence of k T e complicate RA.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Right, calculated critical surface profiles at several Δ t based on energy transport and hydrodynamic expansion model. Left, calculated diffraction pattern of expanding heated region.

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