Abstract

A photoacoustic trace-gas sensor for the measurement of nitric oxide with a detection limit of 500 parts in 109 has been demonstrated. The radiation source was a thermoelectrically cooled distributed-feedback quantum-cascade laser operating in pulsed mode near 5.3μm with an average laser power of 8mW. A resonant photoacoustic cell was excited in its first longitudinal mode by the modulated laser light. Preliminary measurements have been performed to test the performance of our photoacoustic sensor; possible improvements to reach lower detection limits are discussed.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. A. Kosterev and F. Tittel, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 582 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  2. B. A. Paldus, T. G. Spence, R. N. Zare, J. Oomens, F. J. M. Harren, D. H. Parker, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, Opt. Lett. 24, 178 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. Hofstetter, M. Beck, J. Faist, M. Naegele, and M. W. Sigrist, Opt. Lett. 26, 887 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. W. Sigrist, Air Monitoring by Spectroscopic Techniques (Wiley, New York, 1994), pp. 163–227.
  5. J. H. Seinfeld and S. N. Pandis, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics: from Air Pollution to Climate Change (Wiley, New York, 1998).
  6. K. Alving, E. Weitzberg, and J. M. Lundberg, Eur. Respir. J. 6, 1368 (1993).
    [PubMed]
  7. N. Wilson and S. Pedersen, Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 162, 485 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. A. Kosterev, A. L. Malinovsky, F. Tittel, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, Appl. Opt. 40, 5522 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  9. L. Menzel, A. A. Kosterev, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, and W. Urban, Appl. Phys. B 72, 859 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  11. F. G. C. Bijnen, J. Reuss, and F. J. M. Harren, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 2914 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  12. The HITRAN database can be found at http://www.hitran.com.

2002 (2)

A. A. Kosterev and F. Tittel, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 582 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Nelson, J. H. Shorter, J. B. McManus, and M. S. Zahniser, Appl. Phys. B 75, 343 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

2000 (1)

N. Wilson and S. Pedersen, Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 162, 485 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1996 (1)

F. G. C. Bijnen, J. Reuss, and F. J. M. Harren, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 2914 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

K. Alving, E. Weitzberg, and J. M. Lundberg, Eur. Respir. J. 6, 1368 (1993).
[PubMed]

Alving, K.

K. Alving, E. Weitzberg, and J. M. Lundberg, Eur. Respir. J. 6, 1368 (1993).
[PubMed]

Baillargeon, J. N.

Beck, M.

Bijnen, F. G. C.

F. G. C. Bijnen, J. Reuss, and F. J. M. Harren, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 2914 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Capasso, F.

Cho, A. Y.

Curl, R. F.

L. Menzel, A. A. Kosterev, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, and W. Urban, Appl. Phys. B 72, 859 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Faist, J.

Gmachl, C.

Harren, F. J. M.

Hofstetter, D.

Hutchinson, A. L.

Kosterev, A. A.

A. A. Kosterev and F. Tittel, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 582 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. Menzel, A. A. Kosterev, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, and W. Urban, Appl. Phys. B 72, 859 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kosterev, A. L. Malinovsky, F. Tittel, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, Appl. Opt. 40, 5522 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lundberg, J. M.

K. Alving, E. Weitzberg, and J. M. Lundberg, Eur. Respir. J. 6, 1368 (1993).
[PubMed]

Malinovsky, A. L.

McManus, J. B.

D. D. Nelson, J. H. Shorter, J. B. McManus, and M. S. Zahniser, Appl. Phys. B 75, 343 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Menzel, L.

L. Menzel, A. A. Kosterev, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, and W. Urban, Appl. Phys. B 72, 859 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Naegele, M.

Nelson, D. D.

D. D. Nelson, J. H. Shorter, J. B. McManus, and M. S. Zahniser, Appl. Phys. B 75, 343 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Oomens, J.

Paldus, B. A.

Pandis, S. N.

J. H. Seinfeld and S. N. Pandis, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics: from Air Pollution to Climate Change (Wiley, New York, 1998).

Parker, D. H.

Pedersen, S.

N. Wilson and S. Pedersen, Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 162, 485 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Reuss, J.

F. G. C. Bijnen, J. Reuss, and F. J. M. Harren, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 2914 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Seinfeld, J. H.

J. H. Seinfeld and S. N. Pandis, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics: from Air Pollution to Climate Change (Wiley, New York, 1998).

Shorter, J. H.

D. D. Nelson, J. H. Shorter, J. B. McManus, and M. S. Zahniser, Appl. Phys. B 75, 343 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sigrist, M. W.

D. Hofstetter, M. Beck, J. Faist, M. Naegele, and M. W. Sigrist, Opt. Lett. 26, 887 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Sigrist, Air Monitoring by Spectroscopic Techniques (Wiley, New York, 1994), pp. 163–227.

Sivco, D. L.

Spence, T. G.

Tittel, F.

Tittel, F. K.

L. Menzel, A. A. Kosterev, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, and W. Urban, Appl. Phys. B 72, 859 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Urban, W.

L. Menzel, A. A. Kosterev, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, and W. Urban, Appl. Phys. B 72, 859 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Weitzberg, E.

K. Alving, E. Weitzberg, and J. M. Lundberg, Eur. Respir. J. 6, 1368 (1993).
[PubMed]

Wilson, N.

N. Wilson and S. Pedersen, Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 162, 485 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zahniser, M. S.

D. D. Nelson, J. H. Shorter, J. B. McManus, and M. S. Zahniser, Appl. Phys. B 75, 343 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zare, R. N.

Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (1)

N. Wilson and S. Pedersen, Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 162, 485 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (2)

L. Menzel, A. A. Kosterev, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, and W. Urban, Appl. Phys. B 72, 859 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Nelson, J. H. Shorter, J. B. McManus, and M. S. Zahniser, Appl. Phys. B 75, 343 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Eur. Respir. J. (1)

K. Alving, E. Weitzberg, and J. M. Lundberg, Eur. Respir. J. 6, 1368 (1993).
[PubMed]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. A. Kosterev and F. Tittel, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 582 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

F. G. C. Bijnen, J. Reuss, and F. J. M. Harren, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 2914 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

The HITRAN database can be found at http://www.hitran.com.

M. W. Sigrist, Air Monitoring by Spectroscopic Techniques (Wiley, New York, 1994), pp. 163–227.

J. H. Seinfeld and S. N. Pandis, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics: from Air Pollution to Climate Change (Wiley, New York, 1998).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Block diagram of the PA setup: QCL, quantum-cascade laser.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Lasing mode temperature tuning.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

NO, H 2 O , and CO absorption lines in the region near 5.3 μ m of the infrared spectrum.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Uncorrected PA signal as a function of NO concentration [in parts in 10 6 by volume (ppmv)]. (b) Background-corrected PA signal at low concentrations.

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