Abstract

For the first time to the authors’ knowledge, optical waveguides have been inscribed in bulk crystalline silicon by ultrafast laser radiation. Femtosecond laser pulses of 40-nm spectral bandwidth, 1-kHz repetition rate, and 1.7-μJ on-target energy were applied at a mid-infrared wavelength of 2.4 μm to induce nonlinear absorption in the focal volume of the beam. By scanning the laser beam with respect to the sample, buried optical waveguides have been created that were single mode at 1550 and 1320 nm and guided light only with its polarization perpendicular to the sample’s surface. Propagation losses with an upper limit of 1.2dBcm or less were observed throughout the optical telecommunications band.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

L. Gui, B. Xu, and T. C. Chong, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 1337 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

A. Zoubir, M. Richardson, C. Rivero, A. Schulte, C. Lopez, K. Richardson, N. Hô, and R. Valle, Opt. Lett. 29, 748 (2004).
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V. R. Bhardwaj, P. B. Corkum, D. M. Rayner, C. Hnatovsky, E. Simova, and R. S. Taylor, Opt. Lett. 29, 1312 (2004).
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[CrossRef]

C. Florea and K. A. Winick, J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 246 (2003).
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2002 (1)

2001 (4)

1999 (1)

1996 (2)

Bhardwaj, R.

D. Coric, P. R. Herman, R. Bhardwaj, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Rayner, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), pp. 685–686.
[CrossRef]

Bhardwaj, V. R.

Borrelli, N. F.

Brodeur, A.

Burghoff, J.

S. Nolte, J. Burghoff, M. Will, and A. Tuennermann, Proc. SPIE 5340, 164 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, Appl. Phys. A 77, 109 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Caccavale, F.

I. Mansour and F. Caccavale, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 423 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chan, J. W.

Chichkov, B. N.

Chong, T. C.

L. Gui, B. Xu, and T. C. Chong, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 1337 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, O.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, Nature (London) 427, 615 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Coric, D.

D. Coric, P. R. Herman, R. Bhardwaj, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Rayner, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), pp. 685–686.
[CrossRef]

Corkum, P. B.

V. R. Bhardwaj, P. B. Corkum, D. M. Rayner, C. Hnatovsky, E. Simova, and R. S. Taylor, Opt. Lett. 29, 1312 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef]

Davis, K. M.

Florea, C.

Fujimoto, J. G.

Gaeta, A. L.

Garcia, J. F.

Glatzel, U.

T. Gorelik, M. Will, S. Nolte, A. Tuennermann, and U. Glatzel, Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 76, 309 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gorelik, T.

T. Gorelik, M. Will, S. Nolte, A. Tuennermann, and U. Glatzel, Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 76, 309 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Grobnic, D.

D. Grobnic, C. W. Smelser, S. J. Mihailov, R. B. Walker, and P. Lu, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 1864 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gui, L.

L. Gui, B. Xu, and T. C. Chong, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 1337 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hartl, I.

Herman, P. R.

D. Coric, P. R. Herman, R. Bhardwaj, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Rayner, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), pp. 685–686.
[CrossRef]

Hirao, K.

Hnatovsky, C.

Hô, N.

Homoelle, D.

Huser, T.

Ippen, E. P.

Jones, R.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, Nature (London) 427, 615 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kowalevicz, A.

Krol, D. M.

Liao, L.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, Nature (London) 427, 615 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liu, A.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, Nature (London) 427, 615 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lopez, C.

Lu, P.

D. Grobnic, C. W. Smelser, S. J. Mihailov, R. B. Walker, and P. Lu, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 1864 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mansour, I.

I. Mansour and F. Caccavale, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 423 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mazur, E.

Mihailov, S. J.

D. Grobnic, C. W. Smelser, S. J. Mihailov, R. B. Walker, and P. Lu, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 1864 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Minoshima, K.

Miura, K.

Nicolaescu, R.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, Nature (London) 427, 615 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nolte, S.

S. Nolte, J. Burghoff, M. Will, and A. Tuennermann, Proc. SPIE 5340, 164 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, Appl. Phys. A 77, 109 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Gorelik, M. Will, S. Nolte, A. Tuennermann, and U. Glatzel, Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 76, 309 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Will, S. Nolte, B. N. Chichkov, and A. Tuennermann, Appl. Opt. 41, 4360 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paniccia, M.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, Nature (London) 427, 615 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rayner, D. M.

V. R. Bhardwaj, P. B. Corkum, D. M. Rayner, C. Hnatovsky, E. Simova, and R. S. Taylor, Opt. Lett. 29, 1312 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Coric, P. R. Herman, R. Bhardwaj, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Rayner, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), pp. 685–686.
[CrossRef]

Reed, G. T.

G. T. Reed, Nature (London) 427, 595 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, K.

Richardson, M.

Risbud, S.

Rivero, C.

Rubin, D.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, Nature (London) 427, 615 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Samara-Rubio, D.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, Nature (London) 427, 615 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schaffer, C. B.

Schulte, A.

Simova, E.

Smelser, C. W.

D. Grobnic, C. W. Smelser, S. J. Mihailov, R. B. Walker, and P. Lu, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 1864 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Smith, C.

Streltsov, A. M.

Sugimoto, N.

Taylor, R. S.

Tuennermann, A.

S. Nolte, J. Burghoff, M. Will, and A. Tuennermann, Proc. SPIE 5340, 164 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, Appl. Phys. A 77, 109 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Gorelik, M. Will, S. Nolte, A. Tuennermann, and U. Glatzel, Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 76, 309 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Will, S. Nolte, B. N. Chichkov, and A. Tuennermann, Appl. Opt. 41, 4360 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Valle, R.

Walker, R. B.

D. Grobnic, C. W. Smelser, S. J. Mihailov, R. B. Walker, and P. Lu, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 1864 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wielandy, S.

Will, M.

S. Nolte, J. Burghoff, M. Will, and A. Tuennermann, Proc. SPIE 5340, 164 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, Appl. Phys. A 77, 109 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Gorelik, M. Will, S. Nolte, A. Tuennermann, and U. Glatzel, Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 76, 309 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Will, S. Nolte, B. N. Chichkov, and A. Tuennermann, Appl. Opt. 41, 4360 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Winick, K. A.

Xu, B.

L. Gui, B. Xu, and T. C. Chong, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 1337 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zoubir, A.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. A (1)

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, Appl. Phys. A 77, 109 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. (1)

T. Gorelik, M. Will, S. Nolte, A. Tuennermann, and U. Glatzel, Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 76, 309 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (2)

L. Gui, B. Xu, and T. C. Chong, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 1337 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Grobnic, C. W. Smelser, S. J. Mihailov, R. B. Walker, and P. Lu, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 1864 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

C. Florea and K. A. Winick, J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 246 (2003).
[CrossRef]

I. Mansour and F. Caccavale, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 423 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nature (London) (2)

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, Nature (London) 427, 615 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. T. Reed, Nature (London) 427, 595 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (8)

Proc. SPIE (1)

S. Nolte, J. Burghoff, M. Will, and A. Tuennermann, Proc. SPIE 5340, 164 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

D. Coric, P. R. Herman, R. Bhardwaj, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Rayner, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), pp. 685–686.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Image of the silicon wafer end facet, showing the waveguide beam profile (at 1550 nm) and its position with respect to the wafer structure. The waveguide was written with an ultrafast laser beam focused 130 μ m below the silica–silicon interface.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Near-field intensity contours of mode profiles for the silicon waveguide written with the ultrafast laser focused (a), (b) 90 μm and (c), (d) 130 μm below the silica–silicon interface. Probe wavelengths are (a), (c) 1320 nm and (b), (d) 1550 nm. The outermost contour ring represents the 1 e 2 isointensity level.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Measured Silicon Waveguide Parameters

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