Abstract

An all-optical method to determine the duration of ultrashort electron pulses is presented. This technique makes use of the laser pulse ponderomotive potential to effectively sample the temporal envelope of the electron pulse by sequentially scattering different sections of the pulse out of the main beam. Using laser pulse parameters that are easily accessible with modern tabletop chirped-pulse amplification laser sources, it is possible to measure the instantaneous duration of electron pulses shorter than 100 fs in the energy range that is most useful for electron diffraction studies, 10–300 keV.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. P. Gallant, P. Forget, F. Dorchies, Z. Jiang, J. C. Kieffer, P. A. Jaanimagi, J. C. Rebuffie, C. Goulmy, J. F. Pelletier, and M. Sutton, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 3627 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  2. B. J. Siwick, J. R. Dwyer, R. E. Jordan, and R. J. D. Miller, Science 302, 1382 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. B. J. Siwick, J. R. Dwyer, R. E. Jordan, and R. J. D. Miller, Chem. Phys. 299, 285 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. B. J. Siwick, J. R. Dwyer, R. E. Jordan, and R. J. D. Miller, J. Appl. Phys. 92, 1643 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  5. P. H. Bucksbaum, M. Bashkansky, and T. J. McIlrath, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 349 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. T. W. B. Kibble, Phys. Rev. 150, 1060 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  7. G. V. Stupakov and M. S. Zolotorev, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5274 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. J. L. Chaloupka and D. D. Meyerhofer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 4538 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  9. V. I. Balykin, M. V. Subbotin, and V. S. Letokhov, Opt. Commun. 129, 177 (1996).
    [CrossRef]

2004 (1)

B. J. Siwick, J. R. Dwyer, R. E. Jordan, and R. J. D. Miller, Chem. Phys. 299, 285 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

B. J. Siwick, J. R. Dwyer, R. E. Jordan, and R. J. D. Miller, Science 302, 1382 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

B. J. Siwick, J. R. Dwyer, R. E. Jordan, and R. J. D. Miller, J. Appl. Phys. 92, 1643 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

G. V. Stupakov and M. S. Zolotorev, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5274 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

P. Gallant, P. Forget, F. Dorchies, Z. Jiang, J. C. Kieffer, P. A. Jaanimagi, J. C. Rebuffie, C. Goulmy, J. F. Pelletier, and M. Sutton, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 3627 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

J. L. Chaloupka and D. D. Meyerhofer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 4538 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

V. I. Balykin, M. V. Subbotin, and V. S. Letokhov, Opt. Commun. 129, 177 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

P. H. Bucksbaum, M. Bashkansky, and T. J. McIlrath, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 349 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1966 (1)

T. W. B. Kibble, Phys. Rev. 150, 1060 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Balykin, V. I.

V. I. Balykin, M. V. Subbotin, and V. S. Letokhov, Opt. Commun. 129, 177 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bashkansky, M.

P. H. Bucksbaum, M. Bashkansky, and T. J. McIlrath, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 349 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bucksbaum, P. H.

P. H. Bucksbaum, M. Bashkansky, and T. J. McIlrath, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 349 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chaloupka, J. L.

J. L. Chaloupka and D. D. Meyerhofer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 4538 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dorchies, F.

P. Gallant, P. Forget, F. Dorchies, Z. Jiang, J. C. Kieffer, P. A. Jaanimagi, J. C. Rebuffie, C. Goulmy, J. F. Pelletier, and M. Sutton, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 3627 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dwyer, J. R.

B. J. Siwick, J. R. Dwyer, R. E. Jordan, and R. J. D. Miller, Chem. Phys. 299, 285 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Siwick, J. R. Dwyer, R. E. Jordan, and R. J. D. Miller, Science 302, 1382 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Siwick, J. R. Dwyer, R. E. Jordan, and R. J. D. Miller, J. Appl. Phys. 92, 1643 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Forget, P.

P. Gallant, P. Forget, F. Dorchies, Z. Jiang, J. C. Kieffer, P. A. Jaanimagi, J. C. Rebuffie, C. Goulmy, J. F. Pelletier, and M. Sutton, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 3627 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gallant, P.

P. Gallant, P. Forget, F. Dorchies, Z. Jiang, J. C. Kieffer, P. A. Jaanimagi, J. C. Rebuffie, C. Goulmy, J. F. Pelletier, and M. Sutton, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 3627 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Goulmy, C.

P. Gallant, P. Forget, F. Dorchies, Z. Jiang, J. C. Kieffer, P. A. Jaanimagi, J. C. Rebuffie, C. Goulmy, J. F. Pelletier, and M. Sutton, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 3627 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jaanimagi, P. A.

P. Gallant, P. Forget, F. Dorchies, Z. Jiang, J. C. Kieffer, P. A. Jaanimagi, J. C. Rebuffie, C. Goulmy, J. F. Pelletier, and M. Sutton, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 3627 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, Z.

P. Gallant, P. Forget, F. Dorchies, Z. Jiang, J. C. Kieffer, P. A. Jaanimagi, J. C. Rebuffie, C. Goulmy, J. F. Pelletier, and M. Sutton, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 3627 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jordan, R. E.

B. J. Siwick, J. R. Dwyer, R. E. Jordan, and R. J. D. Miller, Chem. Phys. 299, 285 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Siwick, J. R. Dwyer, R. E. Jordan, and R. J. D. Miller, Science 302, 1382 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Siwick, J. R. Dwyer, R. E. Jordan, and R. J. D. Miller, J. Appl. Phys. 92, 1643 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kibble, T. W. B.

T. W. B. Kibble, Phys. Rev. 150, 1060 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Kieffer, J. C.

P. Gallant, P. Forget, F. Dorchies, Z. Jiang, J. C. Kieffer, P. A. Jaanimagi, J. C. Rebuffie, C. Goulmy, J. F. Pelletier, and M. Sutton, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 3627 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Letokhov, V. S.

V. I. Balykin, M. V. Subbotin, and V. S. Letokhov, Opt. Commun. 129, 177 (1996).
[CrossRef]

McIlrath, T. J.

P. H. Bucksbaum, M. Bashkansky, and T. J. McIlrath, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 349 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meyerhofer, D. D.

J. L. Chaloupka and D. D. Meyerhofer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 4538 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Miller, R. J. D.

B. J. Siwick, J. R. Dwyer, R. E. Jordan, and R. J. D. Miller, Chem. Phys. 299, 285 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Siwick, J. R. Dwyer, R. E. Jordan, and R. J. D. Miller, Science 302, 1382 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Siwick, J. R. Dwyer, R. E. Jordan, and R. J. D. Miller, J. Appl. Phys. 92, 1643 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pelletier, J. F.

P. Gallant, P. Forget, F. Dorchies, Z. Jiang, J. C. Kieffer, P. A. Jaanimagi, J. C. Rebuffie, C. Goulmy, J. F. Pelletier, and M. Sutton, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 3627 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rebuffie, J. C.

P. Gallant, P. Forget, F. Dorchies, Z. Jiang, J. C. Kieffer, P. A. Jaanimagi, J. C. Rebuffie, C. Goulmy, J. F. Pelletier, and M. Sutton, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 3627 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Siwick, B. J.

B. J. Siwick, J. R. Dwyer, R. E. Jordan, and R. J. D. Miller, Chem. Phys. 299, 285 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Siwick, J. R. Dwyer, R. E. Jordan, and R. J. D. Miller, Science 302, 1382 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Siwick, J. R. Dwyer, R. E. Jordan, and R. J. D. Miller, J. Appl. Phys. 92, 1643 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Stupakov, G. V.

G. V. Stupakov and M. S. Zolotorev, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5274 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Subbotin, M. V.

V. I. Balykin, M. V. Subbotin, and V. S. Letokhov, Opt. Commun. 129, 177 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sutton, M.

P. Gallant, P. Forget, F. Dorchies, Z. Jiang, J. C. Kieffer, P. A. Jaanimagi, J. C. Rebuffie, C. Goulmy, J. F. Pelletier, and M. Sutton, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 3627 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zolotorev, M. S.

G. V. Stupakov and M. S. Zolotorev, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5274 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chem. Phys. (1)

B. J. Siwick, J. R. Dwyer, R. E. Jordan, and R. J. D. Miller, Chem. Phys. 299, 285 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

B. J. Siwick, J. R. Dwyer, R. E. Jordan, and R. J. D. Miller, J. Appl. Phys. 92, 1643 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

V. I. Balykin, M. V. Subbotin, and V. S. Letokhov, Opt. Commun. 129, 177 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. (1)

T. W. B. Kibble, Phys. Rev. 150, 1060 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

G. V. Stupakov and M. S. Zolotorev, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5274 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Chaloupka and D. D. Meyerhofer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 4538 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. H. Bucksbaum, M. Bashkansky, and T. J. McIlrath, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 349 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

P. Gallant, P. Forget, F. Dorchies, Z. Jiang, J. C. Kieffer, P. A. Jaanimagi, J. C. Rebuffie, C. Goulmy, J. F. Pelletier, and M. Sutton, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 3627 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

B. J. Siwick, J. R. Dwyer, R. E. Jordan, and R. J. D. Miller, Science 302, 1382 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Space-charge-induced temporal broadening characteristics of a 30-keV electron pulse with an initial duration of 100 fs and a constant 200-μm beam diameter as a function of t prop and ϕ. This color map is accurate to better than ± 50 % over a beam diameter range of 100–500 μm, and an electron energy range of 30–120 keV. The pair of diagonal black and red lines marks the picosecond barrier for 30- and 60-keV electron pulses, respectively.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Geometry of the all-optical electron pulse duration measurement. Electron-beam cross sections are shown at various positions after the interaction region for a 600-fs electron pulse and the laser pulse parameters given in the text.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Electron–laser pulse cross correlation. The reduction in electron-beam intensity transmitted through A 2 is sensitive to τ and the duration of the electron pulse at the interaction point (see the legend). The impulse response of the measurement (inset) is 300 fs e 2 FW for the parameters A 1 = w l = 30 μ m , τ l = 200 fs (dashed curve), but only 80 fs e 2 FW for A 1 = w l = 10 μ m , τ l = 60 fs (solid curve).

Equations (1)

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U p ( r , t ) = e 2 λ 2 8 π 2 m ϵ o c 3 I ( r , t ) ,

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