Abstract

The second-order nonlinear profile induced within thermally poled Infrasil silica samples is characterized as a function of the duration of the poling process. For poling durations shorter than 5 min the spatial distribution of the χ(2) susceptibility exhibits a triangular shape. This observation, as well as the maximum value of the electric field recorded during poling (1.9×109Vm), is in excellent agreement with charge migration models that involve a single charge carrier. It is shown that for higher poling durations the nonlinear profiles tend to flatten; in that case the charge injection mechanisms cannot be neglected. For another point of view, the experimental method introduced herein has allowed us to determine the mobility of the rapid charge carrier involved in the poling process: μ=1.5×1015m2V1s1 at 250°C.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. A. Myers, N. Mukherjee, and S. R.J. Brueck, Opt. Lett. 16, 1732 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. D. Faccio, V. Pruneri, and P. G. Kazansky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2687 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. L.C. Triques, I. C.S. Carvalho, M. F. Moreira, H. R. Carvalho, R. Fischer, B. Lesche, and W. Margulis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2948 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Kudlinski, Y. Quiquempois, M. Lelek, H. Zeghlache, and G. Martinelli, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3623 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. Ozcan, M. J.F. Digonnet, and G. S. Kino, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1362 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Ozcan, M. J.F. Digonnet, and G. S. Kino, Electron. Lett. 40, 551 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Ozcan, M. J.F. Digonnet, G. S. Kino, F. Ay, and A. Aydinli, Opt. Express 20, 4698 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org.
    [CrossRef]
  8. V. Tréanton, N. Godbout, and S. Lacroix, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 2213 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. W. Shin and M. Tomozawa, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 211, 237 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  10. W. Margulis and F. Laurell, Opt. Lett. 21, 1786 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. A. Von Hippel, E. P. Gross, J. G. Jelatis, and M. Geller, Phys. Rev. 91, 568 (1953).
    [CrossRef]
  12. T. G. Alley, S. R.J. Brueck, and R. A. Myers, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 242, 165 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Y. Quiquempois, N. Godbout, and S. Lacroix, Phys. Rev. A 65, 043816 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Technical documentation, Heraeus Glass Division can be found at http://www.heraeus-quarzglas.com.
  15. A. Kudlinski, G. Martinelli, Y. Quiquempois, and H. Zeghlache, in Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity and Poling in Glass Waveguides, Post conference Digest, Vol. 93 of OSA Trends in Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2003).

2004 (3)

A. Ozcan, M. J.F. Digonnet, and G. S. Kino, Electron. Lett. 40, 551 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Ozcan, M. J.F. Digonnet, G. S. Kino, F. Ay, and A. Aydinli, Opt. Express 20, 4698 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org.
[CrossRef]

V. Tréanton, N. Godbout, and S. Lacroix, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 2213 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

A. L.C. Triques, I. C.S. Carvalho, M. F. Moreira, H. R. Carvalho, R. Fischer, B. Lesche, and W. Margulis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2948 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Kudlinski, Y. Quiquempois, M. Lelek, H. Zeghlache, and G. Martinelli, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3623 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Ozcan, M. J.F. Digonnet, and G. S. Kino, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1362 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

Y. Quiquempois, N. Godbout, and S. Lacroix, Phys. Rev. A 65, 043816 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

D. Faccio, V. Pruneri, and P. G. Kazansky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2687 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

T. G. Alley, S. R.J. Brueck, and R. A. Myers, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 242, 165 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

D. W. Shin and M. Tomozawa, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 211, 237 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1991 (1)

1953 (1)

A. Von Hippel, E. P. Gross, J. G. Jelatis, and M. Geller, Phys. Rev. 91, 568 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Alley, T. G.

T. G. Alley, S. R.J. Brueck, and R. A. Myers, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 242, 165 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ay, F.

A. Ozcan, M. J.F. Digonnet, G. S. Kino, F. Ay, and A. Aydinli, Opt. Express 20, 4698 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org.
[CrossRef]

Aydinli, A.

A. Ozcan, M. J.F. Digonnet, G. S. Kino, F. Ay, and A. Aydinli, Opt. Express 20, 4698 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org.
[CrossRef]

Brueck, S. R.J.

T. G. Alley, S. R.J. Brueck, and R. A. Myers, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 242, 165 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Myers, N. Mukherjee, and S. R.J. Brueck, Opt. Lett. 16, 1732 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carvalho, H. R.

A. L.C. Triques, I. C.S. Carvalho, M. F. Moreira, H. R. Carvalho, R. Fischer, B. Lesche, and W. Margulis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2948 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Carvalho, I. C.S.

A. L.C. Triques, I. C.S. Carvalho, M. F. Moreira, H. R. Carvalho, R. Fischer, B. Lesche, and W. Margulis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2948 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Digonnet, M. J.F.

A. Ozcan, M. J.F. Digonnet, G. S. Kino, F. Ay, and A. Aydinli, Opt. Express 20, 4698 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org.
[CrossRef]

A. Ozcan, M. J.F. Digonnet, and G. S. Kino, Electron. Lett. 40, 551 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Ozcan, M. J.F. Digonnet, and G. S. Kino, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1362 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Faccio, D.

D. Faccio, V. Pruneri, and P. G. Kazansky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2687 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, R.

A. L.C. Triques, I. C.S. Carvalho, M. F. Moreira, H. R. Carvalho, R. Fischer, B. Lesche, and W. Margulis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2948 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Geller, M.

A. Von Hippel, E. P. Gross, J. G. Jelatis, and M. Geller, Phys. Rev. 91, 568 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Godbout, N.

V. Tréanton, N. Godbout, and S. Lacroix, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 2213 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Quiquempois, N. Godbout, and S. Lacroix, Phys. Rev. A 65, 043816 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gross, E. P.

A. Von Hippel, E. P. Gross, J. G. Jelatis, and M. Geller, Phys. Rev. 91, 568 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Jelatis, J. G.

A. Von Hippel, E. P. Gross, J. G. Jelatis, and M. Geller, Phys. Rev. 91, 568 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Kazansky, P. G.

D. Faccio, V. Pruneri, and P. G. Kazansky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2687 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kino, G. S.

A. Ozcan, M. J.F. Digonnet, and G. S. Kino, Electron. Lett. 40, 551 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Ozcan, M. J.F. Digonnet, G. S. Kino, F. Ay, and A. Aydinli, Opt. Express 20, 4698 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org.
[CrossRef]

A. Ozcan, M. J.F. Digonnet, and G. S. Kino, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1362 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kudlinski, A.

A. Kudlinski, Y. Quiquempois, M. Lelek, H. Zeghlache, and G. Martinelli, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3623 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Kudlinski, G. Martinelli, Y. Quiquempois, and H. Zeghlache, in Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity and Poling in Glass Waveguides, Post conference Digest, Vol. 93 of OSA Trends in Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2003).

Lacroix, S.

V. Tréanton, N. Godbout, and S. Lacroix, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 2213 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Quiquempois, N. Godbout, and S. Lacroix, Phys. Rev. A 65, 043816 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Laurell, F.

Lelek, M.

A. Kudlinski, Y. Quiquempois, M. Lelek, H. Zeghlache, and G. Martinelli, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3623 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lesche, B.

A. L.C. Triques, I. C.S. Carvalho, M. F. Moreira, H. R. Carvalho, R. Fischer, B. Lesche, and W. Margulis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2948 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Margulis, W.

A. L.C. Triques, I. C.S. Carvalho, M. F. Moreira, H. R. Carvalho, R. Fischer, B. Lesche, and W. Margulis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2948 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. Margulis and F. Laurell, Opt. Lett. 21, 1786 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martinelli, G.

A. Kudlinski, Y. Quiquempois, M. Lelek, H. Zeghlache, and G. Martinelli, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3623 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Kudlinski, G. Martinelli, Y. Quiquempois, and H. Zeghlache, in Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity and Poling in Glass Waveguides, Post conference Digest, Vol. 93 of OSA Trends in Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2003).

Moreira, M. F.

A. L.C. Triques, I. C.S. Carvalho, M. F. Moreira, H. R. Carvalho, R. Fischer, B. Lesche, and W. Margulis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2948 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mukherjee, N.

Myers, R. A.

T. G. Alley, S. R.J. Brueck, and R. A. Myers, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 242, 165 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Myers, N. Mukherjee, and S. R.J. Brueck, Opt. Lett. 16, 1732 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ozcan, A.

A. Ozcan, M. J.F. Digonnet, and G. S. Kino, Electron. Lett. 40, 551 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Ozcan, M. J.F. Digonnet, G. S. Kino, F. Ay, and A. Aydinli, Opt. Express 20, 4698 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org.
[CrossRef]

A. Ozcan, M. J.F. Digonnet, and G. S. Kino, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1362 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pruneri, V.

D. Faccio, V. Pruneri, and P. G. Kazansky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2687 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Quiquempois, Y.

A. Kudlinski, Y. Quiquempois, M. Lelek, H. Zeghlache, and G. Martinelli, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3623 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Quiquempois, N. Godbout, and S. Lacroix, Phys. Rev. A 65, 043816 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Kudlinski, G. Martinelli, Y. Quiquempois, and H. Zeghlache, in Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity and Poling in Glass Waveguides, Post conference Digest, Vol. 93 of OSA Trends in Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2003).

Shin, D. W.

D. W. Shin and M. Tomozawa, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 211, 237 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tomozawa, M.

D. W. Shin and M. Tomozawa, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 211, 237 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tréanton, V.

Triques, A. L.C.

A. L.C. Triques, I. C.S. Carvalho, M. F. Moreira, H. R. Carvalho, R. Fischer, B. Lesche, and W. Margulis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2948 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Von Hippel, A.

A. Von Hippel, E. P. Gross, J. G. Jelatis, and M. Geller, Phys. Rev. 91, 568 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Zeghlache, H.

A. Kudlinski, Y. Quiquempois, M. Lelek, H. Zeghlache, and G. Martinelli, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3623 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Kudlinski, G. Martinelli, Y. Quiquempois, and H. Zeghlache, in Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity and Poling in Glass Waveguides, Post conference Digest, Vol. 93 of OSA Trends in Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2003).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

D. Faccio, V. Pruneri, and P. G. Kazansky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2687 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. L.C. Triques, I. C.S. Carvalho, M. F. Moreira, H. R. Carvalho, R. Fischer, B. Lesche, and W. Margulis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2948 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Kudlinski, Y. Quiquempois, M. Lelek, H. Zeghlache, and G. Martinelli, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3623 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Ozcan, M. J.F. Digonnet, and G. S. Kino, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1362 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

A. Ozcan, M. J.F. Digonnet, and G. S. Kino, Electron. Lett. 40, 551 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (2)

T. G. Alley, S. R.J. Brueck, and R. A. Myers, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 242, 165 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Shin and M. Tomozawa, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 211, 237 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Express (1)

A. Ozcan, M. J.F. Digonnet, G. S. Kino, F. Ay, and A. Aydinli, Opt. Express 20, 4698 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org.
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. (1)

A. Von Hippel, E. P. Gross, J. G. Jelatis, and M. Geller, Phys. Rev. 91, 568 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

Y. Quiquempois, N. Godbout, and S. Lacroix, Phys. Rev. A 65, 043816 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

Technical documentation, Heraeus Glass Division can be found at http://www.heraeus-quarzglas.com.

A. Kudlinski, G. Martinelli, Y. Quiquempois, and H. Zeghlache, in Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity and Poling in Glass Waveguides, Post conference Digest, Vol. 93 of OSA Trends in Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2003).

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Evolution of χ ( 2 ) susceptibility as a function of depth under the anode for samples poled for 60, 180, 300, 900, and 2700 s.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Left axis, time evolution of the maximum value of the χ ( 2 ) susceptibility (filled circles). Right axis, time evolution of depletion layer width w (open circles). The shaded region is the region in which charge injection phenomena cannot be neglected. In the white region a one-carrier model is sufficiently accurate to explain the results. The dashed and dotted curves in the white region correspond to the best fits of w and χ max ( 2 ) when the charge injection is neglected.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

w ( t ) = w tanh ( t 2 τ ) ,
w = ( 2 ϵ 0 ϵ r c 0 e V app ) 1 2 .
τ = l μ E = l μ ( ϵ 0 ϵ r 2 c 0 e V app ) 1 2 ,
c 0 = s 3 χ ( 3 ) ϵ 0 ϵ r e ,
χ max ( 2 ) ( t ) = 3 χ ( 3 ) c 0 e ϵ 0 ϵ r w ( t ) .

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