Abstract

The longitudinal linewidth and corresponding relative intensity noise (RIN) of 10- and 40-GHz mode-locked laser diodes are measured for the first time to our knowledge. It is shown that the cavity Q value is a dominant parameter of the linewidth. It is also shown that the linewidth of the individual modes is almost constant. This means that the phase noise of each mode is almost the same in the mode-locked condition. The RIN value is larger for modes that are distant from the center longitudinal mode. This mode dependence is a consequence of the mode partition noise.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. E. Fermann, G. Almantas, and S. Gregg, Ultrafast Lasers (Marcel Dekker, New York, 2003).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  7. Y. Katoh, S. Arahira, and Y. Ogawa, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Postconference Digest, Vol. 54 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), paper WC 5.
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    [CrossRef]
  9. S. Choi, M. Yoshida, and M. Nakazawa, IEICE Trans. Electron. J86-C, 1054 (2003).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

T. Ohno, K. Sato, R. Iga, Y. Kondo, I. Ito, T. Furuta, K. Yoshino, and H. Ito, Electron. Lett. 40, 265 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

S. Choi, M. Yoshida, and M. Nakazawa, IEICE Trans. Electron. J86-C, 1054 (2003).

2002

1988

G. P. Agrawal, Phys. Rev. A 37, 2488 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1982

C. H. Henry, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 259 (1982).
[CrossRef]

K. Ogawa, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 849 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1980

T. Okoshi, K. Kikuchi, and A. Nakayama, Electron. Lett. 16, 630 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1958

A. L. Schawlow and C. H. Townes, Phys. Rev. 112, 1940 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Agrawal, G. P.

G. P. Agrawal, Phys. Rev. A 37, 2488 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Almantas, G.

M. E. Fermann, G. Almantas, and S. Gregg, Ultrafast Lasers (Marcel Dekker, New York, 2003).

Arahira, S.

Y. Katoh, S. Arahira, and Y. Ogawa, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Postconference Digest, Vol. 54 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), paper WC 5.

Chandalia, J. K.

L. A. Jiang, M. E. Grein, J. K. Chandalia, E. P. Ippen, and H. Yokoyama, Electron. Lett. 38, 1446 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Choi, S.

S. Choi, M. Yoshida, and M. Nakazawa, IEICE Trans. Electron. J86-C, 1054 (2003).

Fermann, M. E.

M. E. Fermann, G. Almantas, and S. Gregg, Ultrafast Lasers (Marcel Dekker, New York, 2003).

Furuta, T.

T. Ohno, K. Sato, R. Iga, Y. Kondo, I. Ito, T. Furuta, K. Yoshino, and H. Ito, Electron. Lett. 40, 265 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gregg, S.

M. E. Fermann, G. Almantas, and S. Gregg, Ultrafast Lasers (Marcel Dekker, New York, 2003).

Grein, M. E.

L. A. Jiang, M. E. Grein, E. P. Ippen, C. McNeilage, J. Searls, and H. Yokoyama, Opt. Lett. 27, 49 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Jiang, M. E. Grein, J. K. Chandalia, E. P. Ippen, and H. Yokoyama, Electron. Lett. 38, 1446 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Henry, C. H.

C. H. Henry, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 259 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Iga, R.

T. Ohno, K. Sato, R. Iga, Y. Kondo, I. Ito, T. Furuta, K. Yoshino, and H. Ito, Electron. Lett. 40, 265 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ippen, E. P.

L. A. Jiang, M. E. Grein, J. K. Chandalia, E. P. Ippen, and H. Yokoyama, Electron. Lett. 38, 1446 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Jiang, M. E. Grein, E. P. Ippen, C. McNeilage, J. Searls, and H. Yokoyama, Opt. Lett. 27, 49 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ito, H.

T. Ohno, K. Sato, R. Iga, Y. Kondo, I. Ito, T. Furuta, K. Yoshino, and H. Ito, Electron. Lett. 40, 265 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ito, I.

T. Ohno, K. Sato, R. Iga, Y. Kondo, I. Ito, T. Furuta, K. Yoshino, and H. Ito, Electron. Lett. 40, 265 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, L. A.

L. A. Jiang, M. E. Grein, E. P. Ippen, C. McNeilage, J. Searls, and H. Yokoyama, Opt. Lett. 27, 49 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Jiang, M. E. Grein, J. K. Chandalia, E. P. Ippen, and H. Yokoyama, Electron. Lett. 38, 1446 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Katoh, Y.

Y. Katoh, S. Arahira, and Y. Ogawa, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Postconference Digest, Vol. 54 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), paper WC 5.

Kikuchi, K.

T. Okoshi, K. Kikuchi, and A. Nakayama, Electron. Lett. 16, 630 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Kondo, Y.

T. Ohno, K. Sato, R. Iga, Y. Kondo, I. Ito, T. Furuta, K. Yoshino, and H. Ito, Electron. Lett. 40, 265 (2004).
[CrossRef]

McNeilage, C.

Nakayama, A.

T. Okoshi, K. Kikuchi, and A. Nakayama, Electron. Lett. 16, 630 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Nakazawa, M.

S. Choi, M. Yoshida, and M. Nakazawa, IEICE Trans. Electron. J86-C, 1054 (2003).

Ogawa, K.

K. Ogawa, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 849 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Ogawa, Y.

Y. Katoh, S. Arahira, and Y. Ogawa, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Postconference Digest, Vol. 54 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), paper WC 5.

Ohno, T.

T. Ohno, K. Sato, R. Iga, Y. Kondo, I. Ito, T. Furuta, K. Yoshino, and H. Ito, Electron. Lett. 40, 265 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Okoshi, T.

T. Okoshi, K. Kikuchi, and A. Nakayama, Electron. Lett. 16, 630 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Sato, K.

T. Ohno, K. Sato, R. Iga, Y. Kondo, I. Ito, T. Furuta, K. Yoshino, and H. Ito, Electron. Lett. 40, 265 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. R. Tamura and K. Sato, Opt. Lett. 27, 1268 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schawlow, A. L.

A. L. Schawlow and C. H. Townes, Phys. Rev. 112, 1940 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Searls, J.

Tamura, K. R.

Townes, C. H.

A. L. Schawlow and C. H. Townes, Phys. Rev. 112, 1940 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Yokoyama, H.

L. A. Jiang, M. E. Grein, E. P. Ippen, C. McNeilage, J. Searls, and H. Yokoyama, Opt. Lett. 27, 49 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Jiang, M. E. Grein, J. K. Chandalia, E. P. Ippen, and H. Yokoyama, Electron. Lett. 38, 1446 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Yokoyama, Ultrafast Phenomena XI, T. Elsaesser, J. G. Fujimoto, D. A. Wiersma, and W. Zinth, eds. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1998), p. 177.
[CrossRef]

Yoshida, M.

S. Choi, M. Yoshida, and M. Nakazawa, IEICE Trans. Electron. J86-C, 1054 (2003).

Yoshino, K.

T. Ohno, K. Sato, R. Iga, Y. Kondo, I. Ito, T. Furuta, K. Yoshino, and H. Ito, Electron. Lett. 40, 265 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

L. A. Jiang, M. E. Grein, J. K. Chandalia, E. P. Ippen, and H. Yokoyama, Electron. Lett. 38, 1446 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Ohno, K. Sato, R. Iga, Y. Kondo, I. Ito, T. Furuta, K. Yoshino, and H. Ito, Electron. Lett. 40, 265 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Okoshi, K. Kikuchi, and A. Nakayama, Electron. Lett. 16, 630 (1980).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

C. H. Henry, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 259 (1982).
[CrossRef]

K. Ogawa, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 849 (1982).
[CrossRef]

IEICE Trans. Electron.

S. Choi, M. Yoshida, and M. Nakazawa, IEICE Trans. Electron. J86-C, 1054 (2003).

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev.

A. L. Schawlow and C. H. Townes, Phys. Rev. 112, 1940 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A

G. P. Agrawal, Phys. Rev. A 37, 2488 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

M. E. Fermann, G. Almantas, and S. Gregg, Ultrafast Lasers (Marcel Dekker, New York, 2003).

H. Yokoyama, Ultrafast Phenomena XI, T. Elsaesser, J. G. Fujimoto, D. A. Wiersma, and W. Zinth, eds. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1998), p. 177.
[CrossRef]

Y. Katoh, S. Arahira, and Y. Ogawa, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Postconference Digest, Vol. 54 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), paper WC 5.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Structures of high-speed MLLDs: (a) 10-GHz MLLD, (b) 40-GHz MLLD. HR, highly reflective coating.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Output characteristics of MLLDs: (a-1) autocorrelation trace, (a-2) optical spectral profile of a 10-GHz MLLD, (b-1) autocorrelation trace, (b-2) optical spectral profile of a 40-GHz MLLD.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental setup for linewidth measurements: (a) delayed self-heterodyne interferometer, (b) heterodyne detection method. PD, photodetector.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Results of linewidth and RIN measurements of a 10-GHz MLLD: (a) electrical spectrum of a delayed self-heterodyne detection signal, (b) change in linewidth and RIN for each longitudinal mode.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Results of linewidth and RIN measurements of a 40-GHz MLLD: (a) electrical spectrum of a heterodyne detection signal, (b) change in linewidth and RIN for each longitudinal mode.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Parameters of Each Laser

Equations (3)

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Δ ν = π h ν 3 P Q 2 μ ( 1 + α 2 ) ,
Q = 2 π n l ν c 1 α l l ln ( R 1 R 2 ) 1 2 .
P 1 = P out N m 1 1 R 1 exp ( δ ) ,

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