Abstract

Basic optical elements for surface plasmons are fabricated and their functionality (focusing, refraction, and total internal reflection) is demonstrated experimentally. The optical elements consist of dielectric structures of defined geometry on top of a gold film. The working principle of these structures is discussed on the basis of calculated surface plasmon dispersion relations.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, K. Leosson, and A. Boltasseva, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1076 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  2. P. Berini, Opt. Express 7, 329 (2000), http://www.opticsexpress.org.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1762 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. F. P. Pile and D. K. Gramotnev, Opt. Lett. 29, 1069 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. T. Yatsui, M. Kourogi, and M. Ohtsu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 4583 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Brongersma, J. Hartman, and H. A. Atwater, Phys. Rev. B 62, 16356 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Quinten, A. Leitner, J. Krenn, and F. Aussenegg, Opt. Lett. 23, 1331 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, H. Ditlbacher, G. Schider, M. Salerno, A. Leitner, and F. Aussenegg, Europhys. Lett. 60, 663 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Krenn, H. Ditlbacher, G. Schider, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, and F. Aussenegg, J. Microsc. 209, 167 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings, Vol. 111 of Springer Tracts in Modern Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988).
  11. J. J. Burke, G. I. Stegeman, and T. Tamir, Phys. Rev. B 33, 5186 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  12. P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. A. McCord and M. J. Rooks, Handbook of Microlithography, Micromachining and Microfabrication (SPIE Press, Bellingham, Wash., 1997).
  14. B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, L. Novotny, Y. Inouye, and D. Phol, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1889 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. A. Bouhelier, T. Huser, H. Tamaru, H. Güntherodt, D. Pohl, F. Baida, and D. van Labeke, Phys. Rev. B 63, 155404 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. Dereux, C. Girard, and J. C. Weeber, J. Chem. Phys. 112, 7775 (2000).
    [CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2003 (2)

J. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, H. Ditlbacher, G. Schider, M. Salerno, A. Leitner, and F. Aussenegg, Europhys. Lett. 60, 663 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Krenn, H. Ditlbacher, G. Schider, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, and F. Aussenegg, J. Microsc. 209, 167 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1762 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, K. Leosson, and A. Boltasseva, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1076 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Bouhelier, T. Huser, H. Tamaru, H. Güntherodt, D. Pohl, F. Baida, and D. van Labeke, Phys. Rev. B 63, 155404 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Yatsui, M. Kourogi, and M. Ohtsu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 4583 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

M. Brongersma, J. Hartman, and H. A. Atwater, Phys. Rev. B 62, 16356 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Berini, Opt. Express 7, 329 (2000), http://www.opticsexpress.org.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Dereux, C. Girard, and J. C. Weeber, J. Chem. Phys. 112, 7775 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1996 (1)

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, L. Novotny, Y. Inouye, and D. Phol, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1889 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

J. J. Burke, G. I. Stegeman, and T. Tamir, Phys. Rev. B 33, 5186 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Atwater, H. A.

M. Brongersma, J. Hartman, and H. A. Atwater, Phys. Rev. B 62, 16356 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Aussenegg, F.

J. Krenn, H. Ditlbacher, G. Schider, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, and F. Aussenegg, J. Microsc. 209, 167 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, H. Ditlbacher, G. Schider, M. Salerno, A. Leitner, and F. Aussenegg, Europhys. Lett. 60, 663 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Quinten, A. Leitner, J. Krenn, and F. Aussenegg, Opt. Lett. 23, 1331 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Aussenegg, F. R.

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1762 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Baida, F.

A. Bouhelier, T. Huser, H. Tamaru, H. Güntherodt, D. Pohl, F. Baida, and D. van Labeke, Phys. Rev. B 63, 155404 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Berini, P.

Bielefeldt, H.

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, L. Novotny, Y. Inouye, and D. Phol, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1889 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boltasseva, A.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, K. Leosson, and A. Boltasseva, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1076 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bouhelier, A.

A. Bouhelier, T. Huser, H. Tamaru, H. Güntherodt, D. Pohl, F. Baida, and D. van Labeke, Phys. Rev. B 63, 155404 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, K. Leosson, and A. Boltasseva, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1076 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Brongersma, M.

M. Brongersma, J. Hartman, and H. A. Atwater, Phys. Rev. B 62, 16356 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Burke, J. J.

J. J. Burke, G. I. Stegeman, and T. Tamir, Phys. Rev. B 33, 5186 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Christy, R. W.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Dereux, A.

A. Dereux, C. Girard, and J. C. Weeber, J. Chem. Phys. 112, 7775 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ditlbacher, H.

J. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, H. Ditlbacher, G. Schider, M. Salerno, A. Leitner, and F. Aussenegg, Europhys. Lett. 60, 663 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Krenn, H. Ditlbacher, G. Schider, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, and F. Aussenegg, J. Microsc. 209, 167 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1762 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Girard, C.

A. Dereux, C. Girard, and J. C. Weeber, J. Chem. Phys. 112, 7775 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gramotnev, D. K.

Güntherodt, H.

A. Bouhelier, T. Huser, H. Tamaru, H. Güntherodt, D. Pohl, F. Baida, and D. van Labeke, Phys. Rev. B 63, 155404 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hartman, J.

M. Brongersma, J. Hartman, and H. A. Atwater, Phys. Rev. B 62, 16356 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hecht, B.

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, L. Novotny, Y. Inouye, and D. Phol, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1889 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hohenau, A.

J. Krenn, H. Ditlbacher, G. Schider, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, and F. Aussenegg, J. Microsc. 209, 167 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huser, T.

A. Bouhelier, T. Huser, H. Tamaru, H. Güntherodt, D. Pohl, F. Baida, and D. van Labeke, Phys. Rev. B 63, 155404 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Inouye, Y.

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, L. Novotny, Y. Inouye, and D. Phol, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1889 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnson, P. B.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Kourogi, M.

T. Yatsui, M. Kourogi, and M. Ohtsu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 4583 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Krenn, J.

J. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, H. Ditlbacher, G. Schider, M. Salerno, A. Leitner, and F. Aussenegg, Europhys. Lett. 60, 663 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Krenn, H. Ditlbacher, G. Schider, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, and F. Aussenegg, J. Microsc. 209, 167 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Quinten, A. Leitner, J. Krenn, and F. Aussenegg, Opt. Lett. 23, 1331 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Krenn, J. R.

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1762 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lamprecht, B.

J. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, H. Ditlbacher, G. Schider, M. Salerno, A. Leitner, and F. Aussenegg, Europhys. Lett. 60, 663 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Leitner, A.

J. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, H. Ditlbacher, G. Schider, M. Salerno, A. Leitner, and F. Aussenegg, Europhys. Lett. 60, 663 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Krenn, H. Ditlbacher, G. Schider, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, and F. Aussenegg, J. Microsc. 209, 167 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1762 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Quinten, A. Leitner, J. Krenn, and F. Aussenegg, Opt. Lett. 23, 1331 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Leosson, K.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, K. Leosson, and A. Boltasseva, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1076 (2001).
[CrossRef]

McCord, M. A.

M. A. McCord and M. J. Rooks, Handbook of Microlithography, Micromachining and Microfabrication (SPIE Press, Bellingham, Wash., 1997).

Novotny, L.

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, L. Novotny, Y. Inouye, and D. Phol, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1889 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ohtsu, M.

T. Yatsui, M. Kourogi, and M. Ohtsu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 4583 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Phol, D.

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, L. Novotny, Y. Inouye, and D. Phol, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1889 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pile, D. F. P.

Pohl, D.

A. Bouhelier, T. Huser, H. Tamaru, H. Güntherodt, D. Pohl, F. Baida, and D. van Labeke, Phys. Rev. B 63, 155404 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Quinten, M.

Raether, H.

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings, Vol. 111 of Springer Tracts in Modern Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988).

Rooks, M. J.

M. A. McCord and M. J. Rooks, Handbook of Microlithography, Micromachining and Microfabrication (SPIE Press, Bellingham, Wash., 1997).

Salerno, M.

J. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, H. Ditlbacher, G. Schider, M. Salerno, A. Leitner, and F. Aussenegg, Europhys. Lett. 60, 663 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schider, G.

J. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, H. Ditlbacher, G. Schider, M. Salerno, A. Leitner, and F. Aussenegg, Europhys. Lett. 60, 663 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Krenn, H. Ditlbacher, G. Schider, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, and F. Aussenegg, J. Microsc. 209, 167 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1762 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Stegeman, G. I.

J. J. Burke, G. I. Stegeman, and T. Tamir, Phys. Rev. B 33, 5186 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Tamaru, H.

A. Bouhelier, T. Huser, H. Tamaru, H. Güntherodt, D. Pohl, F. Baida, and D. van Labeke, Phys. Rev. B 63, 155404 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tamir, T.

J. J. Burke, G. I. Stegeman, and T. Tamir, Phys. Rev. B 33, 5186 (1986).
[CrossRef]

van Labeke, D.

A. Bouhelier, T. Huser, H. Tamaru, H. Güntherodt, D. Pohl, F. Baida, and D. van Labeke, Phys. Rev. B 63, 155404 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Volkov, V. S.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, K. Leosson, and A. Boltasseva, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1076 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Weeber, J. C.

A. Dereux, C. Girard, and J. C. Weeber, J. Chem. Phys. 112, 7775 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yatsui, T.

T. Yatsui, M. Kourogi, and M. Ohtsu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 4583 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, K. Leosson, and A. Boltasseva, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1076 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1762 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Yatsui, M. Kourogi, and M. Ohtsu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 4583 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Europhys. Lett. (1)

J. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, H. Ditlbacher, G. Schider, M. Salerno, A. Leitner, and F. Aussenegg, Europhys. Lett. 60, 663 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

A. Dereux, C. Girard, and J. C. Weeber, J. Chem. Phys. 112, 7775 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Microsc. (1)

J. Krenn, H. Ditlbacher, G. Schider, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, and F. Aussenegg, J. Microsc. 209, 167 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. B (4)

A. Bouhelier, T. Huser, H. Tamaru, H. Güntherodt, D. Pohl, F. Baida, and D. van Labeke, Phys. Rev. B 63, 155404 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Burke, G. I. Stegeman, and T. Tamir, Phys. Rev. B 33, 5186 (1986).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
[CrossRef]

M. Brongersma, J. Hartman, and H. A. Atwater, Phys. Rev. B 62, 16356 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, L. Novotny, Y. Inouye, and D. Phol, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1889 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

M. A. McCord and M. J. Rooks, Handbook of Microlithography, Micromachining and Microfabrication (SPIE Press, Bellingham, Wash., 1997).

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings, Vol. 111 of Springer Tracts in Modern Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Calculated dispersion relation of the two SP modes on a 50-nm thin gold film (dielectric function from Johnson and Christy[12]) between a glass substrate ( ϵ 1 = 2.25 ) and a superstrate with ϵ 3 = 1 (circles), ϵ 3 = 1.4 (squares), ϵ 3 = 1.8 (diamonds), and ϵ 3 = 2.25 (triangles). The open symbols refer to the s mode SP, and the filled symbols refer to the a-mode SP (only plotted for ϵ 3 = 1 and 2.25). For comparison, the light lines for a medium with ϵ = 1 (solid line), ϵ = 1.4 (dotted line), ϵ = 1.8 (dashed line), and ϵ = 2.25 (dashed–dotted line) are drawn.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Sketch of the experimental setup.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Locally launched SP beam interacting with (b), (c) a cylindrical and (e), (f) a triangular SiO 2 structure. The sample is weakly illuminated so that the outlines of the SiO 2 structure can be recognized in the leakage images [(a), (b), (d), (e)]. For comparison, the leakage radiation images of the freely propagating beam beside the structures are presented in (a) and (d). (b) and (e) The leakage radiation images of the beam interacting with the SiO 2 structures, (c) and (f) The corresponding optical near-field images. For the circular structure focusing and for the triangular structure, refraction and weak reflection of the SP beam are observed. The fringes parallel to the prism edge in (f) result from the interference of the incident and the reflected SP beam.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Leakage radiation images of total internal reflection of a locally launched SP. The sample is weakly illuminated so that the outlines of the SiO 2 structure can be recognized on the right side of the images as part of a triangle. (a) The freely propagating SP beam beside the triangle. Keeping the excitation at a constant position, the triangle is moved into the SP beam (b) until the whole beam is totally reflected from the upper edge of the triangle (c).

Equations (2)

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1 + r 1 , 2 p r 2 , 3 p exp ( 2 i k z , 2 d ) = 0 ,
r i , j p = ( k z , i ϵ i k z , j ϵ j ) ( k z , i ϵ i + k z , j ϵ j ) , k z , i = ( ϵ i k 0 2 k x 2 ) 1 2 ,

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