Abstract

We report on experimental verification of mass transfer of nanoparticles during holographic recording in nanoparticle-dispersed photopolymers. Through direct observations of the microscopic structure of recorded holograms as well as optical measurements of the phase shift between the light interference pattern and a recorded hologram we find that holographic exposure causes nanoparticles to be redistributed from bright to dark regions, leading to periodic assembly of nanoparticles and thereby to formation of high-contrast holograms.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. N. Suzuki, Y. Tomita, and T. Kojima, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4121 (2002).
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    [CrossRef]
  8. L. D. Landau and E. M. Lifshitz, Statistical Physics, 3rd ed., part 1 (Pergamon, Oxford, England, 1985).
  9. T. J. Bunning, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, R. L. Sutherland, D. L. Vezie, and W. W. Adams, Polymer 36, 2699 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
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  12. V. Kondilenko, V. Markov, S. Odulov, and M. Soskin, Opt. Acta 26, 239 (1979).
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    [CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2003 (3)

Y. Tomita and H. Nishbiraki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 410 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. Suzuki and Y. Tomita, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 42, L927 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Haw, Nature 422, 556 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (3)

T. Kojima and Y. Tomita, Opt. Rev. 9, 222 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Pelinovsky, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 1873 (2002), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

N. Suzuki, Y. Tomita, and T. Kojima, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4121 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

M. Campbell, D. N. Sharp, M. T. Harrison, R. G. Denning, and A. J. Turberfield, Nature 404, 53 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. M. Karpov, V. V. Obukhovsky, T. N. Smirnova, and V. V. Lemsheko, Opt. Commun. 174, 391 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Bunning, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, and R. L. Sutherland, Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 30, 83 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1998 (1)

G. P. Banfi, V. Degiorgio, and D. Ricard, Adv. Phys. 47, 447 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

T. J. Bunning, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, R. L. Sutherland, D. L. Vezie, and W. W. Adams, Polymer 36, 2699 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

V. Kondilenko, V. Markov, S. Odulov, and M. Soskin, Opt. Acta 26, 239 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Adams, W. W.

T. J. Bunning, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, R. L. Sutherland, D. L. Vezie, and W. W. Adams, Polymer 36, 2699 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Banfi, G. P.

G. P. Banfi, V. Degiorgio, and D. Ricard, Adv. Phys. 47, 447 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bunning, T. J.

T. J. Bunning, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, and R. L. Sutherland, Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 30, 83 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Bunning, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, R. L. Sutherland, D. L. Vezie, and W. W. Adams, Polymer 36, 2699 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, M.

M. Campbell, D. N. Sharp, M. T. Harrison, R. G. Denning, and A. J. Turberfield, Nature 404, 53 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Degiorgio, V.

G. P. Banfi, V. Degiorgio, and D. Ricard, Adv. Phys. 47, 447 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Denning, R. G.

M. Campbell, D. N. Sharp, M. T. Harrison, R. G. Denning, and A. J. Turberfield, Nature 404, 53 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Engin, D.

Harrison, M. T.

M. Campbell, D. N. Sharp, M. T. Harrison, R. G. Denning, and A. J. Turberfield, Nature 404, 53 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haw, M.

M. Haw, Nature 422, 556 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Karpov, G. M.

G. M. Karpov, V. V. Obukhovsky, T. N. Smirnova, and V. V. Lemsheko, Opt. Commun. 174, 391 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kewitsch, A. S.

Kojima, T.

N. Suzuki, Y. Tomita, and T. Kojima, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4121 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Kojima and Y. Tomita, Opt. Rev. 9, 222 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kondilenko, V.

V. Kondilenko, V. Markov, S. Odulov, and M. Soskin, Opt. Acta 26, 239 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Landau, L. D.

L. D. Landau and E. M. Lifshitz, Statistical Physics, 3rd ed., part 1 (Pergamon, Oxford, England, 1985).

Lemsheko, V. V.

G. M. Karpov, V. V. Obukhovsky, T. N. Smirnova, and V. V. Lemsheko, Opt. Commun. 174, 391 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lifshitz, E. M.

L. D. Landau and E. M. Lifshitz, Statistical Physics, 3rd ed., part 1 (Pergamon, Oxford, England, 1985).

Markov, V.

V. Kondilenko, V. Markov, S. Odulov, and M. Soskin, Opt. Acta 26, 239 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Natarajan, L. V.

T. J. Bunning, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, and R. L. Sutherland, Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 30, 83 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Bunning, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, R. L. Sutherland, D. L. Vezie, and W. W. Adams, Polymer 36, 2699 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nishbiraki, H.

Y. Tomita and H. Nishbiraki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 410 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Obukhovsky, V. V.

G. M. Karpov, V. V. Obukhovsky, T. N. Smirnova, and V. V. Lemsheko, Opt. Commun. 174, 391 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Odulov, S.

V. Kondilenko, V. Markov, S. Odulov, and M. Soskin, Opt. Acta 26, 239 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Pelinovsky, D.

Ricard, D.

G. P. Banfi, V. Degiorgio, and D. Ricard, Adv. Phys. 47, 447 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sharp, D. N.

M. Campbell, D. N. Sharp, M. T. Harrison, R. G. Denning, and A. J. Turberfield, Nature 404, 53 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smirnova, T. N.

G. M. Karpov, V. V. Obukhovsky, T. N. Smirnova, and V. V. Lemsheko, Opt. Commun. 174, 391 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Soskin, M.

V. Kondilenko, V. Markov, S. Odulov, and M. Soskin, Opt. Acta 26, 239 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Sutherland, R. L.

T. J. Bunning, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, and R. L. Sutherland, Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 30, 83 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Bunning, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, R. L. Sutherland, D. L. Vezie, and W. W. Adams, Polymer 36, 2699 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, N.

N. Suzuki and Y. Tomita, Appl. Opt. 43, 2125 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Suzuki and Y. Tomita, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 42, L927 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. Suzuki, Y. Tomita, and T. Kojima, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4121 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tomita, Y.

N. Suzuki and Y. Tomita, Appl. Opt. 43, 2125 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Suzuki and Y. Tomita, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 42, L927 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tomita and H. Nishbiraki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 410 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. Suzuki, Y. Tomita, and T. Kojima, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4121 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Kojima and Y. Tomita, Opt. Rev. 9, 222 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tondiglia, V. P.

T. J. Bunning, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, and R. L. Sutherland, Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 30, 83 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Bunning, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, R. L. Sutherland, D. L. Vezie, and W. W. Adams, Polymer 36, 2699 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Turberfield, A. J.

M. Campbell, D. N. Sharp, M. T. Harrison, R. G. Denning, and A. J. Turberfield, Nature 404, 53 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vezie, D. L.

T. J. Bunning, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, R. L. Sutherland, D. L. Vezie, and W. W. Adams, Polymer 36, 2699 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

Adv. Phys. (1)

G. P. Banfi, V. Degiorgio, and D. Ricard, Adv. Phys. 47, 447 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. (1)

T. J. Bunning, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, and R. L. Sutherland, Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 30, 83 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

N. Suzuki, Y. Tomita, and T. Kojima, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4121 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tomita and H. Nishbiraki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 410 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 (1)

N. Suzuki and Y. Tomita, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 42, L927 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nature (2)

M. Haw, Nature 422, 556 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Campbell, D. N. Sharp, M. T. Harrison, R. G. Denning, and A. J. Turberfield, Nature 404, 53 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Acta (1)

V. Kondilenko, V. Markov, S. Odulov, and M. Soskin, Opt. Acta 26, 239 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

G. M. Karpov, V. V. Obukhovsky, T. N. Smirnova, and V. V. Lemsheko, Opt. Commun. 174, 391 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Rev. (1)

T. Kojima and Y. Tomita, Opt. Rev. 9, 222 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Polymer (1)

T. J. Bunning, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, R. L. Sutherland, D. L. Vezie, and W. W. Adams, Polymer 36, 2699 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

L. D. Landau and E. M. Lifshitz, Statistical Physics, 3rd ed., part 1 (Pergamon, Oxford, England, 1985).

R. E. Slusher and B. J. Eggleton, eds., Nonlinear Photonic Crystals (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2003).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of distributions of constituents (monomers and nanoparticles) (a) before and (b) during holographic exposure to describe the holographic recording process in a nanoparticle-dispersed photopolymer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

TEM images of cross sections of recorded holograms in Si O 2 nanoparticle-dispersed photopolymer samples after (a) uniform and (b) holographic exposure. Note that the black portions in these images correspond to nanoparticles. Total exposure intensity was 100 mW cm 2 .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Atomic-force microscope image of the surface morphology of a Si O 2 nanoparticle-dispersed photopolymer sample after holographic exposure at a grating spacing of 1 μ m .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Temporal evolution of diffraction efficiency η (open circles) and phase shift ϕ (filled circles) for (a) Si O 2 and (b) Ti O 2 nanoparticle-dispersed photopolymer samples in which a transmission-type hologram with 1 - μ m spacing was recorded in each sample by two mutually coherent beams at a wavelength of 532 nm .

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