Abstract

We report on the observation of second-harmonic generation (SHG) from electrically charged microdroplets while they are excited with femtosecond laser pulses. The intense SHG emission results from χ(3) coupling between two photons of the incident laser pulse and the electrostatic field induced by the surface charges. For Iinc=2×1012Wcm2, we estimate the second-harmonic emission to be ISHG=2.5×103 photons per droplet and per pulse. The possibility of using SHG to measure remotely the electric charge of water droplets in thunderclouds is discussed.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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2004 (1)

2003 (3)

D. Duft, T. Achtzehn, R. Müller, B. A. Huber, and T. Leisner, Nature 421, 128 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Coleman, T. C. Marshall, M. Stolzenburg, T. Hamlin, P. R. Krehbiel, W. Rison, and R. J. Thomas, J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4298 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Kasparian, G. M. Rodriguez, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, Science 301, 61 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (3)

W. D. Rust and R. J. Trapp, Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 1959 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Favre, V. Boutou, S.-C. Hill, W. Zimmer, M. Krenz, H. Lambrecht, J. Yu, R. K. Chang, L. Woeste, and J.-P. Wolf, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 035002 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Rodriguez, R. Sauerbrey, H. Wille, L. Woeste, T. Fujii, Y-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, L. Klingbeil, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, J. Kassparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, and J.-P. Wolf, Opt. Lett. 27, 772 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

G. Faye, J. Kasparian, and R. Sauerbrey, Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 73, 157 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

B. Krämer, M. Schwell, O. H. Vortisch, E. Rühl, H. Baumgärtel, L. Wöste, and T. Leisner, J. Chem. Phys. 111, 6521 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. I. Dadap, J. Shan, K. B. Eisenthal, and T. F. Heinz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 4045 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (3)

D. Carrol and X. H. Zheng, Pure Appl. Opt. 7, L49 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. C. Yan, Y. Liu, and K. B. Eisenthal, J. Phys. Chem. 102, 6331 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Kasparian and J.-P. Wolf, Opt. Commun. 152, 355 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

J. M. Hartings, A. Poon, X. Pu, R. K. Chang, and T. M. Leslie, Chem. Phys. Lett. 281, 389 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Kasparian, B. Krämer, J.-P. Dewitz, S. Vadja, R. Rairoux, B. Vezin, V. Boutou, T. Leisner, W. Hübner, J.-P. Wolf, L. Wöste, and K.-H. Bennemann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2952 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1993 (1)

X. Zhao, S. Ong, and K. B. Eisenthal, Chem. Phys. Lett. 202, 513 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

K. Clays and A. Persoons, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2980 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1951 (1)

J. T. Davis, Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 208, 224 (1951).
[CrossRef]

Achtzehn, T.

D. Duft, T. Achtzehn, R. Müller, B. A. Huber, and T. Leisner, Nature 421, 128 (2003).
[CrossRef]

André, Y.-B.

J. Kasparian, G. M. Rodriguez, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, Science 301, 61 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

André, Y-B.

Baumgärtel, H.

B. Krämer, M. Schwell, O. H. Vortisch, E. Rühl, H. Baumgärtel, L. Wöste, and T. Leisner, J. Chem. Phys. 111, 6521 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bennemann, K.-H.

J. Kasparian, B. Krämer, J.-P. Dewitz, S. Vadja, R. Rairoux, B. Vezin, V. Boutou, T. Leisner, W. Hübner, J.-P. Wolf, L. Wöste, and K.-H. Bennemann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2952 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bissonnette, L.

Bourayou, R.

J. Kasparian, G. M. Rodriguez, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, Science 301, 61 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boutou, V.

C. Favre, V. Boutou, S.-C. Hill, W. Zimmer, M. Krenz, H. Lambrecht, J. Yu, R. K. Chang, L. Woeste, and J.-P. Wolf, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 035002 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Kasparian, B. Krämer, J.-P. Dewitz, S. Vadja, R. Rairoux, B. Vezin, V. Boutou, T. Leisner, W. Hübner, J.-P. Wolf, L. Wöste, and K.-H. Bennemann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2952 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Carrol, D.

D. Carrol and X. H. Zheng, Pure Appl. Opt. 7, L49 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chang, R. K.

C. Favre, V. Boutou, S.-C. Hill, W. Zimmer, M. Krenz, H. Lambrecht, J. Yu, R. K. Chang, L. Woeste, and J.-P. Wolf, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 035002 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Hartings, A. Poon, X. Pu, R. K. Chang, and T. M. Leslie, Chem. Phys. Lett. 281, 389 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Clays, K.

K. Clays and A. Persoons, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2980 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coleman, L. M.

L. M. Coleman, T. C. Marshall, M. Stolzenburg, T. Hamlin, P. R. Krehbiel, W. Rison, and R. J. Thomas, J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4298 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dadap, J. I.

J. I. Dadap, J. Shan, and T. F. Heinz, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 1328 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. I. Dadap, J. Shan, K. B. Eisenthal, and T. F. Heinz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 4045 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Davis, J. T.

J. T. Davis, Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 208, 224 (1951).
[CrossRef]

Dewitz, J.-P.

J. Kasparian, B. Krämer, J.-P. Dewitz, S. Vadja, R. Rairoux, B. Vezin, V. Boutou, T. Leisner, W. Hübner, J.-P. Wolf, L. Wöste, and K.-H. Bennemann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2952 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Duft, D.

D. Duft, T. Achtzehn, R. Müller, B. A. Huber, and T. Leisner, Nature 421, 128 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Eisenthal, K. B.

J. I. Dadap, J. Shan, K. B. Eisenthal, and T. F. Heinz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 4045 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. C. Yan, Y. Liu, and K. B. Eisenthal, J. Phys. Chem. 102, 6331 (1998).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhao, S. Ong, and K. B. Eisenthal, Chem. Phys. Lett. 202, 513 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Favre, C.

C. Favre, V. Boutou, S.-C. Hill, W. Zimmer, M. Krenz, H. Lambrecht, J. Yu, R. K. Chang, L. Woeste, and J.-P. Wolf, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 035002 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Favre, “Spectroscopie non linéaire d’aérosols uniques,” (“Nonlinear spectroscopy for single aerosol particles”), Ph.D. dissertation (Université Lyon I, Villeurbanne, France, 2002).

Faye, G.

G. Faye, J. Kasparian, and R. Sauerbrey, Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 73, 157 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Frey, S.

J. Kasparian, G. M. Rodriguez, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, Science 301, 61 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujii, T.

Hamlin, T.

L. M. Coleman, T. C. Marshall, M. Stolzenburg, T. Hamlin, P. R. Krehbiel, W. Rison, and R. J. Thomas, J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4298 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hartings, J. M.

J. M. Hartings, A. Poon, X. Pu, R. K. Chang, and T. M. Leslie, Chem. Phys. Lett. 281, 389 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Heinz, T. F.

J. I. Dadap, J. Shan, and T. F. Heinz, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 1328 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. I. Dadap, J. Shan, K. B. Eisenthal, and T. F. Heinz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 4045 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hill, S.-C.

C. Favre, V. Boutou, S.-C. Hill, W. Zimmer, M. Krenz, H. Lambrecht, J. Yu, R. K. Chang, L. Woeste, and J.-P. Wolf, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 035002 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Huber, B. A.

D. Duft, T. Achtzehn, R. Müller, B. A. Huber, and T. Leisner, Nature 421, 128 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hübner, W.

J. Kasparian, B. Krämer, J.-P. Dewitz, S. Vadja, R. Rairoux, B. Vezin, V. Boutou, T. Leisner, W. Hübner, J.-P. Wolf, L. Wöste, and K.-H. Bennemann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2952 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kalkner, W.

Kasparian, J.

J. Kasparian, G. M. Rodriguez, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, Science 301, 61 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Faye, J. Kasparian, and R. Sauerbrey, Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 73, 157 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Kasparian and J.-P. Wolf, Opt. Commun. 152, 355 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Kasparian, B. Krämer, J.-P. Dewitz, S. Vadja, R. Rairoux, B. Vezin, V. Boutou, T. Leisner, W. Hübner, J.-P. Wolf, L. Wöste, and K.-H. Bennemann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2952 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kassparian, J.

Klett, J. D.

H. R. Pruppacher and J. D. Klett, Microphysics of Clouds and Precipitation (Reidel, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1997), p. 596.

Klingbeil, L.

Krämer, B.

B. Krämer, M. Schwell, O. H. Vortisch, E. Rühl, H. Baumgärtel, L. Wöste, and T. Leisner, J. Chem. Phys. 111, 6521 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Kasparian, B. Krämer, J.-P. Dewitz, S. Vadja, R. Rairoux, B. Vezin, V. Boutou, T. Leisner, W. Hübner, J.-P. Wolf, L. Wöste, and K.-H. Bennemann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2952 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Krehbiel, P. R.

L. M. Coleman, T. C. Marshall, M. Stolzenburg, T. Hamlin, P. R. Krehbiel, W. Rison, and R. J. Thomas, J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4298 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Krenz, M.

C. Favre, V. Boutou, S.-C. Hill, W. Zimmer, M. Krenz, H. Lambrecht, J. Yu, R. K. Chang, L. Woeste, and J.-P. Wolf, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 035002 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lambrecht, H.

C. Favre, V. Boutou, S.-C. Hill, W. Zimmer, M. Krenz, H. Lambrecht, J. Yu, R. K. Chang, L. Woeste, and J.-P. Wolf, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 035002 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Leisner, T.

D. Duft, T. Achtzehn, R. Müller, B. A. Huber, and T. Leisner, Nature 421, 128 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. Krämer, M. Schwell, O. H. Vortisch, E. Rühl, H. Baumgärtel, L. Wöste, and T. Leisner, J. Chem. Phys. 111, 6521 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Kasparian, B. Krämer, J.-P. Dewitz, S. Vadja, R. Rairoux, B. Vezin, V. Boutou, T. Leisner, W. Hübner, J.-P. Wolf, L. Wöste, and K.-H. Bennemann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2952 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Leslie, T. M.

J. M. Hartings, A. Poon, X. Pu, R. K. Chang, and T. M. Leslie, Chem. Phys. Lett. 281, 389 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

E. C. Yan, Y. Liu, and K. B. Eisenthal, J. Phys. Chem. 102, 6331 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Marshall, T. C.

L. M. Coleman, T. C. Marshall, M. Stolzenburg, T. Hamlin, P. R. Krehbiel, W. Rison, and R. J. Thomas, J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4298 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Müller, R.

D. Duft, T. Achtzehn, R. Müller, B. A. Huber, and T. Leisner, Nature 421, 128 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mysyrowicz, A.

J. Kasparian, G. M. Rodriguez, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, Science 301, 61 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Rodriguez, R. Sauerbrey, H. Wille, L. Woeste, T. Fujii, Y-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, L. Klingbeil, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, J. Kassparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, and J.-P. Wolf, Opt. Lett. 27, 772 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ong, S.

X. Zhao, S. Ong, and K. B. Eisenthal, Chem. Phys. Lett. 202, 513 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Persoons, A.

K. Clays and A. Persoons, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2980 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Poon, A.

J. M. Hartings, A. Poon, X. Pu, R. K. Chang, and T. M. Leslie, Chem. Phys. Lett. 281, 389 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pruppacher, H. R.

H. R. Pruppacher and J. D. Klett, Microphysics of Clouds and Precipitation (Reidel, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1997), p. 596.

Pu, X.

J. M. Hartings, A. Poon, X. Pu, R. K. Chang, and T. M. Leslie, Chem. Phys. Lett. 281, 389 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rairoux, R.

J. Kasparian, B. Krämer, J.-P. Dewitz, S. Vadja, R. Rairoux, B. Vezin, V. Boutou, T. Leisner, W. Hübner, J.-P. Wolf, L. Wöste, and K.-H. Bennemann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2952 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rethmeier, K.

Ridgen, J. S.

J. S. Ridgen, Macmillian Encyclopedia of Physics (Simon and Schuster, New York, 1996), p. 353.

Rison, W.

L. M. Coleman, T. C. Marshall, M. Stolzenburg, T. Hamlin, P. R. Krehbiel, W. Rison, and R. J. Thomas, J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4298 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rodriguez, G. M.

J. Kasparian, G. M. Rodriguez, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, Science 301, 61 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rodriguez, M.

Rühl, E.

B. Krämer, M. Schwell, O. H. Vortisch, E. Rühl, H. Baumgärtel, L. Wöste, and T. Leisner, J. Chem. Phys. 111, 6521 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rust, W. D.

W. D. Rust and R. J. Trapp, Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 1959 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Salmon, E.

J. Kasparian, G. M. Rodriguez, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, Science 301, 61 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Rodriguez, R. Sauerbrey, H. Wille, L. Woeste, T. Fujii, Y-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, L. Klingbeil, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, J. Kassparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, and J.-P. Wolf, Opt. Lett. 27, 772 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sauerbrey, R.

J. Kasparian, G. M. Rodriguez, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, Science 301, 61 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Rodriguez, R. Sauerbrey, H. Wille, L. Woeste, T. Fujii, Y-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, L. Klingbeil, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, J. Kassparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, and J.-P. Wolf, Opt. Lett. 27, 772 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Faye, J. Kasparian, and R. Sauerbrey, Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 73, 157 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schwell, M.

B. Krämer, M. Schwell, O. H. Vortisch, E. Rühl, H. Baumgärtel, L. Wöste, and T. Leisner, J. Chem. Phys. 111, 6521 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shan, J.

J. I. Dadap, J. Shan, and T. F. Heinz, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 1328 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. I. Dadap, J. Shan, K. B. Eisenthal, and T. F. Heinz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 4045 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Stolzenburg, M.

L. M. Coleman, T. C. Marshall, M. Stolzenburg, T. Hamlin, P. R. Krehbiel, W. Rison, and R. J. Thomas, J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4298 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, R. J.

L. M. Coleman, T. C. Marshall, M. Stolzenburg, T. Hamlin, P. R. Krehbiel, W. Rison, and R. J. Thomas, J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4298 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Trapp, R. J.

W. D. Rust and R. J. Trapp, Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 1959 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Vadja, S.

J. Kasparian, B. Krämer, J.-P. Dewitz, S. Vadja, R. Rairoux, B. Vezin, V. Boutou, T. Leisner, W. Hübner, J.-P. Wolf, L. Wöste, and K.-H. Bennemann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2952 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Vezin, B.

J. Kasparian, B. Krämer, J.-P. Dewitz, S. Vadja, R. Rairoux, B. Vezin, V. Boutou, T. Leisner, W. Hübner, J.-P. Wolf, L. Wöste, and K.-H. Bennemann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2952 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Vortisch, O. H.

B. Krämer, M. Schwell, O. H. Vortisch, E. Rühl, H. Baumgärtel, L. Wöste, and T. Leisner, J. Chem. Phys. 111, 6521 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wahlin, L.

L. Wahlin, Atmospheric Electrostatics (Wiley, New York, 1989).

Wille, H.

J. Kasparian, G. M. Rodriguez, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, Science 301, 61 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Rodriguez, R. Sauerbrey, H. Wille, L. Woeste, T. Fujii, Y-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, L. Klingbeil, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, J. Kassparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, and J.-P. Wolf, Opt. Lett. 27, 772 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Woeste, L.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Typical AD of the observed SH emission I HH from a charged water MD (typical radius, 30 μ m ). Two prominent lobes are observed at θ = ± 18 ° , with weaker features near θ = ± 150 ° . For I inc 4 × 10 12 W cm 2 and over a wide range of MD sizes, the AD remains the same. Top left, schematic of the SHG AD coordinates. Bottom left, schematic of a positively charged MD and the resultant radial static electric field, E r DC , on its surface.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Dependence of the SH signal on the incident laser intensity I inc for a charged water MD. The I HH increase with I inc is quadratic. The experimental threshold intensity is I th = 2 × 10 11 W cm 2 . Inset, spectral signature of the SHG (centered at λ = 407 nm ) from the water droplet at θ = 18 ° .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Polarization and electric charge effects on the SHG. (a) I HH C :  the laser and the detector polarization are horizontal and the MD is charged. (b) I HV C : the detector polarization is vertical for the charged MD. (c) I HH UC , uncharged MD.

Equations (3)

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P 3 ω = χ V ( 3 ) E ω E ω E ω .
P 2 ω = χ ( 3 ) E ω E ω Φ ( 0 ) ,
Φ ( 0 ) = 2 k T e sinh 1 [ σ ( π 2 ε k T C ) 1 2 ] ,

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