Abstract

We introduce a novel contrast mechanism for optical coherence tomography (OCT) whereby the optical scattering of magnetically labeled cells is modified by means of an externally applied magnetic field. This modification is made through the addition of a small electromagnet to the imaging arm of a conventional OCT interferometer. We measure the magnetomotive OCT signal by differencing pairs of axial scans (A-scans) acquired with the magnetic field on and off. Magnetomotive contrast is demonstrated in bulk three-dimensional cell scaffolds containing macrophages labeled with microparticles of iron oxide, demonstrating magnetic-specific contrast over a dynamic range of 30dB.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. W. Tan, A. Sendemir-Urkmaz, L. J. Fahrner, R. Jamison, D. Leckband, and S. A. Boppart, Tissue Eng. 10, 1747 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Y. Jiang, I. Tornov, Y. Wang, and Z. Chen, Opt. Lett. 29, 1090 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. D. L. Marks and S. A. Boppart, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 123905 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T.-M. Lee, A. L. Oldenburg, S. Sitafalwalla, D. L. Marks, W. Luo, F. Jean-Jacques Toublan, K. S. Suslick, and S. A. Boppart, Opt. Lett. 28, 1546 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. C. Loo, A. Lin, L. Hirsch, M.-H. Lee, J. Barton, N. Halas, J. West, and R. Drezek, Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 3, 33 (2004).
    [PubMed]
  7. C. Xu, J. Ye, D. L. Marks, and S. A. Boppart, Opt. Lett. 29, 1647 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. K. D. Rao, M. A. Choma, S. Yazdanfar, A. M. Rollins, and J. A. Izatt, Opt. Lett. 28, 340 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. C. Yang, M. A. Choma, L. E. Lamb, J. D. Simon, and J. A. Izatt, Opt. Lett. 29, 1396 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. M. G. Harisinghani, J. Barentsz, P. F. Hahn, W. M. Deserno, S. Tabatabaei, C. Hulsbergen van de Kaa, J. de la Rosette, and R. Weissleder, N. Engl. J. Med. 348, 2491 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. J. W. Goodman, Statistical Optics (Wiley, New York, 1985), pp. 73–79.
  12. R. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, Opt. Express 11, 889 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (6)

W. Tan, A. Sendemir-Urkmaz, L. J. Fahrner, R. Jamison, D. Leckband, and S. A. Boppart, Tissue Eng. 10, 1747 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Marks and S. A. Boppart, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 123905 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Loo, A. Lin, L. Hirsch, M.-H. Lee, J. Barton, N. Halas, J. West, and R. Drezek, Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 3, 33 (2004).
[PubMed]

Y. Jiang, I. Tornov, Y. Wang, and Z. Chen, Opt. Lett. 29, 1090 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Yang, M. A. Choma, L. E. Lamb, J. D. Simon, and J. A. Izatt, Opt. Lett. 29, 1396 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Xu, J. Ye, D. L. Marks, and S. A. Boppart, Opt. Lett. 29, 1647 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (4)

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barentsz, J.

M. G. Harisinghani, J. Barentsz, P. F. Hahn, W. M. Deserno, S. Tabatabaei, C. Hulsbergen van de Kaa, J. de la Rosette, and R. Weissleder, N. Engl. J. Med. 348, 2491 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barton, J.

C. Loo, A. Lin, L. Hirsch, M.-H. Lee, J. Barton, N. Halas, J. West, and R. Drezek, Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 3, 33 (2004).
[PubMed]

Boppart, S. A.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Z.

Choma, M. A.

de la Rosette, J.

M. G. Harisinghani, J. Barentsz, P. F. Hahn, W. M. Deserno, S. Tabatabaei, C. Hulsbergen van de Kaa, J. de la Rosette, and R. Weissleder, N. Engl. J. Med. 348, 2491 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deserno, W. M.

M. G. Harisinghani, J. Barentsz, P. F. Hahn, W. M. Deserno, S. Tabatabaei, C. Hulsbergen van de Kaa, J. de la Rosette, and R. Weissleder, N. Engl. J. Med. 348, 2491 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drezek, R.

C. Loo, A. Lin, L. Hirsch, M.-H. Lee, J. Barton, N. Halas, J. West, and R. Drezek, Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 3, 33 (2004).
[PubMed]

Fahrner, L. J.

W. Tan, A. Sendemir-Urkmaz, L. J. Fahrner, R. Jamison, D. Leckband, and S. A. Boppart, Tissue Eng. 10, 1747 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fercher, A. F.

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman, Statistical Optics (Wiley, New York, 1985), pp. 73–79.

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hahn, P. F.

M. G. Harisinghani, J. Barentsz, P. F. Hahn, W. M. Deserno, S. Tabatabaei, C. Hulsbergen van de Kaa, J. de la Rosette, and R. Weissleder, N. Engl. J. Med. 348, 2491 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Halas, N.

C. Loo, A. Lin, L. Hirsch, M.-H. Lee, J. Barton, N. Halas, J. West, and R. Drezek, Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 3, 33 (2004).
[PubMed]

Harisinghani, M. G.

M. G. Harisinghani, J. Barentsz, P. F. Hahn, W. M. Deserno, S. Tabatabaei, C. Hulsbergen van de Kaa, J. de la Rosette, and R. Weissleder, N. Engl. J. Med. 348, 2491 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hirsch, L.

C. Loo, A. Lin, L. Hirsch, M.-H. Lee, J. Barton, N. Halas, J. West, and R. Drezek, Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 3, 33 (2004).
[PubMed]

Hitzenberger, C. K.

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Izatt, J. A.

Jamison, R.

W. Tan, A. Sendemir-Urkmaz, L. J. Fahrner, R. Jamison, D. Leckband, and S. A. Boppart, Tissue Eng. 10, 1747 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, Y.

Lamb, L. E.

Leckband, D.

W. Tan, A. Sendemir-Urkmaz, L. J. Fahrner, R. Jamison, D. Leckband, and S. A. Boppart, Tissue Eng. 10, 1747 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M.-H.

C. Loo, A. Lin, L. Hirsch, M.-H. Lee, J. Barton, N. Halas, J. West, and R. Drezek, Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 3, 33 (2004).
[PubMed]

Lee, T.-M.

Leitgeb, R.

Lin, A.

C. Loo, A. Lin, L. Hirsch, M.-H. Lee, J. Barton, N. Halas, J. West, and R. Drezek, Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 3, 33 (2004).
[PubMed]

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Loo, C.

C. Loo, A. Lin, L. Hirsch, M.-H. Lee, J. Barton, N. Halas, J. West, and R. Drezek, Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 3, 33 (2004).
[PubMed]

Luo, W.

Marks, D. L.

Oldenburg, A. L.

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rao, K. D.

Rollins, A. M.

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sendemir-Urkmaz, A.

W. Tan, A. Sendemir-Urkmaz, L. J. Fahrner, R. Jamison, D. Leckband, and S. A. Boppart, Tissue Eng. 10, 1747 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Simon, J. D.

Sitafalwalla, S.

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suslick, K. S.

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tabatabaei, S.

M. G. Harisinghani, J. Barentsz, P. F. Hahn, W. M. Deserno, S. Tabatabaei, C. Hulsbergen van de Kaa, J. de la Rosette, and R. Weissleder, N. Engl. J. Med. 348, 2491 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tan, W.

W. Tan, A. Sendemir-Urkmaz, L. J. Fahrner, R. Jamison, D. Leckband, and S. A. Boppart, Tissue Eng. 10, 1747 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tornov, I.

Toublan, F. Jean-Jacques

van de Kaa, C. Hulsbergen

M. G. Harisinghani, J. Barentsz, P. F. Hahn, W. M. Deserno, S. Tabatabaei, C. Hulsbergen van de Kaa, J. de la Rosette, and R. Weissleder, N. Engl. J. Med. 348, 2491 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

Weissleder, R.

M. G. Harisinghani, J. Barentsz, P. F. Hahn, W. M. Deserno, S. Tabatabaei, C. Hulsbergen van de Kaa, J. de la Rosette, and R. Weissleder, N. Engl. J. Med. 348, 2491 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

West, J.

C. Loo, A. Lin, L. Hirsch, M.-H. Lee, J. Barton, N. Halas, J. West, and R. Drezek, Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 3, 33 (2004).
[PubMed]

Xu, C.

Yang, C.

Yazdanfar, S.

Ye, J.

N. Engl. J. Med. (1)

M. G. Harisinghani, J. Barentsz, P. F. Hahn, W. M. Deserno, S. Tabatabaei, C. Hulsbergen van de Kaa, J. de la Rosette, and R. Weissleder, N. Engl. J. Med. 348, 2491 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

D. L. Marks and S. A. Boppart, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 123905 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. (1)

C. Loo, A. Lin, L. Hirsch, M.-H. Lee, J. Barton, N. Halas, J. West, and R. Drezek, Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 3, 33 (2004).
[PubMed]

Tissue Eng. (1)

W. Tan, A. Sendemir-Urkmaz, L. J. Fahrner, R. Jamison, D. Leckband, and S. A. Boppart, Tissue Eng. 10, 1747 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

J. W. Goodman, Statistical Optics (Wiley, New York, 1985), pp. 73–79.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

MMOCT sample configuration. (a) Sample with optical imaging beam and electromagnet (field lines illustrated). SC, solenoid coil; SA, sample. (b)–(d) MMOCT contrast mechanisms illustrating two states of a magnetic microparticle (filled and dash-outlined shapes, respectively) within the imaging focal volume and the associated OCT A-scan demodulated amplitudes (solid and dashed curves, respectively). (b) Rotation of an anisotropic magnetic particle. (c) Axial and (d) transverse displacement of a magnetic particle.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

M-mode OCT imaging. (a) Repetitive axial scans at 10 Hz of a magnetite microparticle embedded within 5% agarose gel during magnetic-field modulation. Each axial scan was acquired with the magnetic field alternately on and off. (b) Integrated demodulated OCT signal amplitude for each axial scan in (a). Magnetically induced displacement of the magnetic particle and subsequent restoration by the agarose medium account for the observed regularity in the modulation of the optical scattering.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Representative images of macrophage cells in three-dimensional scaffolds that display structural OCT (red) and MMOCT (green) signals. (a) Control macrophages and (b) macrophages allowed to uptake magnetite microparticles. Insets, 40 μ m × 40 μ m . The structural OCT signal is defined as the demodulated interferogram amplitude such that 0 dB is the maximum value. The MMOCT signal is 10 log ( S ) , where S is defined in Eq. (2). Apparent cell sizes (approximately 8 30 μ m ) are consistent with light microscopy observations.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

F = V ( χ m χ 0 ) B 2 2 μ 0 ,
S ( r ) = [ a on ( r , t ) a off ( r , t + Δ t ) ] 2 [ a off ( r , t ) a off ( r , t + Δ t ) ] 2 ¯ = Δ a mod 2 ( r , Δ t ) D a off ( r , Δ t ) ,

Metrics