Abstract

Modes are selectively excited by launching light through the cladding from the side into a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber. Measuring the total output power at the end of the fiber as a function of the angle of incidence of the exciting laser beam provides a powerful diagnostic for characterizing the cladding bandgap. Furthermore, various types of modes on either side of the bandgap are excited individually, and their near-field images are obtained.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. T. A. Birks, P. J. Roberts, P. St. J. Russell, D. M. Atkin, and T. J. Shepherd, Electron. Lett. 31, 1941 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, Science 285, 1537 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. “HC-1060-02 Hollow Core Photonic Bandgar Fiber,” (Blazephotonics, Ltd., http://www.crystal-fibre.com/ Products/ai?guide/datasheets/blazephotonics/ HC-1060-02.pdf.
  4. B. J. Mangan, L. Farr, A. Langford, P. J. Roberts, D. P. Williams, F. Couny, M. Lawman, M. Mason, S. Coupland, R. Flea, H. Sabert, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Postconference Digest, Vol. 95 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2004), paper PDP24.
  5. P. Russell, Science 299, 358 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. E. Snitzer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 491 (1961).
    [CrossRef]
  7. L. Jeunhomme and J. P. Pocholle, Appl. Opt. 17, 463 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. S. Shaklan, Appl. Opt. 30, 4379 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. F. Couny, H. Sabert, P. J. Roberts, D. P. Williams, A. Tomlinson, B. J. Mangan, L. Farr, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Express 13, 558 (2005), http://www.opticsexpress.org.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

2003

P. Russell, Science 299, 358 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, Science 285, 1537 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995

T. A. Birks, P. J. Roberts, P. St. J. Russell, D. M. Atkin, and T. J. Shepherd, Electron. Lett. 31, 1941 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1991

1978

1961

Allan, D. C.

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, Science 285, 1537 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Atkin, D. M.

T. A. Birks, P. J. Roberts, P. St. J. Russell, D. M. Atkin, and T. J. Shepherd, Electron. Lett. 31, 1941 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Birks, T. A.

F. Couny, H. Sabert, P. J. Roberts, D. P. Williams, A. Tomlinson, B. J. Mangan, L. Farr, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Express 13, 558 (2005), http://www.opticsexpress.org.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, Science 285, 1537 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. A. Birks, P. J. Roberts, P. St. J. Russell, D. M. Atkin, and T. J. Shepherd, Electron. Lett. 31, 1941 (1995).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Mangan, L. Farr, A. Langford, P. J. Roberts, D. P. Williams, F. Couny, M. Lawman, M. Mason, S. Coupland, R. Flea, H. Sabert, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Postconference Digest, Vol. 95 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2004), paper PDP24.

Couny, F.

F. Couny, H. Sabert, P. J. Roberts, D. P. Williams, A. Tomlinson, B. J. Mangan, L. Farr, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Express 13, 558 (2005), http://www.opticsexpress.org.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Mangan, L. Farr, A. Langford, P. J. Roberts, D. P. Williams, F. Couny, M. Lawman, M. Mason, S. Coupland, R. Flea, H. Sabert, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Postconference Digest, Vol. 95 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2004), paper PDP24.

Coupland, S.

B. J. Mangan, L. Farr, A. Langford, P. J. Roberts, D. P. Williams, F. Couny, M. Lawman, M. Mason, S. Coupland, R. Flea, H. Sabert, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Postconference Digest, Vol. 95 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2004), paper PDP24.

Cregan, R. F.

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, Science 285, 1537 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Farr, L.

F. Couny, H. Sabert, P. J. Roberts, D. P. Williams, A. Tomlinson, B. J. Mangan, L. Farr, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Express 13, 558 (2005), http://www.opticsexpress.org.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Mangan, L. Farr, A. Langford, P. J. Roberts, D. P. Williams, F. Couny, M. Lawman, M. Mason, S. Coupland, R. Flea, H. Sabert, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Postconference Digest, Vol. 95 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2004), paper PDP24.

Flea, R.

B. J. Mangan, L. Farr, A. Langford, P. J. Roberts, D. P. Williams, F. Couny, M. Lawman, M. Mason, S. Coupland, R. Flea, H. Sabert, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Postconference Digest, Vol. 95 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2004), paper PDP24.

Jeunhomme, L.

Knight, J. C.

F. Couny, H. Sabert, P. J. Roberts, D. P. Williams, A. Tomlinson, B. J. Mangan, L. Farr, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Express 13, 558 (2005), http://www.opticsexpress.org.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, Science 285, 1537 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Mangan, L. Farr, A. Langford, P. J. Roberts, D. P. Williams, F. Couny, M. Lawman, M. Mason, S. Coupland, R. Flea, H. Sabert, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Postconference Digest, Vol. 95 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2004), paper PDP24.

Langford, A.

B. J. Mangan, L. Farr, A. Langford, P. J. Roberts, D. P. Williams, F. Couny, M. Lawman, M. Mason, S. Coupland, R. Flea, H. Sabert, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Postconference Digest, Vol. 95 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2004), paper PDP24.

Lawman, M.

B. J. Mangan, L. Farr, A. Langford, P. J. Roberts, D. P. Williams, F. Couny, M. Lawman, M. Mason, S. Coupland, R. Flea, H. Sabert, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Postconference Digest, Vol. 95 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2004), paper PDP24.

Mangan, B. J.

F. Couny, H. Sabert, P. J. Roberts, D. P. Williams, A. Tomlinson, B. J. Mangan, L. Farr, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Express 13, 558 (2005), http://www.opticsexpress.org.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, Science 285, 1537 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Mangan, L. Farr, A. Langford, P. J. Roberts, D. P. Williams, F. Couny, M. Lawman, M. Mason, S. Coupland, R. Flea, H. Sabert, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Postconference Digest, Vol. 95 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2004), paper PDP24.

Mason, M.

B. J. Mangan, L. Farr, A. Langford, P. J. Roberts, D. P. Williams, F. Couny, M. Lawman, M. Mason, S. Coupland, R. Flea, H. Sabert, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Postconference Digest, Vol. 95 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2004), paper PDP24.

Pocholle, J. P.

Roberts, P. J.

F. Couny, H. Sabert, P. J. Roberts, D. P. Williams, A. Tomlinson, B. J. Mangan, L. Farr, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Express 13, 558 (2005), http://www.opticsexpress.org.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, Science 285, 1537 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. A. Birks, P. J. Roberts, P. St. J. Russell, D. M. Atkin, and T. J. Shepherd, Electron. Lett. 31, 1941 (1995).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Mangan, L. Farr, A. Langford, P. J. Roberts, D. P. Williams, F. Couny, M. Lawman, M. Mason, S. Coupland, R. Flea, H. Sabert, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Postconference Digest, Vol. 95 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2004), paper PDP24.

Russell, P.

P. Russell, Science 299, 358 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Russell, P. St. J.

F. Couny, H. Sabert, P. J. Roberts, D. P. Williams, A. Tomlinson, B. J. Mangan, L. Farr, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Express 13, 558 (2005), http://www.opticsexpress.org.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, Science 285, 1537 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. A. Birks, P. J. Roberts, P. St. J. Russell, D. M. Atkin, and T. J. Shepherd, Electron. Lett. 31, 1941 (1995).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Mangan, L. Farr, A. Langford, P. J. Roberts, D. P. Williams, F. Couny, M. Lawman, M. Mason, S. Coupland, R. Flea, H. Sabert, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Postconference Digest, Vol. 95 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2004), paper PDP24.

Sabert, H.

F. Couny, H. Sabert, P. J. Roberts, D. P. Williams, A. Tomlinson, B. J. Mangan, L. Farr, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Express 13, 558 (2005), http://www.opticsexpress.org.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Mangan, L. Farr, A. Langford, P. J. Roberts, D. P. Williams, F. Couny, M. Lawman, M. Mason, S. Coupland, R. Flea, H. Sabert, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Postconference Digest, Vol. 95 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2004), paper PDP24.

Shaklan, S.

Shepherd, T. J.

T. A. Birks, P. J. Roberts, P. St. J. Russell, D. M. Atkin, and T. J. Shepherd, Electron. Lett. 31, 1941 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Snitzer, E.

Tomlinson, A.

Williams, D. P.

F. Couny, H. Sabert, P. J. Roberts, D. P. Williams, A. Tomlinson, B. J. Mangan, L. Farr, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Express 13, 558 (2005), http://www.opticsexpress.org.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Mangan, L. Farr, A. Langford, P. J. Roberts, D. P. Williams, F. Couny, M. Lawman, M. Mason, S. Coupland, R. Flea, H. Sabert, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Postconference Digest, Vol. 95 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2004), paper PDP24.

Appl. Opt.

Electron. Lett.

T. A. Birks, P. J. Roberts, P. St. J. Russell, D. M. Atkin, and T. J. Shepherd, Electron. Lett. 31, 1941 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

Opt. Express

Science

P. Russell, Science 299, 358 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, Science 285, 1537 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

“HC-1060-02 Hollow Core Photonic Bandgar Fiber,” (Blazephotonics, Ltd., http://www.crystal-fibre.com/ Products/ai?guide/datasheets/blazephotonics/ HC-1060-02.pdf.

B. J. Mangan, L. Farr, A. Langford, P. J. Roberts, D. P. Williams, F. Couny, M. Lawman, M. Mason, S. Coupland, R. Flea, H. Sabert, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Postconference Digest, Vol. 95 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2004), paper PDP24.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Scanning electron micrograph of HCPCF[3] used in the experiments: silica cladding diameter of 123 μ m , photonic crystal cladding diameter of 50 μ m , core diameter of 9.2 μ m , and pitch of 2.75 μ m .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic plan ( x z ) view of the experimental layout. The source laser beam is incident at angle θ on a section of HCPCF immersed in index-matching fluid. The angle θ can be varied by rotating the immersion cell. The length of fiber between the center of the cell and the detector is 850 mm . HCF, hollow-core fiber.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic diagram of the experimental configuration, showing how cylindrical lenses are used to shape the beam. The X Z and Y Z planes correspond to plane and side views, respectively. The region to the right of the cell lens is immersed in index-matching fluid as indicated. The X and Y directions are greatly exaggerated for clarity, the Z direction is to scale, and the cell lens focal length is 63 mm . PCF, photonic crystal fiber; NA, numerical aperture.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Angular power spectrum of the HCPCF versus θ and n eff . The effective index of the fundamental mode (0.992) is indicated by a dashed line. Three modes whose near-field images are presented in Fig. 5 are highlighted. The lower graph shows the logarithmic power spectrum in the bandgap; the estimated noise level is indicated by a dashed line. The data are presented to give a complete view of the entire range of angles scanned, despite the saturation of the detector evident at lower angles of incidence.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Near-field mode images for the n eff values indicated in Fig. 4 of (a) 0.970, (b) 1.037, and (c) 1.056. n eff values of (d) 0.975 and (e) 1.029 were measured in a separate experiment on a different section of the same fiber from Fig. 4. (d) clearly shows guiding in the air, whereas (e) shows guiding predominantly in the core surrounding. The cladding photonic crystal diameter, indicated by the outer dotted curve, is 50 μ m , and the core diameter, indicated by the inner dotted curve, is 9.2 μ m .

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Theoretical and Observed Values of n eff

Equations (1)

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δ = 1.22 λ L cos ( θ ) = 0.027 ° ,

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