Abstract

We present a fiber-optic temperature sensor with a single-crystal sapphire fiber as the light guide and a sapphire wafer as the sensing element. Temperature is determined by measurement of the thermal dependence of the wafer’s optical thickness by use of white-light interferometry. We applied digital signal processing techniques to analyze the sensor’s spectrum. A prototype sensor was tested to 1600°C and demonstrated excellent reproducibility. An accuracy of ±0.2% full scale was obtained. The sensor is simple, small, and flexible, with potential advantages of batch fabrication and easy calibration.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. Wang, S. Gollapudi, K. A. Murphey, R. G. May, and R. O. Claus, Opt. Lett. 17, 1021 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. R. R. Dils, J. Appl. Phys. 54, 1198 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. R. Dils, J. Geist, and M. L. Reilly, J. Appl. Phys. 59, 1005 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  4. L. Tong, Y. Shen, L. Ye, and Z. Ding, Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, 607 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. L. Kenndey and N. Djeu, Sens. Actuators, A 100, 1870191 (2002).
  6. A. Wang, S. Gollapudi, R. G. May, K. A. Murphey, and R. O. Claus, Opt. Lett. 17, 1544 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Wang, S. Gollapudi, R. G. May, K. A. Murphey, and R. O. Claus, Scanning Microsc. Suppl. 4, 147 (1995).
  8. R. E. Wagner and C. R. Sandahl, Appl. Opt. 21, 1381 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. F. Pérennès, P. C. Beard, and T. N. Mills, Appl. Opt. 38, 7026 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  10. W. Tranter, K. Shanmugan, T. Rappaport, and K. Kosbar, Principles of Communication Systems: Simulation with Wireless Applications (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 2003).
  11. B. Qi, G. R. Pickrell, J. Xu, P. Zhang, Y. Duan, W. Peng, Z. Huang, W. Huo, H. Xiao, R. G. May, and A. Wang, Opt. Eng. 42, 3165 (2003).
    [CrossRef]

2003

B. Qi, G. R. Pickrell, J. Xu, P. Zhang, Y. Duan, W. Peng, Z. Huang, W. Huo, H. Xiao, R. G. May, and A. Wang, Opt. Eng. 42, 3165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

J. L. Kenndey and N. Djeu, Sens. Actuators, A 100, 1870191 (2002).

1999

L. Tong, Y. Shen, L. Ye, and Z. Ding, Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, 607 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. Pérennès, P. C. Beard, and T. N. Mills, Appl. Opt. 38, 7026 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1995

A. Wang, S. Gollapudi, R. G. May, K. A. Murphey, and R. O. Claus, Scanning Microsc. Suppl. 4, 147 (1995).

1992

1986

R. R. Dils, J. Geist, and M. L. Reilly, J. Appl. Phys. 59, 1005 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1983

R. R. Dils, J. Appl. Phys. 54, 1198 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982

Beard, P. C.

Claus, R. O.

Dils, R. R.

R. R. Dils, J. Geist, and M. L. Reilly, J. Appl. Phys. 59, 1005 (1986).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Dils, J. Appl. Phys. 54, 1198 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Ding, Z.

L. Tong, Y. Shen, L. Ye, and Z. Ding, Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, 607 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Djeu, N.

J. L. Kenndey and N. Djeu, Sens. Actuators, A 100, 1870191 (2002).

Duan, Y.

B. Qi, G. R. Pickrell, J. Xu, P. Zhang, Y. Duan, W. Peng, Z. Huang, W. Huo, H. Xiao, R. G. May, and A. Wang, Opt. Eng. 42, 3165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Geist, J.

R. R. Dils, J. Geist, and M. L. Reilly, J. Appl. Phys. 59, 1005 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Gollapudi, S.

Huang, Z.

B. Qi, G. R. Pickrell, J. Xu, P. Zhang, Y. Duan, W. Peng, Z. Huang, W. Huo, H. Xiao, R. G. May, and A. Wang, Opt. Eng. 42, 3165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Huo, W.

B. Qi, G. R. Pickrell, J. Xu, P. Zhang, Y. Duan, W. Peng, Z. Huang, W. Huo, H. Xiao, R. G. May, and A. Wang, Opt. Eng. 42, 3165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kenndey, J. L.

J. L. Kenndey and N. Djeu, Sens. Actuators, A 100, 1870191 (2002).

Kosbar, K.

W. Tranter, K. Shanmugan, T. Rappaport, and K. Kosbar, Principles of Communication Systems: Simulation with Wireless Applications (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 2003).

May, R. G.

B. Qi, G. R. Pickrell, J. Xu, P. Zhang, Y. Duan, W. Peng, Z. Huang, W. Huo, H. Xiao, R. G. May, and A. Wang, Opt. Eng. 42, 3165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Wang, S. Gollapudi, R. G. May, K. A. Murphey, and R. O. Claus, Scanning Microsc. Suppl. 4, 147 (1995).

A. Wang, S. Gollapudi, R. G. May, K. A. Murphey, and R. O. Claus, Opt. Lett. 17, 1544 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Wang, S. Gollapudi, K. A. Murphey, R. G. May, and R. O. Claus, Opt. Lett. 17, 1021 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mills, T. N.

Murphey, K. A.

Peng, W.

B. Qi, G. R. Pickrell, J. Xu, P. Zhang, Y. Duan, W. Peng, Z. Huang, W. Huo, H. Xiao, R. G. May, and A. Wang, Opt. Eng. 42, 3165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pérennès, F.

Pickrell, G. R.

B. Qi, G. R. Pickrell, J. Xu, P. Zhang, Y. Duan, W. Peng, Z. Huang, W. Huo, H. Xiao, R. G. May, and A. Wang, Opt. Eng. 42, 3165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Qi, B.

B. Qi, G. R. Pickrell, J. Xu, P. Zhang, Y. Duan, W. Peng, Z. Huang, W. Huo, H. Xiao, R. G. May, and A. Wang, Opt. Eng. 42, 3165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rappaport, T.

W. Tranter, K. Shanmugan, T. Rappaport, and K. Kosbar, Principles of Communication Systems: Simulation with Wireless Applications (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 2003).

Reilly, M. L.

R. R. Dils, J. Geist, and M. L. Reilly, J. Appl. Phys. 59, 1005 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Sandahl, C. R.

Shanmugan, K.

W. Tranter, K. Shanmugan, T. Rappaport, and K. Kosbar, Principles of Communication Systems: Simulation with Wireless Applications (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 2003).

Shen, Y.

L. Tong, Y. Shen, L. Ye, and Z. Ding, Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, 607 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tong, L.

L. Tong, Y. Shen, L. Ye, and Z. Ding, Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, 607 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tranter, W.

W. Tranter, K. Shanmugan, T. Rappaport, and K. Kosbar, Principles of Communication Systems: Simulation with Wireless Applications (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 2003).

Wagner, R. E.

Wang, A.

B. Qi, G. R. Pickrell, J. Xu, P. Zhang, Y. Duan, W. Peng, Z. Huang, W. Huo, H. Xiao, R. G. May, and A. Wang, Opt. Eng. 42, 3165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Wang, S. Gollapudi, R. G. May, K. A. Murphey, and R. O. Claus, Scanning Microsc. Suppl. 4, 147 (1995).

A. Wang, S. Gollapudi, K. A. Murphey, R. G. May, and R. O. Claus, Opt. Lett. 17, 1021 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Wang, S. Gollapudi, R. G. May, K. A. Murphey, and R. O. Claus, Opt. Lett. 17, 1544 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, H.

B. Qi, G. R. Pickrell, J. Xu, P. Zhang, Y. Duan, W. Peng, Z. Huang, W. Huo, H. Xiao, R. G. May, and A. Wang, Opt. Eng. 42, 3165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J.

B. Qi, G. R. Pickrell, J. Xu, P. Zhang, Y. Duan, W. Peng, Z. Huang, W. Huo, H. Xiao, R. G. May, and A. Wang, Opt. Eng. 42, 3165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ye, L.

L. Tong, Y. Shen, L. Ye, and Z. Ding, Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, 607 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, P.

B. Qi, G. R. Pickrell, J. Xu, P. Zhang, Y. Duan, W. Peng, Z. Huang, W. Huo, H. Xiao, R. G. May, and A. Wang, Opt. Eng. 42, 3165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

J. Appl. Phys.

R. R. Dils, J. Appl. Phys. 54, 1198 (1983).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Dils, J. Geist, and M. L. Reilly, J. Appl. Phys. 59, 1005 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol.

L. Tong, Y. Shen, L. Ye, and Z. Ding, Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, 607 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

B. Qi, G. R. Pickrell, J. Xu, P. Zhang, Y. Duan, W. Peng, Z. Huang, W. Huo, H. Xiao, R. G. May, and A. Wang, Opt. Eng. 42, 3165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Scanning Microsc. Suppl.

A. Wang, S. Gollapudi, R. G. May, K. A. Murphey, and R. O. Claus, Scanning Microsc. Suppl. 4, 147 (1995).

Sens. Actuators, A

J. L. Kenndey and N. Djeu, Sens. Actuators, A 100, 1870191 (2002).

Other

W. Tranter, K. Shanmugan, T. Rappaport, and K. Kosbar, Principles of Communication Systems: Simulation with Wireless Applications (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 2003).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematics of the system and of the sensor.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Sensor spectrum at two temperatures.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Fast Fourier transform of the spectrum.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

OT versus temperature for three tests.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Difference in temperature between the sensor and the thermocouple (TC) after calibration.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I total ( λ ) = I B ( λ ) + I D ( λ ) + I LED ( λ ) ( r couple + r end ) + I LED ( λ ) [ r s 1 + r s 2 2 V ( r s 1 r s 2 ) 1 2 cos 4 n ( T ) d ( T ) π λ ] ,
H [ p ( t ) ] = H [ m ( t ) cos ( t ) ] = m ( t ) H [ cos ( t ) ] = m ( t ) sin ( t ) ,
m ( t ) = { p 2 ( t ) + H 2 [ p ( t ) ] } 1 2 .
4 OT π λ = 2 π N OT = N λ 2 ,

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