Abstract

We use femtosecond laser frequency combs to convert optical frequency references to the microwave domain, where we demonstrate the synthesis of 10-GHz signals having a fractional frequency instability of 3.5×1015 at a 1-s averaging time, limited by the optical reference. The residual instability and phase noise of the femtosecond-laser-based frequency synthesizers are 6.5×1016 at 1s and 98dBcHz at a 1-Hz offset from the 10-GHz carrier, respectively. The timing jitter of the microwave signals is 3.3fs.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. J. Rafac, B. C. Young, J. A. Beall, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, , Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2462 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. C. W. Oates, E. A. Curtis, and L. Hollberg, Opt. Lett. 25, 1603 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. Ye, L.-S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, and , Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 270801 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  4. B. C. Young, F. C. Cruz, W. M. Itano, and J. C. Bergquist, and , Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3799 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. A. Diddams, Th. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, Science 293, 825 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. A. Bartels, S. A. Diddams, T. M. Ramond, and L. Hollberg, Opt. Lett. 28, 663 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. A. Bartels and H. Kurz, Opt. Lett. 27, 1839 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. M. Ramond, S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, and A. Bartels, Opt. Lett. 27, 1842 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. W. Allan, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 34, 647 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  10. E. N. Ivanov, S. A. Diddams, and L. Hollberg, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 1059 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. Bartels, C. W. Oates, L. Hollberg, and S. A. Diddams, Opt. Lett. 29, 1081 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. Advertised data for model SLCO of Poseidon Scientific Instruments,Australia, and personal communication with E. N. Ivanov, University of WesternAustralia. Trade name is mentioned for scientific clarity. NIST does not endorsethis product; others might be equally or better suited.

2004 (1)

2003 (2)

E. N. Ivanov, S. A. Diddams, and L. Hollberg, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 1059 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Bartels, S. A. Diddams, T. M. Ramond, and L. Hollberg, Opt. Lett. 28, 663 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

2001 (2)

J. Ye, L.-S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, and , Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 270801 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Diddams, Th. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, Science 293, 825 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

R. J. Rafac, B. C. Young, J. A. Beall, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, , Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2462 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. W. Oates, E. A. Curtis, and L. Hollberg, Opt. Lett. 25, 1603 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

B. C. Young, F. C. Cruz, W. M. Itano, and J. C. Bergquist, and , Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3799 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

D. W. Allan, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 34, 647 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Allan, D. W.

D. W. Allan, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 34, 647 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Bartels, A.

Beall, J. A.

R. J. Rafac, B. C. Young, J. A. Beall, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, , Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2462 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bergquist, J. C.

S. A. Diddams, Th. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, Science 293, 825 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Rafac, B. C. Young, J. A. Beall, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, , Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2462 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. C. Young, F. C. Cruz, W. M. Itano, and J. C. Bergquist, and , Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3799 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cruz, F. C.

B. C. Young, F. C. Cruz, W. M. Itano, and J. C. Bergquist, and , Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3799 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Curtis, E. A.

S. A. Diddams, Th. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, Science 293, 825 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. W. Oates, E. A. Curtis, and L. Hollberg, Opt. Lett. 25, 1603 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Diddams, S. A.

A. Bartels, C. W. Oates, L. Hollberg, and S. A. Diddams, Opt. Lett. 29, 1081 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. N. Ivanov, S. A. Diddams, and L. Hollberg, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 1059 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Bartels, S. A. Diddams, T. M. Ramond, and L. Hollberg, Opt. Lett. 28, 663 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. M. Ramond, S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, and A. Bartels, Opt. Lett. 27, 1842 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Diddams, Th. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, Science 293, 825 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drullinger, R. E.

S. A. Diddams, Th. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, Science 293, 825 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hall, J. L.

J. Ye, L.-S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, and , Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 270801 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hollberg, L.

A. Bartels, C. W. Oates, L. Hollberg, and S. A. Diddams, Opt. Lett. 29, 1081 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. N. Ivanov, S. A. Diddams, and L. Hollberg, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 1059 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Bartels, S. A. Diddams, T. M. Ramond, and L. Hollberg, Opt. Lett. 28, 663 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. M. Ramond, S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, and A. Bartels, Opt. Lett. 27, 1842 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Diddams, Th. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, Science 293, 825 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. W. Oates, E. A. Curtis, and L. Hollberg, Opt. Lett. 25, 1603 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Itano, W. M.

S. A. Diddams, Th. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, Science 293, 825 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Rafac, B. C. Young, J. A. Beall, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, , Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2462 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. C. Young, F. C. Cruz, W. M. Itano, and J. C. Bergquist, and , Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3799 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ivanov, E. N.

E. N. Ivanov, S. A. Diddams, and L. Hollberg, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 1059 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kurz, H.

Lee, W. D.

S. A. Diddams, Th. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, Science 293, 825 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ma, L.-S.

J. Ye, L.-S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, and , Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 270801 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Oates, C. W.

A. Bartels, C. W. Oates, L. Hollberg, and S. A. Diddams, Opt. Lett. 29, 1081 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Diddams, Th. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, Science 293, 825 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. W. Oates, E. A. Curtis, and L. Hollberg, Opt. Lett. 25, 1603 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rafac, R. J.

R. J. Rafac, B. C. Young, J. A. Beall, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, , Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2462 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ramond, T. M.

Udem, Th.

S. A. Diddams, Th. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, Science 293, 825 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vogel, K. R.

S. A. Diddams, Th. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, Science 293, 825 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wineland, D. J.

S. A. Diddams, Th. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, Science 293, 825 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Rafac, B. C. Young, J. A. Beall, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, , Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2462 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ye, J.

J. Ye, L.-S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, and , Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 270801 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Young, B. C.

R. J. Rafac, B. C. Young, J. A. Beall, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, , Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2462 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. C. Young, F. C. Cruz, W. M. Itano, and J. C. Bergquist, and , Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3799 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

E. N. Ivanov, S. A. Diddams, and L. Hollberg, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 1059 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control (1)

D. W. Allan, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 34, 647 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (5)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

J. Ye, L.-S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, and , Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 270801 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Young, F. C. Cruz, W. M. Itano, and J. C. Bergquist, and , Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3799 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Rafac, B. C. Young, J. A. Beall, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, , Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2462 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

S. A. Diddams, Th. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, Science 293, 825 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

Advertised data for model SLCO of Poseidon Scientific Instruments,Australia, and personal communication with E. N. Ivanov, University of WesternAustralia. Trade name is mentioned for scientific clarity. NIST does not endorsethis product; others might be equally or better suited.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Allan deviation measurements taken at microwave (filled symbols) and optical (open symbols) carrier frequencies: Curve a, σ y , 10 GHz ( τ ) when the 10 - GHz signals are synthesized from two independent cavity-stabilized cw lasers; curve b, instability of the 657 - nm cw laser; curve c, current demonstrated upper limit for the NIST Ca and Hg + -ion optical frequency standards[5]; curve d, residual σ y , 10 GHz ( τ ) when a common optical reference is used; curve e, state-of-the-art hydrogen maser; curve f, FLFCs in the optical domain.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Phase between two 10 - GHz signals derived from a common optical reference at equal f R , i (upper trace) and variation of the photocurrent through one of the photodetectors from its mean value (lower trace). (b) Upper and middle trace show data as in (a), and the lower trace depicts variations of ambient pressure from the mean value. Ellipses mark times when a laboratory door was opened. At 61 and 70 s the system was deliberately perturbed.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Curve a, Residual phase noise of 10 - GHz microwave signals derived from two FLFCs locked to a common reference; curve b, phase noise floor of the microwave amplifiers; curve c, residual phase noise of the FLFCs in the optical domain.

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