Abstract

We use femtosecond laser frequency combs to convert optical frequency references to the microwave domain, where we demonstrate the synthesis of 10-GHz signals having a fractional frequency instability of < or = 3.5×10^-15 at a 1-s averaging time, limited by the optical reference. The residual instability and phase noise of the femtosecond-laser-based frequency synthesizers are 6.5×10^-16 at 1 s and -98 dBc/Hz at a 1-Hz offset from the 10-GHz carrier, respectively. The timing jitter of the microwave signals is 3.3 fs.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. J. Rafac, B. C. Young, J. A. Beall, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2462 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
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  3. J. Ye, L.-S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 270801 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Bartels, S. A. Diddams, T. M. Ramond, and L. Hollberg, Opt. Lett. 28, 663 (2003).
  7. A. Bartels and H. Kurz, Opt. Lett. 27, 1839 (2002).
  8. T. M. Ramond, S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, and A. Bartels, Opt. Lett. 27, 1842 (2002).
  9. D. W. Allan, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 34, 647 (1987).
  10. E. N. Ivanov, S. A. Diddams, and L. Hollberg, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 1059 (2003).
  11. A. Bartels, C. W. Oates, L. Hollberg, and S. A. Diddams, Opt. Lett. 29, 1081 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Advertised data for model SLCO of Poseidon Scientific Instruments, Australia, and personal communication with E. N. Ivanov, University of Western Australia. Trade name is mentioned for scientific clarity. NIST does not endorse this product; others might be equally or better suited.

2004

2003

A. Bartels, S. A. Diddams, T. M. Ramond, and L. Hollberg, Opt. Lett. 28, 663 (2003).

E. N. Ivanov, S. A. Diddams, and L. Hollberg, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 1059 (2003).

2002

2001

J. Ye, L.-S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 270801 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Diddams, Th. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, Science 293, 825 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

R. J. Rafac, B. C. Young, J. A. Beall, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2462 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Oates, E. A. Curtis, and L. Hollberg, Opt. Lett. 25, 1603 (2000).

1999

B. C. Young, F. C. Cruz, W. M. Itano, and J. C. Bergquist, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3799 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1987

D. W. Allan, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 34, 647 (1987).

Allan, D. W.

D. W. Allan, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 34, 647 (1987).

Bartels, A.

Beall, J. A.

R. J. Rafac, B. C. Young, J. A. Beall, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2462 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bergquist, J. C.

S. A. Diddams, Th. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, Science 293, 825 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Rafac, B. C. Young, J. A. Beall, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2462 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Young, F. C. Cruz, W. M. Itano, and J. C. Bergquist, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3799 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cruz, F. C.

B. C. Young, F. C. Cruz, W. M. Itano, and J. C. Bergquist, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3799 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Curtis, E. A.

S. A. Diddams, Th. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, Science 293, 825 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Oates, E. A. Curtis, and L. Hollberg, Opt. Lett. 25, 1603 (2000).

Diddams, S. A.

A. Bartels, C. W. Oates, L. Hollberg, and S. A. Diddams, Opt. Lett. 29, 1081 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Bartels, S. A. Diddams, T. M. Ramond, and L. Hollberg, Opt. Lett. 28, 663 (2003).

E. N. Ivanov, S. A. Diddams, and L. Hollberg, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 1059 (2003).

T. M. Ramond, S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, and A. Bartels, Opt. Lett. 27, 1842 (2002).

S. A. Diddams, Th. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, Science 293, 825 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Drullinger, R. E.

S. A. Diddams, Th. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, Science 293, 825 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hall, J. L.

J. Ye, L.-S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 270801 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hollberg, L.

A. Bartels, C. W. Oates, L. Hollberg, and S. A. Diddams, Opt. Lett. 29, 1081 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. N. Ivanov, S. A. Diddams, and L. Hollberg, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 1059 (2003).

A. Bartels, S. A. Diddams, T. M. Ramond, and L. Hollberg, Opt. Lett. 28, 663 (2003).

T. M. Ramond, S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, and A. Bartels, Opt. Lett. 27, 1842 (2002).

S. A. Diddams, Th. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, Science 293, 825 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Oates, E. A. Curtis, and L. Hollberg, Opt. Lett. 25, 1603 (2000).

Itano, W. M.

S. A. Diddams, Th. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, Science 293, 825 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Rafac, B. C. Young, J. A. Beall, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2462 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Young, F. C. Cruz, W. M. Itano, and J. C. Bergquist, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3799 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ivanov, E. N.

E. N. Ivanov, S. A. Diddams, and L. Hollberg, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 1059 (2003).

Kurz, H.

Lee, W. D.

S. A. Diddams, Th. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, Science 293, 825 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ma, L.-S.

J. Ye, L.-S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 270801 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Oates, C. W.

A. Bartels, C. W. Oates, L. Hollberg, and S. A. Diddams, Opt. Lett. 29, 1081 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Diddams, Th. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, Science 293, 825 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Oates, E. A. Curtis, and L. Hollberg, Opt. Lett. 25, 1603 (2000).

Rafac, R. J.

R. J. Rafac, B. C. Young, J. A. Beall, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2462 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ramond, T. M.

Udem, Th.

S. A. Diddams, Th. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, Science 293, 825 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Vogel, K. R.

S. A. Diddams, Th. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, Science 293, 825 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wineland, D. J.

S. A. Diddams, Th. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, Science 293, 825 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Rafac, B. C. Young, J. A. Beall, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2462 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ye, J.

J. Ye, L.-S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 270801 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Young, B. C.

R. J. Rafac, B. C. Young, J. A. Beall, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2462 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Young, F. C. Cruz, W. M. Itano, and J. C. Bergquist, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3799 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

E. N. Ivanov, S. A. Diddams, and L. Hollberg, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 1059 (2003).

IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control

D. W. Allan, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 34, 647 (1987).

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. Lett.

R. J. Rafac, B. C. Young, J. A. Beall, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2462 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Ye, L.-S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 270801 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Young, F. C. Cruz, W. M. Itano, and J. C. Bergquist, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3799 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Science

S. A. Diddams, Th. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, Science 293, 825 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other

Advertised data for model SLCO of Poseidon Scientific Instruments, Australia, and personal communication with E. N. Ivanov, University of Western Australia. Trade name is mentioned for scientific clarity. NIST does not endorse this product; others might be equally or better suited.

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