Abstract

An intensity-difference spectrum method is developed to disentangle the intensity volume effect inherent in focused laser beam interaction with gas-phase matter. This method is applicable to a Gaussian beam of constant axial intensity, which keeps the exact contribution from a predetermined intensity range and eliminates the contributions from lower intensities. We apply this method to the angularly resolved kinetic energy release spectrum of laser-induced dissociation of H2+. The difference spectrum at higher intensities is found to be dominated by the bond-softening process, and the distribution shifts to lower energy and becomes narrower with increasing intensity.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. M. Hankin, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Rayner, Phys. Rev. A 64, 013405 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. H. Posthumus, Rep. Prog. Phys. 67, 623 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Augst, D. D. Meyerhofer, D. Strickland, and S. L. Chin, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 858 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. P. Hansch and L. D. Van Woerkom, Opt. Lett. 21, 1286 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. K. Sändig, H. Figger, and T. W. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 4876 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Calculated from I(r,z)={I0?[1+(z?zR)2]}exp(?2r2?{w02[1+(z?zR)2]}) and using z=0 for 2D and 1D configurations.
  11. E. P. Benis, J. F. Xia, X. M. Tong, M. Faheen, M. Zamkov, B. Shan, P. Richard, and Z. Chang, Phys. Rev. A 70, 025401 (2004).
    [CrossRef]

2004 (2)

J. H. Posthumus, Rep. Prog. Phys. 67, 623 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. P. Benis, J. F. Xia, X. M. Tong, M. Faheen, M. Zamkov, B. Shan, P. Richard, and Z. Chang, Phys. Rev. A 70, 025401 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

V. N. Serov, A. Keller, and O. Atabek, Phys. Rev. A 68, 053401 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

S. M. Hankin, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Rayner, Phys. Rev. A 64, 013405 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

K. Sändig, H. Figger, and T. W. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 4876 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1995 (2)

R. R. Jones, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1091 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Giusti-Suzor, F. H. Mies, L. F. DiMauro, E. Charron, and B. Yang, J. Phys. B 28, 309 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

1990 (1)

P. H. Bucksbaum, A. Zavriyev, H. G. Muller, and D. W. Schumacher, Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 1883 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Atabek, O.

V. N. Serov, A. Keller, and O. Atabek, Phys. Rev. A 68, 053401 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Augst, S.

Benis, E. P.

E. P. Benis, J. F. Xia, X. M. Tong, M. Faheen, M. Zamkov, B. Shan, P. Richard, and Z. Chang, Phys. Rev. A 70, 025401 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bucksbaum, P. H.

P. H. Bucksbaum, A. Zavriyev, H. G. Muller, and D. W. Schumacher, Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 1883 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, Z.

E. P. Benis, J. F. Xia, X. M. Tong, M. Faheen, M. Zamkov, B. Shan, P. Richard, and Z. Chang, Phys. Rev. A 70, 025401 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Charron, E.

A. Giusti-Suzor, F. H. Mies, L. F. DiMauro, E. Charron, and B. Yang, J. Phys. B 28, 309 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chin, S. L.

Corkum, P. B.

S. M. Hankin, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Rayner, Phys. Rev. A 64, 013405 (2001).
[CrossRef]

DiMauro, L. F.

A. Giusti-Suzor, F. H. Mies, L. F. DiMauro, E. Charron, and B. Yang, J. Phys. B 28, 309 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Faheen, M.

E. P. Benis, J. F. Xia, X. M. Tong, M. Faheen, M. Zamkov, B. Shan, P. Richard, and Z. Chang, Phys. Rev. A 70, 025401 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Figger, H.

K. Sändig, H. Figger, and T. W. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 4876 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Giusti-Suzor, A.

A. Giusti-Suzor, F. H. Mies, L. F. DiMauro, E. Charron, and B. Yang, J. Phys. B 28, 309 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hankin, S. M.

S. M. Hankin, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Rayner, Phys. Rev. A 64, 013405 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hansch, P.

Hänsch, T. W.

K. Sändig, H. Figger, and T. W. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 4876 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jones, R. R.

R. R. Jones, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1091 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Keller, A.

V. N. Serov, A. Keller, and O. Atabek, Phys. Rev. A 68, 053401 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Meyerhofer, D. D.

Mies, F. H.

A. Giusti-Suzor, F. H. Mies, L. F. DiMauro, E. Charron, and B. Yang, J. Phys. B 28, 309 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Muller, H. G.

P. H. Bucksbaum, A. Zavriyev, H. G. Muller, and D. W. Schumacher, Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 1883 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Posthumus, J. H.

J. H. Posthumus, Rep. Prog. Phys. 67, 623 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rayner, D. M.

S. M. Hankin, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Rayner, Phys. Rev. A 64, 013405 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Richard, P.

E. P. Benis, J. F. Xia, X. M. Tong, M. Faheen, M. Zamkov, B. Shan, P. Richard, and Z. Chang, Phys. Rev. A 70, 025401 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sändig, K.

K. Sändig, H. Figger, and T. W. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 4876 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schumacher, D. W.

P. H. Bucksbaum, A. Zavriyev, H. G. Muller, and D. W. Schumacher, Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 1883 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Serov, V. N.

V. N. Serov, A. Keller, and O. Atabek, Phys. Rev. A 68, 053401 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shan, B.

E. P. Benis, J. F. Xia, X. M. Tong, M. Faheen, M. Zamkov, B. Shan, P. Richard, and Z. Chang, Phys. Rev. A 70, 025401 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Strickland, D.

Tong, X. M.

E. P. Benis, J. F. Xia, X. M. Tong, M. Faheen, M. Zamkov, B. Shan, P. Richard, and Z. Chang, Phys. Rev. A 70, 025401 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Van Woerkom, L. D.

Villeneuve, D. M.

S. M. Hankin, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Rayner, Phys. Rev. A 64, 013405 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Xia, J. F.

E. P. Benis, J. F. Xia, X. M. Tong, M. Faheen, M. Zamkov, B. Shan, P. Richard, and Z. Chang, Phys. Rev. A 70, 025401 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yang, B.

A. Giusti-Suzor, F. H. Mies, L. F. DiMauro, E. Charron, and B. Yang, J. Phys. B 28, 309 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zamkov, M.

E. P. Benis, J. F. Xia, X. M. Tong, M. Faheen, M. Zamkov, B. Shan, P. Richard, and Z. Chang, Phys. Rev. A 70, 025401 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zavriyev, A.

P. H. Bucksbaum, A. Zavriyev, H. G. Muller, and D. W. Schumacher, Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 1883 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. B (1)

A. Giusti-Suzor, F. H. Mies, L. F. DiMauro, E. Charron, and B. Yang, J. Phys. B 28, 309 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. A (3)

S. M. Hankin, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Rayner, Phys. Rev. A 64, 013405 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. P. Benis, J. F. Xia, X. M. Tong, M. Faheen, M. Zamkov, B. Shan, P. Richard, and Z. Chang, Phys. Rev. A 70, 025401 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. N. Serov, A. Keller, and O. Atabek, Phys. Rev. A 68, 053401 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

R. R. Jones, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1091 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. H. Bucksbaum, A. Zavriyev, H. G. Muller, and D. W. Schumacher, Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 1883 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Sändig, H. Figger, and T. W. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 4876 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

J. H. Posthumus, Rep. Prog. Phys. 67, 623 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

Calculated from I(r,z)={I0?[1+(z?zR)2]}exp(?2r2?{w02[1+(z?zR)2]}) and using z=0 for 2D and 1D configurations.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Difference spectra of Fig. 2. The corresponding intensity ranges are (a) 0 to I 0 , (b) 5 % I 0 to I 0 , (c) 9 % I 0 to I 0 , (d) 33 % I 0 to I 0 , and (e) 64 % I 0 to I 0 . Note that narrowing the intensity range [see (e)] reveals the processes occurring at that intensity at the expense of decreased statistics. Longer measurements can be used to improve statistics.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup used to study laser-induced dissociation of H 2 + . MCP, microchannel plate.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Angle-resolved KER spectrum of laser-induced dissociation of H 2 + . Here θ is the angle between the molecular axis and the laser field polarization. The pulse duration is 135 fs . The peak intensities are (a) I 0 = 2.4 × 10 14 W cm 2 , (b) 64 % I 0 , (c) 33 % I 0 , (d) 9 % I 0 , (e) 5 % I 0 .

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

S ( I 0 ) = 0 I 0 P ( I ) [ V ( I 0 , I ) I ] d I ,
2 V ( I 0 , I ) I 0 I = 0 ,
S ( I 0 ) S ( I 0 ) = I 0 I 0 P ( I ) K ( I ) d I ,
v ( I 0 I ) × ( I 0 I ) + v ( I 0 I ) = 0 .
V ( I 0 , I ) = c ln ( I 0 I ) ,
V 3 ( I 0 , I ) = π w 0 2 z R { 4 3 [ ( I 0 I ) 1 ] 1 2 + 2 9 [ ( I 0 I ) 1 ] 3 2 4 3 arctan [ ( I 0 I ) 1 ] 1 2 } ,
V 2 ( I 0 , I ) = 1 2 π w 0 2 ln ( I 0 I ) ,
V 1 ( I 0 , I ) = w 0 [ 2 ln ( I 0 I ) ] 1 2 .

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