Abstract

The iodine molecule has frequently been used as a frequency reference from the green to the near-infrared wavelength region (500900nm). We describe the frequency locking of the second-harmonic signal of a 197.2-THz (1520.25-nm) distributed-feedback diode laser to the absorption lines of the iodine hyperfine structure; a frequency jitter below 0.1MHz was achieved at a 300-ms time constant. This scheme provides a simple, compact, and high-performance frequency reference in the optical communication band.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. Gerstenkorn, J. Verges, and J. Chevillard, “Atlas du spectre d’absorption de la molecule d’iode 11.000–14.000cm?1” (Laboratoire Aimé Cotton, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Orsay, France, 1982).
  2. S. Gerstenkorn and P. Luc, “Atlas du spectre d’absorption de la molecule d’iode 14.000–15.600cm?1” (Laboratoire Aimé Cotton, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Orsay, France, 1978).
  3. S. Gerstenkorn and P. Luc, “Atlas du spectre d’absorption de la molecule d’iode 14.800–20.000cm?1” (Laboratoire Aimé Cotton, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Orsay, France, 1978).
  4. A. Bruner, A. Arie, M. A. Arbore, and M. M. Fejer, Appl. Opt. 37, 1049 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. Svelto, F. Ferrario, A. Arie, M. A. Arbore, and M. M. Fejer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 505 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Danielli, P. Rusian, A. Arie, M. H. Chou, and M. M. Fejer, Opt. Lett. 25, 905 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. C. Chui, Y. W. Liu, J. T. Shy, S. Y. Shaw, R. V. Roussev, and M. M. Fejer, Appl. Opt. 43, 6348 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. M. Poulin, C. Latrasse, N. Cyr, and M. Tetu, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 9, 1631 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Poulin, C. Latrasse, D. Touahri, and M. Tetu, Opt. Commun. 207, 233 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  10. W. Y. Cheng, H. Y. Chang, Y. R. Lin, J. T. Shy, T. Lin, Y. K. Chen, M. H. Chou, and M. M. Fejer, presented at the Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements, Sydney, Australia, May 2000.
  11. R. Klein and A. Arie, Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 75, 79 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  12. K. R. Parameswaran, R. K. Route, J. R. Kurz, R. V. Roussev, M. M. Fejer, and M. Fujimura, Opt. Lett. 27, 179 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Yu. N. Korkishko, V. A. Fedorov, T. M. Morozova, F. Caccavale, F. Gonella, and F. Segato, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 1838 (1998).
    [CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2002 (3)

K. R. Parameswaran, R. K. Route, J. R. Kurz, R. V. Roussev, M. M. Fejer, and M. Fujimura, Opt. Lett. 27, 179 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Poulin, C. Latrasse, D. Touahri, and M. Tetu, Opt. Commun. 207, 233 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Klein and A. Arie, Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 75, 79 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

C. Svelto, F. Ferrario, A. Arie, M. A. Arbore, and M. M. Fejer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 505 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1998 (2)

1997 (1)

M. Poulin, C. Latrasse, N. Cyr, and M. Tetu, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 9, 1631 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Arbore, M. A.

C. Svelto, F. Ferrario, A. Arie, M. A. Arbore, and M. M. Fejer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 505 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Bruner, A. Arie, M. A. Arbore, and M. M. Fejer, Appl. Opt. 37, 1049 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Arie, A.

R. Klein and A. Arie, Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 75, 79 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Svelto, F. Ferrario, A. Arie, M. A. Arbore, and M. M. Fejer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 505 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Danielli, P. Rusian, A. Arie, M. H. Chou, and M. M. Fejer, Opt. Lett. 25, 905 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Bruner, A. Arie, M. A. Arbore, and M. M. Fejer, Appl. Opt. 37, 1049 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bruner, A.

Caccavale, F.

Chang, H. Y.

W. Y. Cheng, H. Y. Chang, Y. R. Lin, J. T. Shy, T. Lin, Y. K. Chen, M. H. Chou, and M. M. Fejer, presented at the Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements, Sydney, Australia, May 2000.

Chen, Y. K.

W. Y. Cheng, H. Y. Chang, Y. R. Lin, J. T. Shy, T. Lin, Y. K. Chen, M. H. Chou, and M. M. Fejer, presented at the Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements, Sydney, Australia, May 2000.

Cheng, W. Y.

W. Y. Cheng, H. Y. Chang, Y. R. Lin, J. T. Shy, T. Lin, Y. K. Chen, M. H. Chou, and M. M. Fejer, presented at the Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements, Sydney, Australia, May 2000.

Chevillard, J.

S. Gerstenkorn, J. Verges, and J. Chevillard, “Atlas du spectre d’absorption de la molecule d’iode 11.000–14.000cm?1” (Laboratoire Aimé Cotton, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Orsay, France, 1982).

Chou, M. H.

A. Danielli, P. Rusian, A. Arie, M. H. Chou, and M. M. Fejer, Opt. Lett. 25, 905 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. Y. Cheng, H. Y. Chang, Y. R. Lin, J. T. Shy, T. Lin, Y. K. Chen, M. H. Chou, and M. M. Fejer, presented at the Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements, Sydney, Australia, May 2000.

Chui, H. C.

Cyr, N.

M. Poulin, C. Latrasse, N. Cyr, and M. Tetu, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 9, 1631 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Danielli, A.

Fedorov, V. A.

Fejer, M. M.

H. C. Chui, Y. W. Liu, J. T. Shy, S. Y. Shaw, R. V. Roussev, and M. M. Fejer, Appl. Opt. 43, 6348 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. R. Parameswaran, R. K. Route, J. R. Kurz, R. V. Roussev, M. M. Fejer, and M. Fujimura, Opt. Lett. 27, 179 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Svelto, F. Ferrario, A. Arie, M. A. Arbore, and M. M. Fejer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 505 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Danielli, P. Rusian, A. Arie, M. H. Chou, and M. M. Fejer, Opt. Lett. 25, 905 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Bruner, A. Arie, M. A. Arbore, and M. M. Fejer, Appl. Opt. 37, 1049 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. Y. Cheng, H. Y. Chang, Y. R. Lin, J. T. Shy, T. Lin, Y. K. Chen, M. H. Chou, and M. M. Fejer, presented at the Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements, Sydney, Australia, May 2000.

Ferrario, F.

C. Svelto, F. Ferrario, A. Arie, M. A. Arbore, and M. M. Fejer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 505 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fujimura, M.

Gerstenkorn, S.

S. Gerstenkorn and P. Luc, “Atlas du spectre d’absorption de la molecule d’iode 14.000–15.600cm?1” (Laboratoire Aimé Cotton, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Orsay, France, 1978).

S. Gerstenkorn and P. Luc, “Atlas du spectre d’absorption de la molecule d’iode 14.800–20.000cm?1” (Laboratoire Aimé Cotton, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Orsay, France, 1978).

S. Gerstenkorn, J. Verges, and J. Chevillard, “Atlas du spectre d’absorption de la molecule d’iode 11.000–14.000cm?1” (Laboratoire Aimé Cotton, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Orsay, France, 1982).

Gonella, F.

Klein, R.

R. Klein and A. Arie, Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 75, 79 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Korkishko, Yu. N.

Kurz, J. R.

Latrasse, C.

M. Poulin, C. Latrasse, D. Touahri, and M. Tetu, Opt. Commun. 207, 233 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Poulin, C. Latrasse, N. Cyr, and M. Tetu, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 9, 1631 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lin, T.

W. Y. Cheng, H. Y. Chang, Y. R. Lin, J. T. Shy, T. Lin, Y. K. Chen, M. H. Chou, and M. M. Fejer, presented at the Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements, Sydney, Australia, May 2000.

Lin, Y. R.

W. Y. Cheng, H. Y. Chang, Y. R. Lin, J. T. Shy, T. Lin, Y. K. Chen, M. H. Chou, and M. M. Fejer, presented at the Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements, Sydney, Australia, May 2000.

Liu, Y. W.

Luc, P.

S. Gerstenkorn and P. Luc, “Atlas du spectre d’absorption de la molecule d’iode 14.800–20.000cm?1” (Laboratoire Aimé Cotton, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Orsay, France, 1978).

S. Gerstenkorn and P. Luc, “Atlas du spectre d’absorption de la molecule d’iode 14.000–15.600cm?1” (Laboratoire Aimé Cotton, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Orsay, France, 1978).

Morozova, T. M.

Parameswaran, K. R.

Poulin, M.

M. Poulin, C. Latrasse, D. Touahri, and M. Tetu, Opt. Commun. 207, 233 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Poulin, C. Latrasse, N. Cyr, and M. Tetu, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 9, 1631 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Roussev, R. V.

Route, R. K.

Rusian, P.

Segato, F.

Shaw, S. Y.

Shy, J. T.

H. C. Chui, Y. W. Liu, J. T. Shy, S. Y. Shaw, R. V. Roussev, and M. M. Fejer, Appl. Opt. 43, 6348 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Y. Cheng, H. Y. Chang, Y. R. Lin, J. T. Shy, T. Lin, Y. K. Chen, M. H. Chou, and M. M. Fejer, presented at the Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements, Sydney, Australia, May 2000.

Svelto, C.

C. Svelto, F. Ferrario, A. Arie, M. A. Arbore, and M. M. Fejer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 505 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tetu, M.

M. Poulin, C. Latrasse, D. Touahri, and M. Tetu, Opt. Commun. 207, 233 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Poulin, C. Latrasse, N. Cyr, and M. Tetu, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 9, 1631 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Touahri, D.

M. Poulin, C. Latrasse, D. Touahri, and M. Tetu, Opt. Commun. 207, 233 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Verges, J.

S. Gerstenkorn, J. Verges, and J. Chevillard, “Atlas du spectre d’absorption de la molecule d’iode 11.000–14.000cm?1” (Laboratoire Aimé Cotton, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Orsay, France, 1982).

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. (1)

R. Klein and A. Arie, Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 75, 79 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

C. Svelto, F. Ferrario, A. Arie, M. A. Arbore, and M. M. Fejer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 505 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

M. Poulin, C. Latrasse, N. Cyr, and M. Tetu, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 9, 1631 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Opt. Commun. (1)

M. Poulin, C. Latrasse, D. Touahri, and M. Tetu, Opt. Commun. 207, 233 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (4)

W. Y. Cheng, H. Y. Chang, Y. R. Lin, J. T. Shy, T. Lin, Y. K. Chen, M. H. Chou, and M. M. Fejer, presented at the Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements, Sydney, Australia, May 2000.

S. Gerstenkorn, J. Verges, and J. Chevillard, “Atlas du spectre d’absorption de la molecule d’iode 11.000–14.000cm?1” (Laboratoire Aimé Cotton, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Orsay, France, 1982).

S. Gerstenkorn and P. Luc, “Atlas du spectre d’absorption de la molecule d’iode 14.000–15.600cm?1” (Laboratoire Aimé Cotton, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Orsay, France, 1978).

S. Gerstenkorn and P. Luc, “Atlas du spectre d’absorption de la molecule d’iode 14.800–20.000cm?1” (Laboratoire Aimé Cotton, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Orsay, France, 1978).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup: PBS, polarizing beam splitter; PD, photodetector; QWP, quarter - wave plate; PI, proportional-integral; QPM, quasi-phase matched; REF, reference.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Third-harmonic demodulated saturated-absorption spectrum. The hyperfine structure of iodine is identified as a 1 a 21 components of the R ( 55 ) 1–13 transition. The signal-to-noise ratio is greater than 70 at a 300 - ms time constant.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Typical trace of the third-harmonic demodulated signal of the laser locked to the a 18 component. Modulation depth, 15 MHz ; the modulation frequency, 25 kHz .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Square root of Allan variance as a function of measurement time.

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