Abstract

Reflection-mode photoacoustic microscopy with dark-field laser pulse illumination and high-numerical-aperture ultrasonic detection is designed and implemented in noninvasively imaged blood vessels in the skin in vivo. Dark-field optical illumination minimizes the interference caused by strong photoacoustic signals from superficial structures. A high-numerical-aperture acoustic lens provides high lateral resolution, 45120μm in this system. A broadband ultrasonic detection system provides high axial resolution, estimated to be 15μm. The optical illumination and ultrasonic detection are in a coaxial confocal configuration for optimal image quality. The system is capable of imaging optical-absorption contrast as deep as 3mm in biological tissue.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. H. Nakajima, T. Minabe, and N. Imanishi, Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 102, 748 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. P. Carmeliet and R. K. Jain, Nature (London) 407, 6801 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. J. Nelson and S. Cha, Cancer J. Sci. Am. 9, 134 (2003).
  4. X. Wang, Y. Pang, G. Ku, X. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 803 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. Xu and L. V. Wang, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 50, 1086 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. A. Oraevsky, V. A. Andreev, A. A. Karabutov, D. R. Fleming, Z. Gatalica, H. Singh, and R. O. Esenaliev, Proc. SPIE 3597, 352 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. G. A. Hoelen, F. F. M. de Mul, R. Pongers, and A. Dekker, Opt. Lett. 23, 648 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. G. M. Kolkman, E. Hondebrink, W. Steenbergen, and F. F. M. de Mul, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 343 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  9. C. Guittet, F. Ossant, L. Vaillant, and M. Berson, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 46, 740 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. American National Standards Institute, “American National Standard for the Safe Use of Lasers,” ANSI Standard Z136.1 (American National Standards Institute, New York, 2000).
  11. S. T. Flock, S. L. Jacques, B. C. Wilson, W. M. Star, and M. J. C. van Gemert, Lasers Surg. Med. 12, 510 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  12. W. F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2166 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  13. W. J. Smith, Modern Optical Engineering, (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1966), p. 318.
  14. National Institutes of Health, “Guide for the care and use of laboratory animals, revised ed.,’’ NIH Publ. 86–23 (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1985).

2003 (3)

S. J. Nelson and S. Cha, Cancer J. Sci. Am. 9, 134 (2003).

X. Wang, Y. Pang, G. Ku, X. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 803 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. G. M. Kolkman, E. Hondebrink, W. Steenbergen, and F. F. M. de Mul, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 343 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

M. Xu and L. V. Wang, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 50, 1086 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

P. Carmeliet and R. K. Jain, Nature (London) 407, 6801 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

A. A. Oraevsky, V. A. Andreev, A. A. Karabutov, D. R. Fleming, Z. Gatalica, H. Singh, and R. O. Esenaliev, Proc. SPIE 3597, 352 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Guittet, F. Ossant, L. Vaillant, and M. Berson, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 46, 740 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (2)

H. Nakajima, T. Minabe, and N. Imanishi, Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 102, 748 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. G. A. Hoelen, F. F. M. de Mul, R. Pongers, and A. Dekker, Opt. Lett. 23, 648 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

S. T. Flock, S. L. Jacques, B. C. Wilson, W. M. Star, and M. J. C. van Gemert, Lasers Surg. Med. 12, 510 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

W. F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2166 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Andreev, V. A.

A. A. Oraevsky, V. A. Andreev, A. A. Karabutov, D. R. Fleming, Z. Gatalica, H. Singh, and R. O. Esenaliev, Proc. SPIE 3597, 352 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Berson, M.

C. Guittet, F. Ossant, L. Vaillant, and M. Berson, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 46, 740 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carmeliet, P.

P. Carmeliet and R. K. Jain, Nature (London) 407, 6801 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cha, S.

S. J. Nelson and S. Cha, Cancer J. Sci. Am. 9, 134 (2003).

Cheong, W. F.

W. F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2166 (1990).
[CrossRef]

de Mul, F. F. M.

R. G. M. Kolkman, E. Hondebrink, W. Steenbergen, and F. F. M. de Mul, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 343 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. G. A. Hoelen, F. F. M. de Mul, R. Pongers, and A. Dekker, Opt. Lett. 23, 648 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dekker, A.

Esenaliev, R. O.

A. A. Oraevsky, V. A. Andreev, A. A. Karabutov, D. R. Fleming, Z. Gatalica, H. Singh, and R. O. Esenaliev, Proc. SPIE 3597, 352 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fleming, D. R.

A. A. Oraevsky, V. A. Andreev, A. A. Karabutov, D. R. Fleming, Z. Gatalica, H. Singh, and R. O. Esenaliev, Proc. SPIE 3597, 352 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Flock, S. T.

S. T. Flock, S. L. Jacques, B. C. Wilson, W. M. Star, and M. J. C. van Gemert, Lasers Surg. Med. 12, 510 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Gatalica, Z.

A. A. Oraevsky, V. A. Andreev, A. A. Karabutov, D. R. Fleming, Z. Gatalica, H. Singh, and R. O. Esenaliev, Proc. SPIE 3597, 352 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Guittet, C.

C. Guittet, F. Ossant, L. Vaillant, and M. Berson, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 46, 740 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoelen, C. G. A.

Hondebrink, E.

R. G. M. Kolkman, E. Hondebrink, W. Steenbergen, and F. F. M. de Mul, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 343 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Imanishi, N.

H. Nakajima, T. Minabe, and N. Imanishi, Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 102, 748 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jacques, S. L.

S. T. Flock, S. L. Jacques, B. C. Wilson, W. M. Star, and M. J. C. van Gemert, Lasers Surg. Med. 12, 510 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Jain, R. K.

P. Carmeliet and R. K. Jain, Nature (London) 407, 6801 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Karabutov, A. A.

A. A. Oraevsky, V. A. Andreev, A. A. Karabutov, D. R. Fleming, Z. Gatalica, H. Singh, and R. O. Esenaliev, Proc. SPIE 3597, 352 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kolkman, R. G. M.

R. G. M. Kolkman, E. Hondebrink, W. Steenbergen, and F. F. M. de Mul, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 343 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ku, G.

X. Wang, Y. Pang, G. Ku, X. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 803 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Minabe, T.

H. Nakajima, T. Minabe, and N. Imanishi, Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 102, 748 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nakajima, H.

H. Nakajima, T. Minabe, and N. Imanishi, Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 102, 748 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nelson, S. J.

S. J. Nelson and S. Cha, Cancer J. Sci. Am. 9, 134 (2003).

Oraevsky, A. A.

A. A. Oraevsky, V. A. Andreev, A. A. Karabutov, D. R. Fleming, Z. Gatalica, H. Singh, and R. O. Esenaliev, Proc. SPIE 3597, 352 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ossant, F.

C. Guittet, F. Ossant, L. Vaillant, and M. Berson, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 46, 740 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pang, Y.

X. Wang, Y. Pang, G. Ku, X. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 803 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pongers, R.

Prahl, S. A.

W. F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2166 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Singh, H.

A. A. Oraevsky, V. A. Andreev, A. A. Karabutov, D. R. Fleming, Z. Gatalica, H. Singh, and R. O. Esenaliev, Proc. SPIE 3597, 352 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Smith, W. J.

W. J. Smith, Modern Optical Engineering, (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1966), p. 318.

Star, W. M.

S. T. Flock, S. L. Jacques, B. C. Wilson, W. M. Star, and M. J. C. van Gemert, Lasers Surg. Med. 12, 510 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Steenbergen, W.

R. G. M. Kolkman, E. Hondebrink, W. Steenbergen, and F. F. M. de Mul, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 343 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Stoica, G.

X. Wang, Y. Pang, G. Ku, X. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 803 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vaillant, L.

C. Guittet, F. Ossant, L. Vaillant, and M. Berson, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 46, 740 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Gemert, M. J. C.

S. T. Flock, S. L. Jacques, B. C. Wilson, W. M. Star, and M. J. C. van Gemert, Lasers Surg. Med. 12, 510 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L. V.

X. Wang, Y. Pang, G. Ku, X. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 803 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Xu and L. V. Wang, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 50, 1086 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

X. Wang, Y. Pang, G. Ku, X. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 803 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Welch, A. J.

W. F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2166 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, B. C.

S. T. Flock, S. L. Jacques, B. C. Wilson, W. M. Star, and M. J. C. van Gemert, Lasers Surg. Med. 12, 510 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Xie, X.

X. Wang, Y. Pang, G. Ku, X. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 803 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, M.

M. Xu and L. V. Wang, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 50, 1086 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cancer J. Sci. Am. (1)

S. J. Nelson and S. Cha, Cancer J. Sci. Am. 9, 134 (2003).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

W. F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2166 (1990).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. G. M. Kolkman, E. Hondebrink, W. Steenbergen, and F. F. M. de Mul, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 343 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. (2)

C. Guittet, F. Ossant, L. Vaillant, and M. Berson, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 46, 740 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Xu and L. V. Wang, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 50, 1086 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lasers Surg. Med. (1)

S. T. Flock, S. L. Jacques, B. C. Wilson, W. M. Star, and M. J. C. van Gemert, Lasers Surg. Med. 12, 510 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Biotechnol. (1)

X. Wang, Y. Pang, G. Ku, X. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 803 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature (London) (1)

P. Carmeliet and R. K. Jain, Nature (London) 407, 6801 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Plast. Reconstr. Surg. (1)

H. Nakajima, T. Minabe, and N. Imanishi, Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 102, 748 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (1)

A. A. Oraevsky, V. A. Andreev, A. A. Karabutov, D. R. Fleming, Z. Gatalica, H. Singh, and R. O. Esenaliev, Proc. SPIE 3597, 352 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

American National Standards Institute, “American National Standard for the Safe Use of Lasers,” ANSI Standard Z136.1 (American National Standards Institute, New York, 2000).

W. J. Smith, Modern Optical Engineering, (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1966), p. 318.

National Institutes of Health, “Guide for the care and use of laboratory animals, revised ed.,’’ NIH Publ. 86–23 (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1985).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the photoacoustic sensor of the imaging system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Image resolution test with a bar chart embedded 4 mm deep in a tissue phantom. (b) Imaging depth test with a black double-stranded cotton thread embedded obliquely in the abdominal area of a rat: 1, skin surface; 2, thread.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Vascular distribution in rat skin. (a) Four in situ consecutive photoacoustic B scans: 1, 2, vessels perpendicular to the image plane; 3, in-plane vessel. Comparison of (b) the in situ photoacoustic projection image taken from the epidermal side and (c) a photograph taken from the dermal side with transmission illumination. (d) In vivo noninvasive photoacoustic projection image taken from the epidermal side.

Metrics