Abstract

We developed a technique of three-dimensional (3-D) display for distant viewing of a 3-D image without the need for special glasses. The photobased integral photography (IP) method allows precise 3-D images to be displayed at long viewing distances without any influence from deviated or distorted lenses in a lens array. We calculate elemental images from a referential viewing area for each lens and project the corresponding result images to photographic film through each lens. We succeed in creating an image display that appears to have three dimensionality even when viewed from a distance, with an image depth of 5.7m or more in front of the display and 3.5m or more behind the display. To the best of our knowledge, the long-distance IP display presented here is technically unique because it is the first report of generation of an image with such a long viewing distance.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]

2004

H. Liao, M. Iwahara, N. Hata, and T. Dohi, Opt. Express 12, 1067 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Liao, N. Hata, S. Nakajima, M. Iwahara, I. Sakuma, and T. Dohi, IEEE Trans. Inf. Technol. Biomed. 8, 114 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

2002

S.-W. Min, S. Jung, J.-H. Park, and B. Lee, Opt. Eng. 41, 2572 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Park, S. Jung, H. Choi, and B. Lee, Appl. Opt. 41, 6875 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

L. Erdmann and K. J. Gabriel, Appl. Opt. 40, 5592 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakajima, K. Nakamura, K. Masamune, I. Sakuma, and T. Dohi, Comput. Med. Imaging Graph. 25, 235 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1978

Y. Igarishi, H. Murata, and M. Ueda, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 17, 1683 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Choi, H.

Dohi, T.

H. Liao, M. Iwahara, N. Hata, and T. Dohi, Opt. Express 12, 1067 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Liao, N. Hata, S. Nakajima, M. Iwahara, I. Sakuma, and T. Dohi, IEEE Trans. Inf. Technol. Biomed. 8, 114 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Liao, N. Hata, M. Iwahara, I. Sakuma, and T. Dohi, Lect. Notes Comput. Sci. 2879, 247 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakajima, K. Nakamura, K. Masamune, I. Sakuma, and T. Dohi, Comput. Med. Imaging Graph. 25, 235 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Erdmann, L.

Gabriel, K. J.

Hata, N.

H. Liao, M. Iwahara, N. Hata, and T. Dohi, Opt. Express 12, 1067 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Liao, N. Hata, S. Nakajima, M. Iwahara, I. Sakuma, and T. Dohi, IEEE Trans. Inf. Technol. Biomed. 8, 114 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Liao, N. Hata, M. Iwahara, I. Sakuma, and T. Dohi, Lect. Notes Comput. Sci. 2879, 247 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Igarishi, Y.

Y. Igarishi, H. Murata, and M. Ueda, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 17, 1683 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Iwahara, M.

H. Liao, M. Iwahara, N. Hata, and T. Dohi, Opt. Express 12, 1067 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Liao, N. Hata, S. Nakajima, M. Iwahara, I. Sakuma, and T. Dohi, IEEE Trans. Inf. Technol. Biomed. 8, 114 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Liao, N. Hata, M. Iwahara, I. Sakuma, and T. Dohi, Lect. Notes Comput. Sci. 2879, 247 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jang, J.-S.

Javidi, B.

Jung, S.

Lee, B.

Liao, H.

H. Liao, M. Iwahara, N. Hata, and T. Dohi, Opt. Express 12, 1067 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Liao, N. Hata, S. Nakajima, M. Iwahara, I. Sakuma, and T. Dohi, IEEE Trans. Inf. Technol. Biomed. 8, 114 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Liao, N. Hata, M. Iwahara, I. Sakuma, and T. Dohi, Lect. Notes Comput. Sci. 2879, 247 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Masamune, K.

S. Nakajima, K. Nakamura, K. Masamune, I. Sakuma, and T. Dohi, Comput. Med. Imaging Graph. 25, 235 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Min, S.-W.

S.-W. Min, B. Javidi, and B. Lee, Appl. Opt. 42, 4186 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-W. Min, S. Jung, J.-H. Park, and B. Lee, Opt. Eng. 41, 2572 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Murata, H.

Y. Igarishi, H. Murata, and M. Ueda, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 17, 1683 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Nakajima, S.

H. Liao, N. Hata, S. Nakajima, M. Iwahara, I. Sakuma, and T. Dohi, IEEE Trans. Inf. Technol. Biomed. 8, 114 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Nakajima, K. Nakamura, K. Masamune, I. Sakuma, and T. Dohi, Comput. Med. Imaging Graph. 25, 235 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nakamura, K.

S. Nakajima, K. Nakamura, K. Masamune, I. Sakuma, and T. Dohi, Comput. Med. Imaging Graph. 25, 235 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, J.-H.

Sakuma, I.

H. Liao, N. Hata, S. Nakajima, M. Iwahara, I. Sakuma, and T. Dohi, IEEE Trans. Inf. Technol. Biomed. 8, 114 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Liao, N. Hata, M. Iwahara, I. Sakuma, and T. Dohi, Lect. Notes Comput. Sci. 2879, 247 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakajima, K. Nakamura, K. Masamune, I. Sakuma, and T. Dohi, Comput. Med. Imaging Graph. 25, 235 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ueda, M.

Y. Igarishi, H. Murata, and M. Ueda, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 17, 1683 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Comput. Med. Imaging Graph.

S. Nakajima, K. Nakamura, K. Masamune, I. Sakuma, and T. Dohi, Comput. Med. Imaging Graph. 25, 235 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Inf. Technol. Biomed.

H. Liao, N. Hata, S. Nakajima, M. Iwahara, I. Sakuma, and T. Dohi, IEEE Trans. Inf. Technol. Biomed. 8, 114 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

Y. Igarishi, H. Murata, and M. Ueda, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 17, 1683 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Lect. Notes Comput. Sci.

H. Liao, N. Hata, M. Iwahara, I. Sakuma, and T. Dohi, Lect. Notes Comput. Sci. 2879, 247 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

S.-W. Min, S. Jung, J.-H. Park, and B. Lee, Opt. Eng. 41, 2572 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

IP elemental image generation with a ray-tracking algorithm based on the referential viewing area.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Configuration of the IP image-generating device.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic diagram for an experiment evaluating IP images by projecting letters at different image depths. A, 1 m from the screen; T, lens display point; R, 1 m inside the screen; E, 2 m inside the screen.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

3-D image produced by the basic test apparatus for the IP display for distant viewing, viewed from the left and right. The letter A stands out in midair on the palm of the viewer’s hand approximately 1 m from the screen.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Test of spatial resolution by use of a set of black and white strips with different widths.

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