Abstract

Chemical composition gratings (CCGs), unlike standard fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs), do not suffer a significant decrease in reflectance or an irreversible wavelength shift when they are exposed to elevated temperatures. To date, the growth of CCGs has been related to the fluorine content of the fibers in which they are written. It is shown that FBGs with high thermal stability, resembling CCGs, can be fabricated in Er3+-doped optical fibers that do not contain any fluorine.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2003 (2)

S. Pal, J. Mandal, T. Sun, and K. T. V. Grattan, Appl. Opt. 42, 2188 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Pal, J. Mandal, T. Sun, K. T. V. Grattan, M. Fokine, F. Carlsson, P. Y. Fonjallaz, S. A. Wade, and S. F. Collins, Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, 1131 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

2001 (1)

G. Brambilla and V. Pruneri, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 403 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

Y. J. Rao, Opt. Lasers Eng. 31, 297 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

L. Dong, J. L. Cruz, L. Reekie, M. G. Xu, and D. N. Payne, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1048 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

T. Erdogan, V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire, and D. Monroe, J. Appl. Phys. 76, 73 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

J. L. Archambault, L. Reekie, and P. St. J. Russell, Electron. Lett. 29, 453 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Archambault, J. L.

J. L. Archambault, L. Reekie, and P. St. J. Russell, Electron. Lett. 29, 453 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Barton, J. S.

G. M. H. Flockhart, W. N. MacPherson, J. S. Barton, J. D. C. Jones, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, in Technical Digest of the 15th International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, E. Udd, ed. (IEEE, Piscataway, N.J., 2002), pp. 75–78.
[CrossRef]

Baxter, G. W.

Bennion, I.

G. M. H. Flockhart, W. N. MacPherson, J. S. Barton, J. D. C. Jones, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, in Technical Digest of the 15th International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, E. Udd, ed. (IEEE, Piscataway, N.J., 2002), pp. 75–78.
[CrossRef]

Brambilla, G.

G. Brambilla and V. Pruneri, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 403 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Carlsson, F.

S. Pal, J. Mandal, T. Sun, K. T. V. Grattan, M. Fokine, F. Carlsson, P. Y. Fonjallaz, S. A. Wade, and S. F. Collins, Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, 1131 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Collins, S. F.

S. Pal, T. Sun, K. T. V. Grattan, S. A. Wade, S. F. Collins, G. W. Baxter, B. Dussardier, and G. Monnom, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 1503 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Pal, J. Mandal, T. Sun, K. T. V. Grattan, M. Fokine, F. Carlsson, P. Y. Fonjallaz, S. A. Wade, and S. F. Collins, Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, 1131 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cruz, J. L.

L. Dong, J. L. Cruz, L. Reekie, M. G. Xu, and D. N. Payne, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1048 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Dong, L.

L. Dong, J. L. Cruz, L. Reekie, M. G. Xu, and D. N. Payne, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1048 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Dussardier, B.

Erdogan, T.

T. Erdogan, V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire, and D. Monroe, J. Appl. Phys. 76, 73 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Flockhart, G. M. H.

G. M. H. Flockhart, W. N. MacPherson, J. S. Barton, J. D. C. Jones, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, in Technical Digest of the 15th International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, E. Udd, ed. (IEEE, Piscataway, N.J., 2002), pp. 75–78.
[CrossRef]

Fokine, M.

S. Pal, J. Mandal, T. Sun, K. T. V. Grattan, M. Fokine, F. Carlsson, P. Y. Fonjallaz, S. A. Wade, and S. F. Collins, Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, 1131 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Fokine, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 1759 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Fokine, Opt. Lett. 27, 1016 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Fokine, Opt. Lett. 27, 1974 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Fokine, B. E. Sahlgren, and R. Stubbe, in Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling in Glass Fibers and Waveguides: Applications and Fundamentals, Vol. 7 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 58–60.

Fonjallaz, P. Y.

S. Pal, J. Mandal, T. Sun, K. T. V. Grattan, M. Fokine, F. Carlsson, P. Y. Fonjallaz, S. A. Wade, and S. F. Collins, Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, 1131 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Grattan, K. T. V.

Jones, J. D. C.

G. M. H. Flockhart, W. N. MacPherson, J. S. Barton, J. D. C. Jones, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, in Technical Digest of the 15th International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, E. Udd, ed. (IEEE, Piscataway, N.J., 2002), pp. 75–78.
[CrossRef]

Kalli, K.

A. Othonos and K. Kalli, Fiber Bragg Gratings (Artech House, Norwood, Mass., 1999).

Lemaire, P. J.

T. Erdogan, V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire, and D. Monroe, J. Appl. Phys. 76, 73 (1994).
[CrossRef]

MacPherson, W. N.

G. M. H. Flockhart, W. N. MacPherson, J. S. Barton, J. D. C. Jones, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, in Technical Digest of the 15th International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, E. Udd, ed. (IEEE, Piscataway, N.J., 2002), pp. 75–78.
[CrossRef]

Mandal, J.

S. Pal, J. Mandal, T. Sun, K. T. V. Grattan, M. Fokine, F. Carlsson, P. Y. Fonjallaz, S. A. Wade, and S. F. Collins, Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, 1131 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Pal, J. Mandal, T. Sun, and K. T. V. Grattan, Appl. Opt. 42, 2188 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mizrahi, V.

T. Erdogan, V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire, and D. Monroe, J. Appl. Phys. 76, 73 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Monnom, G.

Monroe, D.

T. Erdogan, V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire, and D. Monroe, J. Appl. Phys. 76, 73 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Othonos, A.

A. Othonos and K. Kalli, Fiber Bragg Gratings (Artech House, Norwood, Mass., 1999).

Pal, S.

Payne, D. N.

L. Dong, J. L. Cruz, L. Reekie, M. G. Xu, and D. N. Payne, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1048 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Pruneri, V.

G. Brambilla and V. Pruneri, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 403 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rao, Y. J.

Y. J. Rao, Opt. Lasers Eng. 31, 297 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Reekie, L.

L. Dong, J. L. Cruz, L. Reekie, M. G. Xu, and D. N. Payne, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1048 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Archambault, L. Reekie, and P. St. J. Russell, Electron. Lett. 29, 453 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P. St. J.

J. L. Archambault, L. Reekie, and P. St. J. Russell, Electron. Lett. 29, 453 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sahlgren, B. E.

M. Fokine, B. E. Sahlgren, and R. Stubbe, in Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling in Glass Fibers and Waveguides: Applications and Fundamentals, Vol. 7 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 58–60.

Stubbe, R.

M. Fokine, B. E. Sahlgren, and R. Stubbe, in Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling in Glass Fibers and Waveguides: Applications and Fundamentals, Vol. 7 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 58–60.

Sun, T.

Wade, S. A.

S. Pal, T. Sun, K. T. V. Grattan, S. A. Wade, S. F. Collins, G. W. Baxter, B. Dussardier, and G. Monnom, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 1503 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Pal, J. Mandal, T. Sun, K. T. V. Grattan, M. Fokine, F. Carlsson, P. Y. Fonjallaz, S. A. Wade, and S. F. Collins, Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, 1131 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Xu, M. G.

L. Dong, J. L. Cruz, L. Reekie, M. G. Xu, and D. N. Payne, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1048 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

G. M. H. Flockhart, W. N. MacPherson, J. S. Barton, J. D. C. Jones, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, in Technical Digest of the 15th International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, E. Udd, ed. (IEEE, Piscataway, N.J., 2002), pp. 75–78.
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Electron. Lett. (1)

J. L. Archambault, L. Reekie, and P. St. J. Russell, Electron. Lett. 29, 453 (1993).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

G. Brambilla and V. Pruneri, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 403 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

L. Dong, J. L. Cruz, L. Reekie, M. G. Xu, and D. N. Payne, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1048 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

T. Erdogan, V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire, and D. Monroe, J. Appl. Phys. 76, 73 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

S. Pal, J. Mandal, T. Sun, K. T. V. Grattan, M. Fokine, F. Carlsson, P. Y. Fonjallaz, S. A. Wade, and S. F. Collins, Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, 1131 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lasers Eng. (1)

Y. J. Rao, Opt. Lasers Eng. 31, 297 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (3)

G. M. H. Flockhart, W. N. MacPherson, J. S. Barton, J. D. C. Jones, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, in Technical Digest of the 15th International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, E. Udd, ed. (IEEE, Piscataway, N.J., 2002), pp. 75–78.
[CrossRef]

A. Othonos and K. Kalli, Fiber Bragg Gratings (Artech House, Norwood, Mass., 1999).

M. Fokine, B. E. Sahlgren, and R. Stubbe, in Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling in Glass Fibers and Waveguides: Applications and Fundamentals, Vol. 7 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 58–60.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Grating reflectivity in sample Er1-a during the heating process, showing the erasure of the type I grating and the subsequent growth of a newly formed grating.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Growth of newly formed gratings in Er1 and Er2 fiber at 800 ° C .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Temperature dependence of a newly formed grating in Er1-b fiber. The solid curve represents a quadratic fit.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Characteristics of the Two Er-doped Fibers Used and the Type I FBGs Inscribed Within

Equations (1)

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λ B = 4.967 × 10 6 T 2 + 1.029 × 10 2 T + 1535.171 ,

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